Paper Money - Vol. LIII, No. 1 - Whole No. 289 - January/February 2014

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Table of Contents

The Paper Column: Series of 1929 Overprints.............................. 3

By Peter Huntoon & James Simek

Collector Wants to Know about KS Lottery Ticket....................... 33

By Rick Osterholt

Obsolete Bank Notes with Vignettes Used on CSA T-23 & 32   . . 34

  By Joseph J. Gaines, Jr.

The Paper Column: Kearny, NJ National Banks Yield Tales . . .45

  By Peter Huntoon & Robert Hearn

Nebraska Territory 1857 City of Omaha Notes........................... 51

By Marv Wurzer

The Buck Starts Here: Card Shows Unused Design......................... 62

By Gene Hessler

Small Notes: Late-Finished $5 Face Plate 147................................ 64

By Jamie Yakes

‘Thoreau Money’ and War Tax Resistance.................................. 66

By Loren Gatch

Lofthus Paper Money Story Kicks Off Frenzy.............................. 50

New Members.............................................................................. 33

Help the Society Reconnect with These Life Members............... 44

President’s Column by Pierre Fricke........................................... 56

Uncoupled: Paper Money’s Odd Couple by Boling & Schwan............... 58

Money Mart....................................................................................... 57

Fricke CSA Booklet Offers ‘Elegant, Compact Bargain” review ....................... 74

Second Call: George W. Wait Memorial Prize Announcement.............. 75

Civil War Stamp Envelopes, The Issuers & Their Times review...........   76

Draft of SPMC Revised Book-Publishing Policies................................. 78

The Back Page with Loren Gatch & Fred Reed.......................... 80

PAPER MONEY OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE SOCIETY OF PAPER MONEY COLLECTORS VOL. LIII, NO. 1 WHOLE NO. 289 WWW.SPMC.ORG JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2014 I N S I D E Joe Gaines finds more antecedent CSA note vignettes Loren Gatch writes about anti-war loot during the ‘60s * Paper Money • January/February 2014 • Whole No. 289 1 TERMS AND CONDITIONS PAPER MONEY (USPS 00-3162) is published every other month beginning in January by the Society of Paper Money Collectors (SPMC), 101-C North Greenville Ave. #425, Allen, TX 75002. Periodical postage is paid at Hanover, PA. Post master send address changes to Secretary Benny Bolin, 101-C North Greenville Ave. #425, Allen, TX 75002. © Society of Paper Money Collectors, Inc., 2014. All rights reserved. Reproduction of any article, in whole or part, without written permission, is prohibited. Individual copies of this issue of PAPER MONEY are available from the Secretary for $8 postpaid. Send changes of address, inquiries concerning non-delivery, and requests for additional copies of this issue to the Secretary. MANUSCRIPTS Manuscripts not under consideration elsewhere and publications for review should be sent to the Editor. Accepted manuscripts will be published as soon as possible; however, publication in a specific issue can- not be guaranteed. Include an SASE for acknowledg- ment, if desired. Opinions expressed by authors do not necessarily reflect those of the SPMC. Manuscripts should be typed (one side of paper only), double-spaced with at least 1-inch margins. The author’s name, address and telephone number should appear on the first page. Authors should retain a copy for their records. Authors are encouraged to submit a copy on a MAC CD, identified with the name and ver- sion of software used. A double-spaced printout must accompany the CD. 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Advertising Deadline: Subject to space availability copy must be received by the Editor no later than the first day of the month preceding the cover date of the issue (for example, Feb. 1 for the March/April issue). Camera-ready copy, or electronic ads in pdf format, or in Quark Express on a MAC CD with fonts supplied are acceptable. ADvERTISINg RATES Space 1 time 3 times 6 times Full Color covers $1500 $2600 $4900 B&W covers 500 1400 2500 Full page Color 500 1500 3000 Full page B&W 360 1000 1800 Half page B&W 180 500 900 Quarter page B&W 90 250 450 Eighth page B&W 45 125 225 Requirements: Full page, 42 x 57 picas; half-page may be either vertical or horizontal in format. Single-column width, 20 picas. Except covers, page position may be requested, but not guaranteed. All screens should be 150 line or 300 dpi. Advertising copy shall be restricted to paper currency, allied numismatic material, publications, and related accessories. The SPMC does not guarantee advertise- ments, but accepts copy in good faith, reserving the right to reject objectionable material or edit copy. SPMC assumes no financial responsibility for typo- graphical errors in ads, but agrees to reprint that por- tion of an ad in which a typographical error occurs upon prompt notification.  Paper Money Official Bimonthly Publication of The Society of Paper Money Collectors, Inc. Vol. LIII, No. 1 Whole No. 289 January/February 2014 ISSN 0031-1162 FRED L. REED III, Editor, P.O. Box 118162, Carrollton, TX 75011 Visit the SPMC web site: FEATURES The Paper Column: Series of 1929 Overprints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 By Peter Huntoon & James Simek Collector Wants to Know about KS Lottery Ticket . . . . . . . . . . 33 By Rick Osterholt Obsolete Bank Notes with Vignettes Used on CSA T-23 & 32 . . 34 By Joseph J. Gaines, Jr. The Paper Column: Kearny, NJ National Banks Yield Tales . . .45 By Peter Huntoon & Robert Hearn Nebraska Territory 1857 City of Omaha Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 By Marv Wurzer The Buck Starts Here: Card Shows Unused Design . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 By Gene Hessler Small Notes: Late-Finished $5 Face Plate 147 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 By Jamie Yakes ‘Thoreau Money’ and War Tax Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66 By Loren Gatch SOCIETY & HOBBY NEWS Your subscription to Paper Money has expired if . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Lofthus Paper Money Story Kicks Off Frenzy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50 New Members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 Help the Society Reconnect with These Life Members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44 President’s Column by Pierre Fricke . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56 Uncoupled: Paper Money’s Odd Couple by Joseph E. Boling & Fred Schwan . . .58 Money Mart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57 Fricke CSA Booklet Offers ‘Elegant, Compact Bargain” review by Mark Anderson . . .74 Second Call: George W. Wait Memorial Prize Announcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75 Civil War Stamp Envelopes, The Issuers & Their Times review by Benny Bolin . .76 Draft of SPMC Revised Book-Publishing Policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78 The Back Page with Loren Gatch & Fred Reed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80 If your mailing label reads 2013 RENEW NOW Paper Money • January/February 2014 • Whole No. 2892 Society of Paper Money Collectors OFFICERS ELECTED OFFICERS: PRESIDENT Pierre Fricke, Box 1094, Sudbury, MA 01776 vICE-PRESIDENT Shawn Hewitt, P.O. Box 580731, Minneapolis, MN 55458-0731 SECRETARY Benny Bolin, 101-C North Greenville Ave. #425, Allen, TX 75002 TREASURER Bob Moon, 104 Chipping Court, Greenwood, SC 29649 BOARD OF gOvERNORS: Mark Anderson, 115 Congress St., Brooklyn, NY 11201 Jeff Brueggeman, 1032 Lower Brow Rd., Signal Mountain TN 37377 Gary J. Dobbins, 10308 Vistadale Dr., Dallas, TX 75238 Pierre Fricke, Box 1094, Sudbury, MA 01776 Shawn Hewitt, P.O. Box 580731, Minneapolis, MN 55458-0731 Kathy Lawrence, 5815 Clendenin Ave., Dallas, TX 75228 Matt Janzen, 3601 Page Drive Apt. 1, Plover, WI 54467 Scott Lindquist, Box 2175, Minot, ND 58702 Fred L. Reed III, P.O. Box 118162, Carrollton, TX 75011-8162 Michael B. Scacci, 216-10th Ave., Fort Dodge, IA 50501-2425 Lawrence Schuffman, P.O. Box 19, Mount Freedom, NJ 07970 Robert Vandevender, P.O. Box 1505, Jupiter, FL 33468-1505 Wendell A. Wolka, P.O. Box 1211, Greenwood, IN 46142 APPOINTEES: PUBLISHER-EDITOR Fred L. Reed III, P.O. Box 118162, Carrollton, TX 75011-8162 CONTRIBUTINg EDITOR Gene Hessler, P.O. Box 31144, Cincinnati, OH 45231 ADvERTISINg MANAgER Wendell A. Wolka, P.O. Box 1211, Greenwood, IN 46142 LEgAL COUNSEL Robert J. Galiette, 3 Teal Ln., Essex, CT 06426 LIBRARIAN Jeff Brueggeman, 711 Signal Mountain Rd. # 197, Chattanooga, TN 37405 MEMBERSHIP DIRECTOR Frank Clark, P.O. Box 117060, Carrollton, TX 75011-7060 PAST PRESIDENT Mark Anderson, 115 Congress St., Brooklyn, NY 11201 WISMER BOOK PROJECT COORDINATOR Pierre Fricke, Box 1094, Sudbury, MA 01776 REgIONAL MEETINg COORDINATOR Judith Murphy, P.O. Box 24056, Winston-Salem, NC 27114 BUYING AND SELLING HUGH SHULL P.O. Box 2522, Lexington, SC 29071 PH: (803) 996-3660 FAX: (803) 996-4885 CSA and Obsolete Notes CSA Bonds, Stocks & Financial Items Auction Representation 60-Page Catalog for $5.00 Refundable with Order ANA-LM SCNA PCDA CHARTER MBR The Society of Paper Money Collectors was organized in 1961 and incorporat- ed in 1964 as a non-profit organiza- tion under the laws of the District of Columbia. It is affiliated with the ANA. The annual SPMC meeting is held in June at the Memphis International Paper Money Show. Up-to-date information about the SPMC, including its bylaws and activities can be found on its web site SPMC does not endorse any company, dealer, or auction house. MEMBERSHIP—REGULAR and LIFE. Applicants must be at least 18 years of age and of good moral character. Members of the ANA or other recognized numismatic societies are eligible for membership; other applicants should be sponsored by an SPMC member or provide suitable references. MEMBERSHIP—JUNIOR. Applicants for Junior membership must be from 12 to 18 years of age and of good moral character. Their application must be signed by a parent or guardian. Junior membership numbers will be preced- ed by the letter “j,” which will be removed upon notification to the Secretary that the member has reached 18 years of age. Junior members are not eligi- ble to hold office or vote. DUES—Annual dues are $39. Members in Canada and Mexico should are $45 to cover postage; members throughout the rest of the world are $60. Life membership — payable in installments within one year is $800, $900 for Canada and Mexico, and $1,000 elsewhere. The Society has dispensed with issuing annual membership cards, but paid up members may obtain one from the Secretary for an SASE (self-addressed, stamped envelope). Memberships for all members who joined the Society prior to January 2010 are on a calendar year basis. Dues renewals are due each December. Memberships for those who joined snce January 2010 are on an annual year basis, for example March to March or June-June. These renewals are due before expiration date. Renewal envelopes appear in a fall issue of Paper Money. Checks should be sent to the Secretary.  SPMC LM 6 BRNA FUN Paper Money • January/February 2014 • Whole No. 289 3 Introduction and Purpose Series of 1929 National Bank Notes were printed at the Bureau of Engraving and Printing. However, three entirely different types of typographic overprinting plates were used to apply the black bank information. Most were sup- plied by Barnhart Brothers & Spindler of Chicago, an outside contractor. BBS could not keep up with the demand for plates during the startup of the series in 1929, so the BEP contracted with the Government Printing Office to make interim plates using forms supplied by the Bureau. The Bureau made its own plates begin- ning in 1930 to accommodate rush orders and later to cover unfulfilled orders when the parent firm of BBS was caught up in bankruptcy proceedings. The three classes are respectively called BBS, GPO and BEP plates. The notes printed from each can be distinguished. Collectors have long recognized dif- ferences but were unaware of the explanation. For example, what commonly have been called large signature overprints generally turn out to be production from GPO plates. The purpose of this article is to reveal why each of these classes of plates came about, how they were made, when they were used and how to distinguish the overprints printed from each. Overprinting Plates The Series of 1929 overprinting plates, regardless of who made them, came in sets of six 1-subject plates designed to be used on flatbed cylinder presses. The cylinder carried and rolled the paper against the flat plates. The generic intaglio faces of the notes were designed so that the same overprinting plates could be used to print all five of the Series of 1929 denominations. The overprinting plates were typographic plates. This means that a reverse of the image to be printed stood in relief on them. Ink was applied to the raised sur- face, and then the paper was pressed against it to create the overprint. Such plates embossed the image into the paper. The Paper Column By Peter Huntoon & James A. Simek Series of 1929 Overprints Paper Money • January/February 2014 • Whole No. 2894 Printing Procedure The printing of small size National Bank Notes progressed through the fol- lowing stages: 1. uniform intaglio backs printed on 12-subject flat plate presses; 2. generic intaglio faces printed on 12-subject flat plate presses; 3. sheets cut in half vertically; 4. bank information overprinted in black on 6-subject flat bed cylinder presses; 5. serial numbers and seals overprinted in brown on 6-subject typographi- cal rotary presses; 6. notes shipped to the Comptroller’s office in 6-subject uncut form. The paper was wetted prior to the two intaglio printings in order for the paper to better absorb the ink. The black and brown overprints were applied when the paper was dry. Consequently the overprints, especially the black, often will wash off or fade if you are foolish enough to wash a 1929 National. Overprinting Plates Outsourced The conversion to small size notes placed an enormous demand on the Bureau of Engraving and Printing, both in terms of retooling and in manufacturing the huge quantities of notes needed to replace the large size notes in circulation. The conversion to small size National Bank Notes was deferred to last among the type notes because there was consideration in the Treasury Department about abolishing National Bank Notes and also because the task was the most tedious. It required job-lot printings for the thousands of issuing banks in the country. The crush of the National Bank Note work compelled the BEP to outsource the manufacture of the overprinting plates. A major consideration for Bureau management was the durability of the plates. Electrotype plates were the industry standard at the time so conventional electrotype plates were accorded serious consideration. However, electrotype plates were soft. In March 1929, the Bureau solicited test samples and bids for the prepara- tion of 43,002 overprinting plates (7,167 sets of 6 one-subject plates) from contrac- tors across the country. In addition, the BEP requested that the Government Printing Office submit a set of six traditional 1-subject electrotype plates. (Hall, Mar 28, 1929) Figure 1. Barnhart Brothers & Spindler of Chicago, a wholly owned subsidiary of the American Type Founders Corporation of Jersey City, New Jersey, during the Series of 1929 era, made logotype over- printing plates that were used to overprint the bank information on most of the Series of 1929 National Bank Notes. Paper Money • January/February 2014 • Whole No. 289 5 The bids were opened on April 1, 1929, with submissions of logotypes from Barnhart Brothers & Spindler, and electrotypes from the American Electrotype Company and the Potomac Electrotype Company. (Duncan, Apr 26, 1929) A dozen 1-subject plates from the three bidders and the Government Printing Office were mounted together on a press and 61,000 impressions were made. (Hall, Apr 18, 1929) The test plates were then sent to the U. S. Bureau of Standards in order to gauge wear and test the hardness of the samples. Figure 2. Test sheet from a printing of 61,000 impressions using sample overprinting plates provided by contractors to test the durability of their plates. AEC = American Electrotype Company, BB&S = Barnhart Brothers & Spindler, PEC = Potomac Electrotype Company, GPO = Government Printing Office. (From BEP, 1929a) Paper Money • January/February 2014 • Whole No. 2896 Listen up, Your subscription expires if . . . If your label reads anything date in 2013 such as in the example below, your subscription has expired, and you should renew immediately so as not to miss a single issue of this publication. ALL members received a mailing envelope inserted into the Sept/Oct issue of Paper Money to facilitate your dues renewal. Please don’t forget to put a stamp on it! All members, including LIFE MEMBERs, may also use this envelope to make a tax-deductible donation to SPMC to further the Society’s goals. You may select the project that your donation will help fund, or donate to the general SPMC treasury. SPMC thanks you for your generosity. Donations will be rec- ognized in a future issue of Paper Money, or you may choose to remain anonymous. Paper Money • January/February 2014 • Whole No. 289 7 The choice of the winning contractor did not turn on cost, but rather on the durability of their product. (Hall, May 10, 1929) Testing by the Bureau of Standards revealed that cast logotype plates supplied by Barnhart Brothers & Spindler of Chicago were three to four times harder than standard electrotype plates and that they exhibited superior wearing properties. (Burgess, Apr 29, 1929) Hall was determined to accept the BBS bid even though their logotypes were bid in at $29.75 per set of six, compared with low bids of $7 per set for electrotypes. (Hall, Apr 4, 1929) The story of Barnhart Brothers & Spindler is central to understanding the overprinting varieties found on Series of 1929 National Bank Notes. The firm origi- nated in Chicago in 1868 as The Great Western Type Foundry. It became Barnhart Brothers & Spindler shortly after and was acquired by the American Type Founders Company of Jersey City, New Jersey, in 1911. It was allowed to retain its corporate name for 20 years due to brand recognition and reputation. ( Thus, in 1929, BBS was operating as a wholly-owned subsidiary of American Type Founders Company with headquarters in Chicago. The subsidiary was used as a front for bid- ding on the logotype contract. The Barnhart Brothers & Spindler name faded away in 1931 so, from then on, the logotype contract was handled by the American Type Founders Company. The logotypes made after BBS lost its identity look identical to those before, so all are referred to here as BBS plates. This avoids another cumbersome acronym as well as the unwarranted creation of an artificial variety. Acting Secretary of the Treasury Henry H. Bond transmitted the bids received for the overprinting plates to the Comptroller General at the General Accounting Office for his approval on May 11, because the Treasury Department wanted to accept the high bid from BBS. (Bond, May 11, 1929) Approval arrived May 20, and the first order was placed with BBS within a day or two. (Hall, May 23, 1929) The contract called for 100 sets of plates per day, more if possible. The plan was to begin overprinting small size Nationals early in June 1929. It was the goal of Bureau Director Alvin W. Hall to ramp production up to 50 banks per day with average daily output consuming 35,000 12-subject sheets of feed stock by July 15th. (Hall, May 23, 1929) This would complete the production for all the banks by mid-October. The BBS representative advised on May 29 that they anticipated delivering 25 sets of logotypes per day beginning June 8, 50 per day June 15, and 100 per day June 22. (Hall, May 29, 1929) Express shipments of logotypes actually began June 14th or 15th following delays while BBS overcame startup problems. The Bureau ordered a total of 6,200 sets by June 30, 1929. (Hall, 1929, p. 7) The first shipment of Series of 1929 notes was sent to the Comptroller of the Currency on June 22nd. The new notes were being overprinted in charter num- ber order, provided the bankers had submitted their signatures in a timely fashion. Manufacturers Three distinct types of overprinting plates were used to print the bank information on the Series of 1929 Nationals: (1) logotype plates made by Barnhart Brothers & Spindler of Chicago from 1929 to 1935, (2) interim electrotype plates made jointly by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing and the Government Printing Office between August and October 1929, and (3) copper plates made by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing from February 1930 to 1935. These are respectively referred to as BBS, GPO and BEP plates. The BBS logotypes were the plates of choice, and did the heavy lifting dur- ing the production of the Series of 1929. There were two primary reasons that all the notes in the series weren’t made from them. Barnhart Brothers & Spindler couldn’t keep up with the initial orders for logotypes in 1929. Next, the American Type Founders Company, the parent of BBS, began to founder in 1931, and went into bankruptcy in 1933. As a result, serious delivery problems developed as the compa- ny went through the fitful throes of failing and reorganizing. Paper Money • January/February 2014 • Whole No. 2898 BBS Falls Behind BBS experienced great difficulties meeting their delivery obligations from the outset. The production schedule was falling behind by mid-July, causing conster- nation at the Comptroller of the Currency’s office, and the problem was getting pro- gressively more serious as the days passed. On July 26, Acting Comptroller F. G. Awalt wrote Secretary of the Treasury Mills “to date there has been new currency received for only about 340 banks, a period of 27 working days. The proofs received from the logotype plates to date have not exceeded 50 a week.” (Awalt, Jul 26, 1929) The contractor was behind by 1,100 sets on August 2nd, so the Bureau was seriously behind on deliveries to the Comptroller’s office. At the suggestion of Acting Comptroller Awalt, Director Hall dispatched a representative to Chicago to size up the difficulties and to prod production along. (Hall, Aug 1, 1929) The Bureau resorted to printing additional Series of 1902 sheets as needed for banks where the Comptroller was running out and for newly chartered banks. The last shipment of Series of 1902 sheets was delivered August 17th. By August 8th, BEP Director Hall concluded that the delays in the delivery of BBS logotypes had reached crisis proportions, so he moved to create an immediate source for supplemental plates to cover BBS deficiencies. The plan he settled upon was to fabricate plates jointly with the Government Printing Office. Engaging the services of the GPO made sense because the GPO already was routinely supplying the BEP with other electrotype plates used to overprint precancelled stamps, bonds, etc. BEP personnel already were experimenting with their own electrolytic etched forms for the bank signatures. Hall’s original schedule called for the overprinting of notes for 50 banks per day. He now was going to engage two shifts per day in the surface printing division and ramp production up to at least 75 banks per day. He had to temporarily expand the bureau workforce by recalling retired and furloughed workers to meet the chal- lenge. Hall advised in his weekly report: An electrotype plate was ordered from the Government Printing Office, and was put to press yesterday. . . . in the making of logotypes it is only necessary for us to send a title sheet and signatures to the contrac- tor in Chicago. If electrotypes are furnished by the Government Printing Office, it becomes necessary for us to set up type in this bureau and send it to the Government Printing Office, where it is used in making the elec- trotypes. It is a very slow process, and would require an enormous amount of composing work. (Hall, Aug 8, 1929) Hall described the beginning of the effort in his August 22 weekly report: On Monday, August 26, we expect to make the first delivery of National Bank currency printed from type set up in the Surface Printing Division. We have engaged six temporary compositors and one tempo- rary negative cutter to accommodate this work. The photo-litho section is working overtime each night until 10 and 11 o’clock. In the Engraving Division machine shop, where the signatures are mounted, we are work- ing two 12-hour shifts. Within a short time, [our output] added to the number of logotypes we are now receiving will make approximately sev- enty-five banks a day. This is the capacity of the Surface Printing Division running two 8-hour shifts. (Hall, Aug 22, 1929) The first three sets of GPO overprinting plates were finished August 26, 1929. They were made from then until October 16th, when the 1,375th set was delivered (BEP, Aug-Nov, 1929). They were employed as a stopgap measure as the Bureau awaited backlogged deliveries of BBS logotypes. BEP Director Hall stated in his annual report that 1,376 such plates had been made. (Hall, 1930, p. 18) The extra plate in Hall’s count was a plate he ordered from the Government Printing Office for The First National Bank of the City of New York, charter #29. That plate was tested on a press on August 8 for comparison pur- poses, but no notes were issued that were overprinted from it. GPO plates were made for just under 20 percent of the banks that ultimately issued 1929 notes. They were used only for the first press run for the impacted banks. Succeeding printings were made using BBS logotypes once they became available. Clearly the inability of BBS to supply logotypes in a timely manner caused Hall to make major adjustments to meet his own deadlines, which greatly added to the expense of the undertaking. The situation was particularly ironic because Hall, who was sold on the superiority of the logotypes from the outset, had pushed hard to see that BBS got the contract. Hall’s struggles to meet his delivery obligations to the Comptroller were daunting. He had to cobble together a huge sustained joint effort between the BEP and Government Printing Office to produce overprinting plates to cover BBS shortfalls immediately upon sensing that delivery shortfalls were becoming serious. That effort alone would require the unexpected manufacture of stopgap overprinting plates for a quarter of the existing National Banks. He had to continue production of Series of 1902 notes for two months after the overprinting of Series of 1929 began in order to cover delays in small note deliveries. Once the backlogged overprinting plates became available, he had to ramp production up in the surface printing division to match the supply. All of these adjustments required significant increases in his work force, con- tinuous operation of night shifts and burning through unplanned budgets. The Series of 1929 was not his only concern. He also was juggling the enormous production dead- lines associated with supplying small size type notes for the July 10th initial release date. The trials that Hall faced did not go unnoticed. The Assistant Chief of the claims division of the General Accounting Office inquired on November 1 whether “damages accrued to the United States on account of the failure of the claimant to make deliveries within the time specified by the contract.” (General Accounting Office, Nov. 1, 1929) Of course, the damages were substantial, but Hall, demonstrating grace and an ability to quickly put problems behind him, replied that BBS would meet their delivery obligations as measured by the delivery of all the required logotypes by the time the contract period expired November 16th. The General Accounting Office paid the contractor and the matter was dropped. In-House BEP Plates BEP personnel began making their own overprinting plates in January 1930, but now without the aid of the Government Printing Office. The BEP plates came in sets of six 1-subject plates. They were used for rush orders, or to supplement produc- tion of logotypes by Barnhart Brothers & Spindler when the parent American Type Founders Company was in serious financial difficulty. The BEP plates were made peri- odically through March 1935. Their use is explained in an exchange of letters between Deputy Comptroller Awalt and BEP Director A. W. Hall. On December 10, 1929, Awalt asked how long it took to produce notes for new banks or banks taking out currency for the first time. Hall’s response four days later was as follows. In the event a new bank or one taking out currency for the first time is in urgent need of currency, deliveries can be started within seven to ten days after receipt of the bank officers’ signatures and other necessary infor- mation. The overprinting in this instance would be done from type set-up, and signatures made, by this bureau. If the order is not urgent, and delivery can be withheld until the logo- type plates are received, it will require about thirty days, after receipt of the necessary data, to make the first delivery. (Hall, Dec 14, 1929) The special circumstances that led to their production are as follows. (1) Some were made for new banks where the Comptroller simply desired that the order be expedited. (2) Many were made for bankers who did not take out circulation at the out- Paper Money • January/February 2014 • Whole No. 28910 Paper Money • January/February 2014 • Whole No. 289 11 Month plates were billed 1 PA Philadelphia The First National Bank of Nov 1931 452 NJ Freehold The First National Bank of Feb 1932 963 NY Troy The Union National Bank of Mar 1931 1027 NY Lyons The Lyons National Bank Mar 1932, p Jun 1934 1335 NY Amsterdam The Farmers National Bank of Feb 1932 1816 IL Rockford The Rockford National Bank Dec 1931 2076 NJ Dover The National Union Bank of Dec 1934 3312 NY Gloversville The Fulton County National Bank and Trust Company of Nov 1931 4887 PA Reading The Reading National Bank and Trust Company May 1931 8574 OR Tillamook The First National Bank of Nov 1931, dup May 1933, c Aug 8, 1934 8645 TX Houston The Second National Bank of May 1931, p Jun 1932 8813 MN Appleton The First National Bank of Nov 1931 9652 UT Salt Lake City The National Copper Bank of Apr 1930 Security National Bank of (4/10/31) t&p May 1931 10171 IN East Chicago The Indiana Harbor National Bank of Nov 1931 (plate made for wrong charter, not used) 10209 OK Hennessey The Farmers and Merchants National Bank of Jan 1932 10345 OR Eugene The United States National Bank of Jun 1931 10357 CA Bakersfield First National Bank in Dec 1931 10583 TN Erwin Erwin National Bank May 1931 10911 IL Ava The First National Bank of Mar 1932 10923 NY Walden The First National Bank and Trust Company of Sep 1931 10948 NY Croghan The Croghan National Bank Aug 1931 11036 MT Wolf Point The First National Bank of Jun 1931 11177 KS Beaver The Farmers National Bank of Oct 1934 11207 MD Baltimore National Central Bank of May 1931 11212 MN Hastings The Hastings National Bank Dec 1931, p Aug 8, 1934 11305 MI Wakefield The First National Bank of Apr 1931 11327 CA Bakersfield First National Bank in Nov 1931 (plate made for wrong charter, changed to 10357) 11378 ND Napoleon The First National Bank of Dec 1931, c&p Mar 1934 11397 OK Tonkawa The First National Bank in Dec 1934 11658 NJ Beach Haven Beach Haven National Bank and Trust Company Dec 1931, p&c Feb 1935 11687 MN Farmington The First National Bank of Dec 1931, c May 1934 11735 IA Rake The Farmers First National Bank of Jul 1931 11766 AL Fairfield The Fairfield American National Bank Dec 1931 11784 NV Eureka The Farmers and Merchants National Bank of Mar 1931 Table 1. List of sets of Series of 1929 overprinting plates made by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing inclusively from January 1930 to 1935. These involve 108 banks, 112 titles, and 152 different sets of plates. Data from BEP (1929-1935). Explanation for Dates: First BEP plates for Additional BEP plates Total No. BEP first entry is for first set of banks by year: for banks by year: plates by year: plates made for bank successive sets: 1930 5 1930 0 1930 5 c = change of cashier 1931 76 1931 2 1931 78 p = change of president 1932 15 1932 6 1932 21 t = change of title 1933 0 1933 17 1933 17 dup = identical to former 1934 12 1934 16 1934 28 ( ) = title change date 1935 0 1935 3 1935 3 108 44 152 Paper Money • January/February 2014 • Whole No. 28912 12061 CA Monterey Park The First National Bank of Sep 1931 12545 CA Los Angeles The Seaboard National Bank of Nov 1931, p Sep 1933 12599 VA Wytheville Wythe County National Bank of Dec 1931 12663 NJ Hawthorne The First National Bank of Oct 1931 12690 NJ Clifton The Clifton National Bank Dec 1931 12788 NY Patchogue The Peoples National Bank of Jun 1931 12941 MN Mahnomen First National Bank in Jun 1931 13030 PA Elkins Park The Elkins Park National Bank Sep 1931 13039 NJ Trenton The Security National Bank of Nov 1931 13057 WA Gig Harbor The First National Bank of Dec 1931 13075 MN Detroit Lakes Becker County National Bank of Aug 1931 13098 CO Denver The National City Bank of Dec 1931, c Feb 1933 13103 TN Nashville Third National Bank in May 1932, p Feb 1935 13150 OH Jewett The First National Bank of Aug 1930 13151 PA Lansdowne The National Bank of Apr 1932 13215 NJ Point Pleasant Beach Point Pleasant Beach National Bank and Trust Company Aug 1930 13216 IL Chicago Straus National Bank and Trust Company of May 1931 American National Bank and Trust Company of t Jan 1933, c&vice p Jan 1934, p Jun 1934 13219 NY Buffalo The Lincoln National Bank of Aug 1930 13231 WV Point Pleasant Citizens National Bank of Nov 1931 13270 was first charter granted in 1929 13296 NY New York The National Bank of Queens County in Oct 1931 Flushing National Bank in (8/11/33) t Sep 1933 13321 IA Des Moines Central National Bank and Trust Company of Nov 1931 13330 NY Rochester The First National Bank and Trust Company of Nov 1931, p Sep 1933 13335 CA San Marino The San Marino National Bank Aug 1931 13368 CA Vallejo Mechanics and Merchants National Bank of Nov 1931 13375 CA Pacific Grove The First National Bank of Jun 1931, p May 1934 13380 CA Salinas The Salinas National Bank Sep 1931, p Dec 1932 13385 ND Valley City The American National Bank and Trust Company of Dec 1931, p Dec 1933 The American National Bank of (7/23/34) t Aug 20, 1934 13388 FL De Land The Barnett National Bank at May 1932 13394 MA Spencer Spencer National Bank Feb 1930 13406 KS Liberal The Peoples National Bank of Dec 1931, c Aug 1933, c Nov 1934 13Paper Money • January/February 2014 • Whole No. 289 13413 was first charter granted in 1930 13441 NY Buffalo The Niagara National Bank of May 1931, p Oct 1933 13443 TX Henderson Citizens National Bank of Mar 1931, p May 1934 13457 OH Defiance The National Bank of Mar 1931 13460 SD Britton First National Bank in Dec 1931, c Oct 1934 13482 TN Greeneville The Citizens National Bank of May 1931 13483 SD Chamberlain The First National Bank and Trust Company of Dec 1931, c&p Oct 1933 13487 WI Phillips First National Bank in Oct 1931, c May 1933 13493 NY Odessa The First National Bank of Dec 1931 13501 ND Garrison First National Bank in Mar 1931 13505 WV Gary Gary National Bank Apr 1931 13509 WV Charleston The National Bank of Commerce of Feb 1931, c&p May 1932 13510 CA Hollister The Hollister National Bank Aug 1931, p Mar 1933, p May 1934 13512 WV Welch McDowell County National Bank in May 1931, p Jul 1931 13513 MI Manistique The First National Bank in Mar 1931, c&p Jul 1933 13517 was first charter granted in 1931 13523 NC Lenoir The Union National Bank of Mar 1931 13525 IL Smithton The First National Bank of Nov 1931, c Aug 1932 13526 TX Hamphill First National Bank in Apr 1931 13527 OK Pawhuska The Citizens First National Bank of Feb 1932, p Oct 1934 13530 NJ Haddon Heights The First National Bank of Dec 1931 13531 IN East Chicago The First National Bank in Jan 1932, p Apr 1934 13537 NJ Kearny Kearny National Bank Sep 1931, c Dec 1932, c&p Mar 1935 13539 TN Knoxville The Hamilton National Bank May 1931, c Jul 1933 13540 NJ Linden Linden National Bank Nov 1931 13548 NY Plattsburg Merchants National Bank in Jul 1931, c Jan 1933 13555 TX Blooming Grove The First National Bank in Sep 1931 13558 MA Reading The First National Bank in Aug 1931, c Mar 1932 13561 MN Madison The Klein National Bank of Aug 1931 13562 TX Colorado Colorado National Bank in Sep 1931 13563 NY Sidney First National Bank in Aug 1931 13572 TX Pearsall The Pearsall National Bank in Nov 1931 13585 PA Charleroi The National Bank of Charleroi and Trust Company May 1932 13587 was first charter granted in 1932 13589 SD Viborg The Security National Bank of May 1932, c&p Oct 1933 13601 KS Alma First National Bank in Jun 1932, c Oct 1934 13612 KY Harrodsburg Mercer County National Bank of Jun 1932 13616 WI Oconomowoc Oconomowoc National Bank Jun 1932, c Aug 1933 13655 was first charter granted in 1933 13921 was first charter granted in 1934 14025 NY Oxford The National Bank of Nov 1934 14169 PA Sykesville First National Bank in Nov 1934 14201 PA Delta The Delta National Bank Nov 1934 14211 SC Spartanburg The Commercial National Bank of Nov 1934 14219 PA Erie The National Bank and Trust Company of Dec 1934 14250 PA Hamburg The National Bank of Dec 1934 14258 IN Linton Citizens’ National Bank of Oct 1934 14295 WV Wellsburg Wellsburg National Bank Dec 1934 14302 TX Cotulla Stockmens National Bank in Dec 1934 14318 was first charter granted in 1935 Paper Money • January/February 2014 • Whole No. 28914 set of the Series of 1929 era because they had sold their bonds to the Federal Reserve system. The Comptroller’s office expedited their orders when they bought new bonds. A good example is The First National Bank of Philadelphia, charter #1. The Philadelphia bankers first ordered Series of 1929 notes in November 1931, so the expedited order for their plates was carried out by the BEP. (3) The BEP produced the majority of plates made during the period February 1931-June 1932 when the American Type Founders Company was foundering. A second spike in BEP plate production occurred during October- December 1934, when ATF was in the midst of reorganization. All sets of BEP plates, except those for Spencer, Massachusetts (#13394), which were the first, are clearly labeled as being made at the BEP in a billing ledger for Series of 1929 overprinting plates. (BEP, 1929-1935) 152 sets of such plates were made for 108 different banks and all are listed on Table 1. The BEP plates were used until they became obsolete. If for any reason successive sets of plates were required for the bank, they also were made by the BEP. There was one exception. The second set of plates for Spencer, Massachusetts (#13394), with a new president, was made by BBS. Plate Manufacture The request for bids to make the 1929 overprinting plates specified that they were to come in the form of sets of six 1-subject plates. BBS Logotype Plates The manufacture of the BBS logotypes differed radically from that of tradi- tional electrotype plates. Machine-produced type from a Linotype machine was used to compose the title block. The charter numbers appear to have been hand set from type. A print was made from the composition and photographed using posi- tive film. Similarly, positive film was used to photograph and size the bank signa- tures. The positives of the typeset work and signatures were spliced together to cre- ate a composite of the entire overprint. That film composition was used to make a photomechanical mold of the overprint, probably through a photo etching process. In such a process, the positive film was laid over a steel blank (Hall, May 10, 1929, p. 2) coated with light sensitive emulsion and ultraviolet light was passed through it to fix the emulsion. Notice that it was the background that was exposed on the blank and fixed, not the bank information and signatures. Consequently, when the unfixed emulsion was washed off, the items to be printed were unprotected. The blank was placed in an acid bath where the unprotected items to be printed were etched into its surface, creating a 3- dimensional right-reading image of the overprint. This steel object was used as a mold, or in printing parlance a matrix, over which was poured a proprietary molten alloy that created an exceptionally hard reverse-reading cast of the image. (Duncan, Mar 28, 1932) The image stood in relief on the surface of the cast. Six identical replicates were made from the mold, which when dressed were 0.052 inches in thickness and beveled to a 20 degree angle on all four sides. (Hall, 1929, p. 21) These 1-subject objects were called logotypes. Any change that affected the overprint, such as a new title or signature, necessitated production of a new set of logotypes. The same was true if a bank was reorganized under a new charter number. Often usable parts of the film positives used to make the previous logotype were recycled. It was unusual for logotypes to wear out. Consequently, only a few dupli- cate sets were required, and those only for giant issuers. For example, the Bank of America National Trust and Savings Association, San Francisco (#13044), which had the largest type 2 issuance in the country, required only one replacement set of logotypes each year during 1933-5. 15Paper Money • January/February 2014 • Whole No. 289 GPO Plates The Series of 1929 notes printed from the stopgap GPO plates made in 1929 have been a major curiosity among collectors. Early on collectors started find- ing pairs of notes with identical signatures and bank titles, but different title block layouts. In many cases the earlier note in the pair had larger signatures. They were overprinted from the GPO plates and commonly were called large-signature notes. The task of making the stopgap GPO plates was split between the Bureau of Engraving and Printing and the Government Printing Office. The exact details of who did what and how the plates were made are not fully articulated in surviving documents available to us. Certain facts are clear, others vague. The Bureau Surface Printing Division prepared the title blocks using machine-produced lines of type made with Linotype machines. The charter num- bers most likely were made using hand-set type. The Bureau also prepared pairs of high-etched zinc facsimiles of the bank signatures and mounted them on wooden blocks. (BEP, 1929b) The images on all of these elements were left-reading and stood in relief. It appears that they were assembled and locked into a specially con- structed form at the BEP. Notice that if the raised image on the elements in the form was inked, it would produce the desired overprint on paper pressed against it. The form was sent to the Government Printing Office, where six molds were made from it. The molds were wax that was pressed over the forms. (Hall, May 10, 1929, p. 2) When separated, the wax mold carried a right-reading impression of the overprint where the image was sunken into the surface of the wax. The mold was submerged in an electrolytic bath where a thin shell of zinc was electrochemically deposited over its surface. Of course, the shell also was a right-reading object with the image sunken into its surface. Lead was poured into the shell, creating a one- piece replica of the form provided by the BEP. When dressed, this zinc-faced lead- backed object was the desired left-reading one-subject plate where the image to be printed stood on its surface. Six copies were made from the six molds. What is strange about the GPO overprints is that the placement of the sig- natures, charter numbers and individual lines of characters in the bank title shift slightly relative to each other between the subjects on the sheets. This phenomenon can be observed readily if adjacent pairs of notes on the same sheet are viewed together through a stereoscope. The slight differences in placements create a dra- matic 3-dimensional effect where the various elements on the overprint appear to stand at different elevations and tilt relative to each other when so viewed. Revealing, however, is the fact each line of like characters on all six subjects is identical. Although the lines shift a bit, the characters that made up the line were immobile. The explanation is that characters were made one line at a time using a Linotype machine. The machine put all the characters in the line on a single slug of metal so they were immobile. The following is necessarily speculative. The process of molding the wax six times over the form supplied by the Bureau involved using a hydraulic press to squeeze the wax onto its surface. This loading appears to have caused the individual elements in the form to shift slightly. Consequently there were slight variations in the placement of the elements in the six molds used to make the six plates, thus pro- ducing the observed variations. Clearly, the reason the GPO plates were phased out was not an issue of the quality of the layout of the bank information on them, or the quality of the printed image from them. Both were superior. The overriding factor was their durability. The GPO plates were far softer than the BBS logotypes. The size of the signatures certainly was not the issue as speculated by many collectors. If size had been a prob- lem, BEP personnel would have reduced the size long before making the full com- plement of such signatures! Paper Money • January/February 2014 • Whole No. 28916 BEP Plates The BEP plates made from 1930 through 1935 were made of copper, which was electrolytically etched with the image to be printed, and finished with an elec- trolytic coating of chromium to improve their wearing properties. (Duncan, Mar 28, 1932) Personnel at the BEP also experimented with electrolytic etching of other metals including steel and beryllium, which is even harder. (Division Heads, 1932, p. 6 & 1935, p. 6) However, those metals weren’t employed before the 1929 series was discontinued. The process of etching one of the BEP copper plates will be described. The same technique was employed to make the zinc etchings of the signature elements used to make the GPO plates. A high-etched BEP plate began as a highly polished sheet of copper measur- ing 0.153 inches thick (Division Heads, 1932, p. 6) upon which was applied a thin light-sensitive emulsion. A photographic negative of the overprint was placed over the plate and subjected to strong ultraviolet light. The light passing through the neg- ative caused the exposed parts of the emulsion on the underlying plate to become sensitized, and thus fixed on its surface. The unexposed emulsion was then washed away with water and solvent. An acid-resistant topping powder was applied to the surface that adhered to the sensitized emulsion and was baked on to harden it. Next, the plate was submerged in nitric acid. A positive electrode was attached to the submerged plate, and a negative cathode was placed in the acid bath. The uncoated surfaces of the plate were etched away when a direct current was applied across the electrodes. The etching was accomplished because the positively charged metal atoms on the uncoated surfaces of the plate ionized and dissolved into the acid bath where they moved toward the cathode. This left the coated image standing in relief on the plate. The surface of the plate was then cleaned with lye to remove the protective coating. By reversing the polarity, and submerging the plate in a chromium bath, a thin but hard chromium coating was electroplated onto the surface of the plate to improve its wearing properties. Such coatings were used on the BEP copper plates made between 1930 and 1935; however, the softer zinc signature forms made for the GPO plates were not chrome plated because they only were going to be used to make wax molds. Six replicates were prepared, each from the same negative, so there was no variation between the printed subjects on a sheet. The 1-subject plates were dressed to size. Recycling of Negatives Photographic film positives were central to the production of BBS logotypes and film negatives were critical to the production of the BEP copper plates and zinc signature elements made by the BEP for the GPO plates. We find that the usable parts of those films commonly were reused when new plates were required. The division of labor was such that beginning in April 1930, whoever made the first set of plates for a bank also made all successive sets required for that bank. This was an efficiency that allowed the BEP and BBS to recycle the usable parts of their films in-house. The existence of identical signatures on a few GPO and BBS overprints from the same bank indicate that negative sharing occasionally may have occurred between Chicago and Washington as well. Overprint Fonts As shown on Figure 3, several different fonts were used to lay out the title blocks on Series of 1929 nationals. Examples of special characters and punctuation are illustrated on Figure 4. The different fonts will prove to be very useful as we 17Paper Money • January/February 2014 • Whole No. 289 BBS: Barnhart Brothers & Spindler plates (1929-1935). GPO: Government Printing Office plates (August-October, 1929) BEP: Bureau of Engraving and Printing plates (February 1930-March 1935). Figure 3. Fonts used to overprint bank titles on Series of 1929 notes. Font names from American Type Founders Company (1917, 1923) and Barnhart Brothers & Spindler (1925). Paper Money • January/February 2014 • Whole No. 28918 Figure 4. Punctuation m arks and special sym bols found on Series of 1929 notes. Paper Money • January/February 2014 • Whole No. 289 19 attempt to identify who manufactured the overprinting plates because some were used exclusively by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing whereas others were used solely by Barnhart Brothers & Spindler. All the fonts were produced by the American Type Founders Company or its Barnhart Brothers & Spindler subsidiary. The font names and sizes on Figures 3 and 4 are taken from font catalogs published by American Type Founders Company (1917, 1923) and Barnhart Brothers & Spindler (1925). Figure 5 illustrates the distinction between the American and Gothic fonts. Manufacturers specified the sizes of their type in points, where 72 points = 1 inch. That size referred to the height of the slugs that held individual letters, not the heights of the printed letters. See Figure 6. Consequently, the slug was larger than the letters. The difference kept letters in adjacent lines from touching each other. The entries on Figures 3 and 4 are reproduced actual size so you can make direct comparisons to your notes. Slight differences may occur because of variations in forming the letters during plate making, plate wear, plate pressures and deformation of the paper. The font used for the charter numbers was 14-point Pastel Bold. The Pastel font utilized serifs which are particularly noticeable on the numbers 1, 2, 4, 5 and 7 Figure 5. Distinctive character of the American and Gothic fonts used to overprint bank titles on Series of 1929 notes. Figure 6. A slug of type containing a letter. Notice that the height of the slug is greater than the height of the let- ter. The size of the type is a measure of the height of the slug, not the height of the letter. Paper Money • January/February 2014 • Whole No. 28920 when well formed. As shown on Figure 7, the serifs generally are missing or blunted on notes printed from BBS logotypes, whereas they are crisp on notes from GPO and BEP plates. Layouts Tracking and leading are two concepts in typesetting that help determine who made certain Series of 1929 overprinting plates. The spacing between letters is called tracking. Wide tracking refers to let- ters that are separated from each other by wide spaces, whereas the converse is nar- row tracking. The Ava, Illinois (#10911), note shown on Figure 8 exhibits unusual- ly wide tracking within the town name. As expected, tracking within town names varies on 1929 notes; however, it appears that the town names on all BBS overprints always were made with normal or narrow tracking. Some towns that were typeset at the Bureau of Engraving and Printing exhibit wide tracking. Consequently when notes are encountered with wide tracking, it is safe to assume that the overprint was from either a GPO or BEP plate. Leading, pronounced the same as the metal, refers to the separation between successive lines of type. The Baltimore and Smithton examples shown on Figure 9 exhibit radically different leading, with the Smithton having minimal sepa- rations between all the elements in the title block. BBS overprints uniformly exhib- it spacious leading between every line, whereas leading was variable on BEP plates. Narrow leading is found only on BEP plates. Figure 7. The top charter number is from a GPO plate, the bottom from a BBS logotype. Notice that the serifs are well formed on the GPO print, whereas they appear blunted or miss- ing on the BBS print. This contrast is the only characteristic that will allow you to identify who made some plates. Figure 8. The letters in Ava are sepa- rated by unusually wide spaces, a phenomenon called wide tracking. Figure 9. Leading refers to the separa- tion between successive lines of type. Both of these examples are from BEP plates, however, the Smithton exhibits minimal leading between all the lines of type in the title block, which is unusual. Paper Money • January/February 2014 • Whole No. 289 21 BBS layouts are remarkably homogenous. They are characterized by: (1) normal tracking within bank names; (2) normal or narrow tracking within the town names; (3) open leading between all lines of type in the title block; (4) bank names set in American fonts; and (5) towns set in Caslon fonts. In contrast, the Bureau title blocks exhibit both variable tracking and lead- ing, plus the occasional use of exotic fonts for both bank and town names. Clearly the Bureau typesetters had more latitude in laying out title blocks than did the BBS employees. Consequently, if a layout looks decidedly unusual or different, one should suspect that it was made from a GPO or BEP plate. How to Identify Plate Manufacturers from Overprints Use the stepwise procedure on Table 2 to determine who manufactured the plate used to print the overprint on any Series of 1929 national bank note. Table 2. Work stepwise down this list in order to determine which plate manufacturer made the plate used to overprint the bank information on any Series of 1929 national bank note. 1. Overprint is BEP if bank is listed on Table 1. 2. Overprint is BEP if bank is 12 pt Gothic Condensed No. 529. 3. Overprint is BEP if: a. charter number is greater than 13375, b. charter numbers are crisp and sharp, and the numbers 1, 2, 4, 5 and 7 exhibit well-defined serifs, and c. bank is 12-pt American Very Condensed with tightly packed letters. 4. Overprint is GPO if any one of the following four conditions is met: a. charter numbers are crisp and sharp, and the numbers 1, 2, 4, 5 and 7 exhibit well-defined serifs, b. left charter number is unusually low, c. bank is Pastel Series Bold Condensed, d. town is Gothic Bold Condensed, e. bank is 12-pt American Very Condensed with tightly packed letters, town is 11- or 12-pt Caslon Shaded Bold, state is 6-pt Pastel Series Bold, letters appear crisp and sharp, bank is 1 or 2 lines, and overprint appears darker than usual. 5. All other overprints are BBS. Paper Money • January/February 2014 • Whole No. 28922 GPO Overprints The GPO overprints comprise a significant variety so they deserve special attention. The key to unequivocally identifying them is that the charter numbers on them exhibit well-formed serifs. The serifs also are well formed on BEP overprints, but it is easy to distinguish them because all are listed on Table 1. The GPO overprints have a darker appearance than either the BBS or BEP overprints. Often this is a giveaway, especially on high grade notes. Typically, but not always, one or both of the signatures is considerably larger Figure 10. The overprinted bank signatures on many GPO plates (top) were larger than on the BBS logotypes (bottom), so early genera- tions of collectors commonly called the GPO overprints the large-signa- ture variety. This example is from The American Exchange National Bank of St. Louis, Missouri, charter 12506. Figure 11. The top note is from a GPO overprinting plate, the bottom from a BBS logotype. Notice how perfectly formed and crisp the let- ters are in West Orange from the GPO plate, whereas they are bled on the print from the BBS plate. Also, the serifs are better formed on the charter numbers on the GPO print. The loss of fine details on the BBS plates was caused by the cast- ing process used to make them. Paper Money • January/February 2014 • Whole No. 289 23 on the GPO overprints than on the BBS overprints that followed. However, there are many exceptions where one or both signatures are smaller or the same size as on the BBS overprints so this criterion is not foolproof. The letters in the title blocks on the GPO overprints tend to be very crisp and well formed, particularly the Caslon letters for towns. In contrast, the fine details in the Caslon letters on many BBS overprints appear to be bled together. The reduced quality of the letters on the BBS logotypes was inherent in the casting process used to make logotype plates. The contrasting quality between GPO and BBS overprints is nicely illustrated by the West Orange pair on Figure 11. The left charter number on the GPO overprints usually is displaced down- ward between one-half to one full width of a digit in comparison to BBS and BEP overprints. The left charter number appears abnormally low on many. The Weed note on Figure 12 exhibits an extreme shift. The bank names on the GPO plates were laid out in one or two lines when the 12-point American Very Condensed font was used. BBS plates always had two- and three-line bank names. The arrangement of the words often differs between the GPO and BBS overprints, even when both employed two lines, such as on the Passaic pair on Figure 13. Two-line bank names on GPO overprints often became three-lines on BBS overprints. The Hartford pair on Figure 14 is a good example. Figure 12. Series of 1929 note made from the quintessential GPO over- printing plate. The unusually low placement of the left charter number is a definitive characteristic. The closely packed 12-point American Very Condensed lettering in the bank name combined with 12-point Caslon town is characteristic of GPO plates, but not unique to them. Figure 13. The arrangements of words in the bank name vary between the GPO overprint (top) and BBS overprint (bottom) on this Passaic pair. Paper Money • January/February 2014 • Whole No. 28924 The BEP type- setters set long bank names that spilled over to a third line in 8-point Pastel Series Bold Condensed. Pastel bank names were mated with 12- point Caslon towns as illustrated by the Norfolk note on Figure 15. The BBS and BEP over- prints did not use the 8-point Pastel font. This variety is scarce and highly prized. All notes with towns set in 12-pt Gothic Bold Condensed were made by GPO unless the bank is listed on Table 1. Gothic fonts were not used on BBS logotypes. This variety is fairly scarce so when coupled with the BBS variety that succeeded it, the notes make for an interesting looking pair. Most of the GPO overprints utilized: (1) bank names set in 12-pt American Very Condensed letters with narrow tracking, (2) towns set in 12-pt Caslon Shaded Bold and (3) states set in 6-pt Pastel Bold. The lines in the title block exhibit open leading. See Figure 17. Figure 15. The overprint on the top note in this pair is from a GPO plate that sports the very scarce 8-point Pastel Series Bold Condensed font in the bank name. This font was used only on GPO plates. Figure 16. The GPO plate that pro- duced this overprint utilized the typi- cal 12-point American Very Condensed font for the bank, but highly unusual 12-point Gothic Bold Condensed font for the town. Figure 14. This Hartford pair nicely illus- trates a two-line bank name from a GPO plate that was transformed into three lines on the BBS logotype Paper Money • January/February 2014 • Whole No. 289 25 Occasionally this same layout was used on BBS and BEP overprints, so if there is doubt, carefully work down the 3-step screening procedure on Table 2 to be certain which manufacturer produced the overprint. BEP Overprints The majority of the overprints from post-1929 BEP plates are very different from those in the 1929 GPO group, as well as being different from the BBS logo- types. One attribute the BEP overprints share with the earlier GPO overprints is that the letters on them are well formed and appear crisp. However, the left charter number is not displaced downward as far if at all in comparison to the earlier GPO overprints. The signatures on BEP overprints usually are somewhat larger than typical- ly found on BBS notes, thus giving them a bolder appearance. The majority of the BEP overprints utilize 12-point Gothic Condensed bank names mated with 12-point Caslon towns. See Figure 18. A small number of the BEP overprints have the same 12-point American Very Condensed bank name with narrow tracking coupled with the same 12-point Caslon town found on most GPO overprints. The difference is the normal place- ment of the charter number on the BEP overprints. Very unusual 8-point Franklin Gothic Extra Condensed letters were used for particularly long bank names on the BEP plates for at least two banks. These were The Fulton County National Bank and Trust Company of Gloversville, New York (#3312) and The National Bank of Charleroi and Trust Company, Charleroi, Pennsylvania (#13585). See Figure 19. Figure 17. The layout of this title block has a 12-pt American Very Condensed bank name with narrow tracking, and is the most common found on GPO over- prints. Notice that the serifs on the charter numbers are well formed and that the left charter number is a bit low, both of which are typical of GPO overprints. There are lookalike BBS overprints, but the serifs on the charter numbers appear blunted on them. Figure 18. The majority of the BEP overprints utilize 12-point Gothic Condensed bank names mated with 12-point Caslon towns, as on this note. This was the highest charter number to appear on a BEP plate, and was made in December 1934. (Photo courtesy of Heritage Auctions) Paper Money • January/February 2014 • Whole No. 28926 Some BEP overprints sport towns with the unusual 12-point Gothic Bold Condensed font that also appeared on some GPO plates. However, in this group, they generally are mated with 12-point Gothic Condensed instead of 12-point American Very Condensed bank names. Three truly exotic layouts have been found in the BEP group that involved mixing of 8-point Copperplate Gothic and 12-point Gothic Condensed fonts within the bank name. See Figures 21 and 22. These are the only known occurrences in the Series of 1929 where bank names were set using two different fonts. The Reading layout, and a lookalike Eureka, Nevada, which were made respectively in March and May 1931, were a harbinger of the layouts used on the emergency Series of 1929 Federal Reserve bank notes of 1933-4. Figure 19. The distinctive small 8- point Franklin Gothic Extra Condensed font used in the bank name is reported only from this Charleroi bank and Gloversville, New York (#3312). Both are from BEP overprinting plates. Figure 20. Highly unusual layout on a BEP overprint that featured Gothic fonts in both the bank name and town. Figure 21. The unusual title layout on this Reading, Pennsylvania, note, which utilizes two different fonts in the bank name, is a virtual lookalike for the Series of 1929 Federal Reserve bank notes. It is from a BEP plate, and is known to occur only on the notes from this bank and those from Eureka, Nevada (#11784). Figure 22. The unusual 2-font bank layout on this Flushing note has been observed only on notes from this bank. It is from a BEP plate made in September 1933, following a title change. Photo courtesy of Nick Petrecca. Paper Money • January/February 2014 • Whole No. 289 27 One-Line Bank and Two-Line Town Names Four instances have been observed where the bank name was laid out in a single line on Series of 1929 notes. All involved three-word bank names: National Bank of Gary South Dakota #10846 National Bank of Unionville Missouri #13268 Erwin National Bank Erwin Tennessee #10583 Gary National Bank Gary West Virginia #13505 All four were prepared at the Bureau of Engraving and Printing. The first two were GPO overprints; the last two BEP overprints. Probably there are more of them. There are two cases where the town name was continued onto a second line: The First National Bank of Cape May Court House, New Jersey (#7945) and The First National Bank of Washington Court House, Ohio (#13490). Both were printed from BBS logotypes. Figure 23. One line bank names have been observed from four banks on Series of 1929 notes. This type 1 Gary is from a GPO plate, the type 2 Erwin from a BEP plate. Figure 24. These are the only two banks in the country that received notes with two-line town names. The over- printing plates were made by BBS. Paper Money • January/February 2014 • Whole No. 28928 Signatures and Signature Changes A form was sent by the Comptroller of the Currency to the bankers on February 23, 1929, with a request that they furnish three samples each of the presi- dent and cashier signature. (Pole, Feb 23, 1929, p. 2) Boxes were provided on the form with the admonition that the signatures had to fit inside. The signatures were then transmitted to the plate makers where they were photographically reduced to appropriate dimensions for use on the plates. The resulting positives or negatives were used to make the plates. Usually the same handwriting specimens were provided to both BBS and the BEP during the period in 1929 when both were making plates for the same bank. However, the employees at each concern made their own films which resulted in the differences in sizing. Similarly, the touch up work on the films and plates varied between handlers. Consequently, fine details often look very different when GPO and BBS signatures are compared, even though both may have been made from iden- tical samples. However, in some cases, it is obvious that different signature samples were used. Sharing of negatives between the BEP and BBS appears to have been rare. Figure 25 illustrates a case where the GPO and BBS signatures are identical, which implies that signature films occasionally may have been shared between Washington and Chicago. Changes of bank titles and signatures required preparation of new plates. The primary incentive, beginning in April 1930, to award successive plate orders to the same manufacturer for a given bank was the existence of the films on file there. Viable parts of the old negative could be, and usually were, recycled. Consequently, signatures reproduced on successive plates made by the same entity are exactly alike and the same size. Often the entire composite negative was recycled with the only change being the spliced-in new information or signature(s). In other cases, only the current signature(s) was recycled to an otherwise entirely new layout. Figure 25. The top note is printed from a GPO plate, the bottom from its BBS replacement. The bank signatures are identical, including size, so it appears that the negatives for them were shared between the BEP and BBS. Photo courtesy of Lowell Horwedel. Paper Money • January/February 2014 • Whole No. 289 29 Reusable positives allowed BBS to manufacture duplicate plates from the same positive for the few banks requiring them. Consequently overprints from the duplicates are indistinguishable from the originals. To date, the only recognized example of a duplicate made from a new positive involves the Republic National Bank and Trust Company, Dallas, Texas (#12186), shown on Figure 27. That plate, made in September 1933 with Florence-Nicholson signatures, exhibits a title block with different tracking than on the original made in January 1931. Undoubtedly other examples await discovery. Figure 26. Both of these overprints were made from BEP plates. Notice that the cashier’s signature is identical, having been made from the same nega- tive. Everything else has changed so the only recycled negative was the cashier’s signature. (Photos courtesy of Heritage Auctions) Figure 27. This Dallas pair represents the only case recognized to date where a set of Barnhart Brothers & Spindler duplicate plates was made that utilized a different title block lay- out. Generally the same positive film used to make the originals was employed to make the duplicates. Notice, however, on this pair that the bank title and signatures are identical but the look of the title block is differ- ent. Paper Money • January/February 2014 • Whole No. 28930 Alvin W. Hall Alvin Hall, 1888-1969, was both the youngest Director appointed to the Bureau of Engraving and Printing and by far the longest serving. He was appoint- ed in 1924 at the age of 36 by Republican Calvin Coolidge and retired in 1954. The conversion to small size currency occurred dur- ing his watch, beginning just three years after his appoint- ment. It was a high stress period characterized by major retooling. The documents cited herein reveal that Hall handled this transition with steady calm and was capa- ble of making command decisions that held the pace of the program to schedule as best as possible while overcoming grinding obstacles. The start-up diffi- culties in launching the conversion to small size Nationals were but one bowling ball that he was juggling at that moment. The Bureau also was well into the rollout of all the other small size notes with all the details attending their redesign, huge initial production runs and tight schedules. Roosevel’s New Deal Emergency Banking legislation passed March 9, 1933, imposed on the Bureau the biggest single rush currency printing job in its history, an event that occurred only three years after Hall had endured the startup difficulties associated with the Series of 1929. Ironically, the emergency Federal Reserve Bank Notes that were the result also were printed on Series of 1929 stock. That effort required 24-hour days of Bureau personnel, and they accomplished the first deliveries within two days of passage of the act. Hall would also steer the Bureau through the tumultuous World War II era that saw unprecedented demand for currency and other Bureau products. The short fuses surrounding the initial printings of World War II Hawaii and North Africa notes were similar to those of the 1933 emergency currency issues. Hall was still serving when small size currency production was converted from 12- to 18-subject plates beginning in 1950. That change also required major retooling. Virtually unnoticed except by insiders was that he also presided over the development of non-offset inks during the early 1950s, which materially increased production rates. Hall was indeed a man who shepherded the Bureau though repeated peri- ods of major change. Everything we can find about the man reveals that he was ideally suited to pull the jobs off. His brief biography in a history of the Bureau reveals that he did not come from a technical background. (BEP, 2004) Instead he earned a Bachelor of Law degree from National University in Washington, DC., then practiced accounting. He became an investigator for the U. S. Bureau of Efficiency in 1920 and in 1922 was assigned to a special committee to study proce- dures at the Bureau of Engraving and Printing. His participation on that commit- tee led to his appointment as head of the Bureau planning unit, a major stepping stone on his way to becoming Director. History proves that occasionally the right men are in place when signifi- cant challenges come at them, and they rise to the occasion and even to greatness. Hall was one of those special men. What Is New Here The big news here is that three different types of plates were used to over- print the black bank information on Series of 1929 notes. The manufacturers of the plates were Barnhart Brothers & Spindler, the Government Printing Office, Figure 28. Alvin W. Hall was Director of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing from 1924 to 1954. Hall steered the Bureau through the difficult start-up of the production of Series of 1929 national bank notes with remarkable managerial agility characterized in part by an ability to make timely and hard decisions. (Photo from BEP, 2004) Paper Money • January/February 2014 • Whole No. 289 31 and the Bureau of Engraving and Printing. Regardless of who made them, they came in sets of six 1-subject plates that were mounted on flatbed presses. The plates of choice were called logotypes made by BBS. They were made out of a hard metal that was particularly durable. The plan was for BBS to supply all the plates. However, the company was overwhelmed by orders at the startup of series in 1929, which caused the BEP to hastily improvise a workaround that employed interim plates prepared by the Government Printing Office using forms made in-house within the BEP. The GPO plates were stopgap plates used only for the first printing for 20 percent of the banks in the country. The BEP made its own plates beginning in 1930 for rush orders and later to supplement BBS shortfalls caused by the bankruptcy of its corporate parent, the American Type Founders Company. Highly significant for collectors is that the overprints can be classified by plate manufacturer using objective criteria. Table 2 provided here contains the step- wise screening procedure that allows for such assignments. References Cited and Sources of Data American Type Founders Company. Supplementary catalogue, new type faces, etc. Jersey City, NJ: American Type Founders Company, 1917. American Type Founders Company. Specimen book and catalogue. Jersey City, NJ: American Type Founders Company, 1923. Awalt, F. G., Acting Comptroller of the Currency, Jul 26, 1929, Memorandum to Secretary of the Treasury Ogden G. Mills discussing the shortfall in logotype plates received from Barnhart Brothers & Spindler. Bureau of the Public Debt, Series K Currency, Record Group 53, U. S. National Archives, College Park, MD. Barnhart Brothers & Spindler. Catalog 25-A, type faces, etc. Chicago, IL, Barnhart Brothers & Spindler1925. Bond, Henry H., Acting Secretary of the Treasury, May 11, 1929, Letter of transmittal of logotype and electrotype bids for approval to the Comptroller General: Bureau of Engraving and Printing Central Correspondence Files, Record Group 318, Box 172, U. S. National Archives, College Park, MS. Bureau of Engraving and Printing, 1929a, Contractor overprint test sheet: Central Correspondence Files, Record Group 318, Box 172, Reports, U. S. National Archives, College Park, MD. Bureau of Engraving and Printing, 1929b, Process of making deep-etched plates: Bureau of Engraving and Printing Central Correspondence Files, Record Group 318, Box 171, U. S. National Archives, College Park, MD, 6 p. Bureau of Engraving and Printing, Aug-Nov, 1929, Daily reports on national currency pro- gram: Bureau of the Public Debt, Series K Currency, Record Group 53, U. S. National Archives, College Park, MD. Bureau of Engraving and Printing, 1929-1935, Ledger showing billing dates for Series of 1929 national bank overprinting plates: Record Group 318, U. S. National Archives, College Park, MD. Bureau of Engraving and Printing, 2004, BEP History: BEP Historical Resource Center, 30 p. Burgess, George K., Director, Bureau of Standards, April 29, 1929, Report on [Series of 1929 over] printing plates submitted by A. W. Hall, Director, Bureau of Engraving and Printing: Bureau of Engraving and Printing Central Correspondence Files, Record Group 318, Box 172, U. S. National Archives, College Park, MD, 6 p. Division Heads, 1929-1935, Reports of Divisional Heads to the Director of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing for the fiscal years ending June 30: Bureau of Engraving and Printing Historical Resource Center, Washington, DC. Duncan, George W., Superintendent of the Surface Printing Division, Bureau of Engraving and Printing, Apr 26, 1929, Memorandum to the Assistant Director of Production advising of the delivery of logotype and electrotype overprinting plates to the Bureau of Standards for testing: Bureau of Engraving and Printing Central Correspondence Files, Record Group 318, Box 172, U. S. National Archives, College Park, MD. Paper Money • January/February 2014 • Whole No. 28932 Duncan, George W., Superintendent of the Surface Printing Division, Bureau of Engraving and Printing, Mar 28, 1932, Memorandum to the Chief Accountant advising that Series of 1929 overprinting plates made by the Bureau were chrome plated copper: Bureau of Engraving and Printing Central Correspondence Files, Record Group 318, U. S. National Archives, College Park, MD. General Accounting Office, Nov. 1, 1929, Letter from Assistant Chief of the Claims Division to Bureau of Engraving and Printing Director Alvin W. Hall inquiring if damages had accrued by failure of Barnhart Brothers & Spindler to deliver overprinting logotypes in a timely manner: Bureau of Engraving and Printing Central Correspondence Files, Record Group 318, Accts, Contractors, Box 164, U. S. National Archives, College Park, MD. Hall, Alvin W., Annual reports of the Director of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing for the year ending June 30. Washington, DC: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1929-1935. Hall, Alvin W., Director, Bureau of Engraving and Printing, Mar 21, 28, Apr 4, 18, May 2, 16, 23, Jun 13, Jul 18, 25, Aug 1, 8, 22, 1929, Events of the week, weekly reports submitted to Henry H. Bond, Assistant Secretary of the Treasury: Bureau of Engraving and Printing Central Correspondence Files, Record Group 318, Box 172, Reports, U. S. National Archives, College Park, MD. Hall, Alvin W., Director, Bureau of Engraving and Printing, May 10, 1929, Reasons for rec- ommending the purchase of logotypes in preference to electrotypes: Bureau of Engraving and Printing Central Correspondence Files, Record Group 318, U. S. National Archives, College Park, MD, 3 p. Hall, Alvin W., Director, Bureau of Engraving and Printing, May 23, 1929, Letter to Ogden L. Mills, Secretary of the Treasury, discussing the planned rate of delivery of new Series of 1929 national bank notes: Bureau of the Public Debt, Series K Currency, Record Group 53, U. S. National Archives, College Park, MD. Hall, Alvin W., Director, Bureau of Engraving and Printing, May 29, 1929, Letter to Henry H. Bond, Assistant Secretary of the Treasury, regarding the rate at which Barnhart Brothers & Spindler plan to deliver Series of 1929 overprinting logotype plates: Bureau of Engraving and Printing Central Correspondence Files, Record Group 318, U. S. National Archives, College Park, MD. Hall, Alvin W., Director Bureau of Engraving and Printing, Sep 4, 1929, Order No. 26 to Government Printing Office for nickel-faced electrotype plates for use in printing Series of 1929 national bank notes: Bureau of Engraving and Printing Central Correspondence Files, Record Group 318, U. S. National Archives, College Park, MD. Hall, Alvin W., Director, Bureau of Engraving and Printing, Dec 14, 1929, Letter to F. G. Awalt, Deputy Comptroller of the Currency explaining the time it took to produce national currency for new banks or banks ordering currency for the first time: National Bank Currency Order files, Bureau of Engraving and Printing Historical Resource Center, Washington, DC. Pole, John W., Comptroller of the Currency, Feb 23, 1929, Announcement mailed to national banks advising them that the size of national bank notes were going to be reduced accompanied by a signature form to be returned to the Comptroller’s office wherein the president and cashier were to sign three times in the boxes pro- vided: Bureau of the Public Debt, Series K Currency, Record Group 53, U. S. National Archives, College Park, MD, 2 p.  Paper Money • January/February 2014 • Whole No. 289 33 SPMC NEW MEMBERS 10/05/2013 - 14102 - 14117 14102 Ellen May (C), Website 14103 George Wood (C), Website 14104 Kurt Altman, 201 Quail Forest Blvd Unit 302, Naples, FL 34105 (C, High-grade US Large), Website 14105 Jim Ewalt (C), Website 14106 James Kamme (C), Website 14107 Walt Trial (C), Jason Bradford 14108 Ryan Case, 4474 Weston Road 153, Davie, FL 33330 (C & D), Website 14109 Phil DeLeo (C), Jason Bradford 14110 Larry Brim (C), Website 14111 James M. Floyd L.L.M. (D), Jason Bradford 14112 Aaron Ratkovich, 830 W NW Hwy Suite 8, Palatine, IL 60067 (C & D, US Large & Small), Website 14113 Joey Nichols (C), Jason Bradford 14114 Jerry Stetz (C), Website 14115 Nick Motto (C & D), Bank Note Reporter 14116 John Stratton (C), Website 14117 Dave Clause (C), Website REINSTATEMENTS 13872 Mark Frede (C), Website LIFE MEMBERSHIP LM412 Mike Quinn (C & D), converted from 13900 SPMC NEW MEMBERS 11/05/2013 - 14118 - 14132 14118 Terry Brennan (C), Website 14119 Loc Bui (C), Jason Bradford 14120 Thomas Schmidt (C, US Large, Small, Nationals, Ephemera and World), Jason Bradford 14121 John Capell (C), Website 14122 Robert Sanson (C), Website 14123 Rod Vlastelica (C), Scott Lindquist 14124 David Fish, 14609 Euclid, Allen Park, MI 48101 (C, US Large & Small Type, Stars), Scott Lindquist 14125 Arthur Fundeklian (C), Jason Bradford 14126 Jeff Carter (C), Bank Note Reporter 14127 Steven G. Pearson (C), Benny Bolin 14128 Richard Keaton, 4061 Baronne Way, Memphis, TN 38117 (C, US Large & Small, Nationals), Website 14129 Chris Marsh, 1604 West Franklin Ave, Indianola, IA 50125 (C, US Large & Small), Frank Clark 14130 Charles E. Doyle, 7705 Hillside Drive, LaJolla, CA 92037 (C), Website  NEW MEMBERS Membership Director Frank Clark P.O. Box 117060 Carrollton, TX 75011 Fred, I have a lottery ticket (shown) from the Kansas State Lottery Co. dated 1894. I know this is the year the lotteries were abolished, and I know Louisiana had a ticket that was very similar, but this is for Kansas. I found an article in The Go o d land (KS) Repub li c , dated October 5, 1894, in which alleged fraudulent practices were leveled against the former lottery officials. Does any Pap er Money reader know more about these Kansas lottery tickets such as mine, including how much one may be worth now to a col- lector? I’d appreciate it if they would con- tact you with this information and you would forward that to me. Thanks, Rick Osterholt  Collector wants to know about KS lottery ticket Paper Money • January/February 2014 • Whole No. 28934 IT IS A WELL KNOWN STORY TO COLLECTORS OF CONFEDERATEcurrency that the Confederate States of America Criswell types 23 and 32 noteswere produced from altered printing plates supplied by the Mechanics SavingsBank of Savannah Georgia. The original $10 and $5 Mechanics Savings Bank notes were issued in the mid- to late-1850s. The Confederate States of America Criswell types 23 and 32 notes are identical in layout and vignettes to the Mechanics Savings Bank of Savannah notes. With the addition of new orange over- prints, new issue date and Confederate specific language the design was complete. As the Confederacy churned through thirty seven currency types in its first year of existence, currency note quality sometimes took a back seat to volume. In contrast, the type 23 and 32 currency notes were of high quality with excellent vignettes on high quality paper. Leggett, Keatinge, and Ball certainly had the exper- tise to produce a high quality product. However, it was much simpler and faster to recycle old note designs than to produce custom layouts and vignettes. Virtually every 1861 Confederate States of America currency note used vignettes that had been previously used on obsolete currency of the 1840s and 1850s. Custom notes took time and time was [and still is] money. The Confederate types 23 and 32 notes vividly illustrate this. The purpose of this article is to describe and list the use of the T23 and T32 vignettes on obsolete currency. The Confederate type 23 note utilized vignettes that had previously been used on multiple obsolete bank notes from the North and South in the 1850s. The Confederate type 23 note features a central vignette of a wagon of cotton pulled by a pair of horses with a background silhouette of buildings and a church steeple. This vignette was rarely used on other obsolete bank notes with only three notes including the Mechanics Savings Bank note known to the author. All of the known notes were from Southern issuers. On the left side of the note is an engraved por- trait of John Elliott Ward, a former Mayor of Savannah from 1853-54 and a diplo- mat who served as minister to China from 1858-60. This vignette was a custom cre- ation for the Mechanics Savings Bank of Savannah and is not seen on any other obsolete bank note. The vignette adorning the right lower corner of the note is titled Corn Gatherers. The South was primarily an agrarian society and vignettes relating to agriculture were common on Southern obsolete currency. This particular agricultural vignette is relatively common on previous obsolete bank notes with approximately 15 notes known from the North and South from the 1850s. The majority of the notes were from Northern issuers. A very inconspicuous and well hidden vignette of ducks is placed at the lower center of the note. This is a very commonly used vignette on obsolete notes with nearly 30 previous notes using this Obsolete Bank Notes with Vignettes used on Confederate States of America Type 23 and Type 32 Currency Notes By Joseph J. Gaines Jr. Paper Money • January/February 2014 • Whole No. 289 35 WANT ADS WORK FOR YOU We could all use a few extra bucks. Money Mart ads can help you sell duplicates, advertise wants, increase your collection, and have more fun with your hobby. 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Bart Bart, Inc. website: (586) 979-3400 PO Box 2 • Roseville, MI 48066 e-mail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`IW[VVK& ! !"#$%&''#()&*+,+$-"&.$ 7NOOPE7Q&R&S@SPO&7DTTP74.UTP>&R&7D.E>& D74DUPO&KK&W&KYB&IJKY& !PUON@OQ&KL&W&K_B&IJKL& 4+#&T,2#1,5$&7#5-#"& XJK&Z#)-&T(9#&>-"##-B&T,2#1,5$B&!T&YY[KV& Z#<&>(-#\&***%*(6%8/9;8/(5)+/*);8/11#8-/",9,& P$&]0)^9,"&R&V_KWY`IW[VVK& ! "#$%!&'!$%!($))!*+!,-.!/)-.$'&!01..+234!&2'!0-$2%!&2'!5!(-1)'!)$6+!7-!.12!7#&7!,-.!&))!%$8!&'%!,-.!9:;<=! /012345$%62278%9$584$%138-$ KLK&E%&Z%&IJ4'&>-"##-&R&>0(-#&UWYB&U/8,&O,-/5B&!T&YYLYK& 7:)+;'<:"#=$<>$?&(+$2+)&>@$/'&*<=+$:<>(#$ABCC$ a.>.4&DNO&EPZ&ZPU&>.4P& Z#&<0C&,5$&)#11&9,5C&$(33#"#5-&,5$&050)0,1& &N%&>%&70""#58C&(-#9)&,5$&E#,-&S,A#"&@9#"(8,5,%& D#$=&$>&)$;EF$&*$:#''$)"<*=$G+*)F$H*+=#=$%E**#>(FI$ !/"&9/"#&(53/"9,-(/5&8,11&P$&]0)^9,"&R&V_KWY`IW[VVK& & S1#,)# ,(1&9#&,5$&1#-&9#&25/*&(3&-+()&,11&*(11&*/"2%&&.&*(11&<#&<,82&(5&-+#&)+/A&/5&40#)$,CB&,5$&*(11&)#5$&C/0& -*/&8+#82)&3/"&bIIV%&&D5#&3"/9&7/11#8-/",9,B&,5$&-+#&/-+#"&3"/9&!1/"($,&70""#58C&,5$&7/(5)%&&4+,52)%& P$&]0)^9,"! FLORIDA CURRENCY AND COINS 2290 NW Boca Raton Blvd. Suite 9 Boca Raton, FL 33429 Mail: PO Box 294049, Boca Raton, FL 33429 VISIT OUR NEW WEB SITE We buy and sell many different and unusual U.S. Currency items and Neat Paper Americana. We do not buy or sell third party graded Currency. For more information call Ed Kuszmar – 561-392-8551 Paper Money • January/February 2014 • Whole No. 28936 Figure 1. $10 Confederate States of America Type 23 note. Figure 2. $10 Mechanics Savings Bank of Savannah Haxby GA305-G8a; L-John E. Ward, C Top-Wagon of Cotton, C Lower-Ducks, R-Corn Gatherers. vignette, most of which are from Northern issuers. The Confederate States of America type 32 note, known as the “Blacksmith” note had two vignettes. The primary vignette is that of a blacksmith holding a hammer and leaning on an anvil. He rests atop a train axel with the back- ground having a train and factory belching smoke. An abbreviated version of this vignette was also used showing only the blacksmith without the background. This is a vignette that is relatively common with 15 previous obsolete notes having this vignette. Most obsolete notes with this vignette are from banks of the industrial North. In addition to using the full blacksmith vignette on the $5 note, the Mechanics Savings Bank of Savannah also used the blacksmith vignette in abbreviat- ed form on its $1 note. In the left lower corner of the note is an engraved portrait of an unknown young boy. This was a common vignette on obsolete bank notes and was used on at least 20 obsolete bank notes from the 1850s with most emanating from Northern banks. The Confederate States of America Types 23 and 32 notes are the best examples of the Confederacy borrowing from previous bank notes to speed up pro- duction. These are the only examples where essentially the entire note design was borrowed and adapted by the Confederacy. Collecting obsolete bank notes with the same vignettes used on Confederate currency is an interesting way to collect obsolete bank notes and makes for a good companion collection to a collection of Confederate currency. The vignettes were previously used on many obsolete bank notes and the notes known to the author are listed below. If readers are aware of additional obsolete bank notes with these vignettes they can contact the author at Paper Money • January/February 2014 • Whole No. 289 37 Figure 3. $1 Central Bank of Alabama Haxby AL65-G4; C-Wagon of Cotton. Figure 4. $2 Bank of Athens Haxby GA5-G4a; C-Wagon of Cotton Lower C-Ducks. Figure 5. $10 Farmers and Drovers Bank of Waynesburg Haxby PA695-G20a; C-Corn Gatherers. Paper Money • January/February 2014 • Whole No. 28938 Figure 6. $1 The Farmers Bank Haxby VT165-G10a; R-Corn Gatherers. Figure 7. $2 La Grange Bank Haxby IN345-G4a; C-Corn Gatherers. Figure 8. $10 Southern Bank of Kentucky Haxby KY285-Design10Ba; Lower C-Ducks. Florida Paper Money Ron Benice “I collect all kinds of Florida paper money” 4452 Deer Trail Blvd. Sarasota, FL 34238 941 927 8765 Books available,,, Paper Money • January/February 2014 • Whole No. 289 39 MYLAR D® CURRENCY HOLDERS PRICED AS FOLLOWS BANK NOTE AND CHECK HOLDERS SIZE INCHES 50 100 500 1000 Fractional 4-3/4" x 2-1/4" $21.60 $38.70 $171.00 $302.00 Colonial 5-1/2" x 3-1/16" $22.60 $41.00 $190.00 $342.00 Small Currency 6-5/8" x 2-7/8" $22.75 $42.50 $190.00 $360.00 Large Currency 7-7/8" x 3-1/2" $26.75 $48.00 $226.00 $410.00 Auction 9 x 3-3/4" $26.75 $48.00 $226.00 $410.00 Foreign Currency 8 x 5 $32.00 $58.00 $265.00 $465.00 Checks 9-5/8 x 4-1/4" $32.00 $58.00 $265.00 $465.00 SHEET HOLDERS SIZE INCHES 10 50 100 250 Obsolete Sheet End Open 8-3/4" x 14-1/2" $20.00 $88.00 $154.00 $358.00 National Sheet Side Open 8-1/2" x 17-1/2" $21.00 $93.00 $165.00 $380.00 Stock Certificate End Open 9-1/2" x 12-1/2" $19.00 $83.00 $150.00 $345.00 Map & Bond Size End Open 18" x 24" $82.00 $365.00 $665.00 $1530.00 You may assort note holders for best price (min. 50 pcs. one size). You may assort sheet holders for best price (min. 10 pcs. one size). SHIPPING IN THE U.S. (PARCEL POST) FREE OF CHARGE Mylar D® is a Registered Trademark of the Dupont Corporation. This also applies to uncoated archival quality Mylar® Type D by the Dupont Corp. or the equivalent material by ICI Industries Corp. Melinex Type 516. DENLY’S OF BOSTON P.O. Box 51010, Boston, MA 02205 • 617-482-8477 ORDERS ONLY: 800-HI-DENLY • FAX 617-357-8163 See Paper Money for Collectors Harlan J. Berk, Ltd. “The Art & Science of Numismatics” 31 N. Clark Street Chicago, IL 60602 312/609-0016 • Fax 312/609-1305 e-mail: A Full-Service Numismatic Firm Your Headquarters for All Your Collecting Needs PNG • IAPN • ANA • ANS • NLG • SPMC • PCDA WANTED: New Advertisers The quality of our SPMC Journal and information available to YOU depends on the quality and quantity of our ADVERTISERS It’s a fact: advertising plays an important role in funding this high quality magazine Dues only cover part of costs Our advertisers do more than sell you notes; They bring you our magazine -- So pay them HIGGINS MUSEUM 1507 Sanborn Ave. • Box 258 Okoboji, IA 51355 (712) 332-5859 email: Open: Tuesday-Sunday 11 to 5:30 Open from Memorial Day thru Labor Day History of National Banking & Bank Notes Turn of the Century Iowa Postcards Paper Money • January/February 2014 • Whole No. 28940 Figure 9. $2 Rockville Bank Haxby CT385-G4; Lower C-Ducks. Figure 10. $5 Confederate States of America Type 32 note. Figure 11. $5 Mechanics Savings Bank of Savannah Haxby GA305-G6a; L- Boy, R-Blacksmith. Paper Money • January/February 2014 • Whole No. 289 41 Figure 12. $10 The Union Bank Haxby NJ110-G48a; C-Blacksmith. Figure 13. $50 Bank of Yanceyville Haxby NC105-G12; L-Blacksmith. Figure 14. $1 Mechanics Savings Bank of Savannah Haxby GA305-G2a; R- abbreviated Blacksmith. Paper Money • January/February 2014 • Whole No. 28942 Figure 15. $5 Farmers Bank of Missouri Haxby MO15-Design 5Aa; L-Boy. Figure 16. $5 Southern Bank of Kentucky Haxby KY285 Design 5Ba; L-Boy. Figure 17. $5 The Bank of Kent Haxby NY1285-G6a; Upper L-Boy. Paper Money • January/February 2014 • Whole No. 289 43 Type Vignette Value Reference Bank T23 Entire Note $10 Haxby GA310-G8a Mechanics Savings Bank of Savannah Savannah 1850s T23 Wagon of cotton $1 Haxby AL65-G4, G4a Central Bank of Alabama Montgomery 1850s T23 Wagon of cotton $2 Haxby GA5-G4a,G4b Bank of Athens Athens 1850s T23 Corn Gatherers $1 Haxby NY1285-G2a,G2c Bank of Kent Ludingtonville 1850s T23 Corn Gatherers $1 Haxby NY315-G2a,G2b Central Bank of Brooklyn Brooklyn 1850s T23 Corn Gatherers $10 Haxby PA695-G20a Farmers and Drovers Bank of Waynesburg Waynesburg 1850-60s T23 Corn Gatherers $50 Haxby NY865-G14a Farmers Bank of Washington County Ft. Edward 1850s T23 Corn Gatherers $20 Haxby-UNL Georgia Savings Bank Savannah 1860's T23 Corn Gatherers $2 Haxby IN345-G4a,G4b La Grange Bank Lima 1850s T23 Corn Gatherers $20 Haxby NJ305-G12b Millville Bank Millville 1850s T23 Corn Gatherers $5 Haxby TN220-G6,G6a Shelbyville Bank of Tennessee Shelbyville 1850s T23 Corn Gatherers $10 Haxby MA815-G10a Spicket Falls Bank Methuen 1853 T23 Corn Gatherers $1 Haxby VT165-G10a The Farmers Bank Orwell 1850s T23 Corn Gatherers $1 Haxby NY525-G2a,G2b Spraker Bank Canajoharie 1850s T23 Corn Gatherers $5 Jones TA05-37 Corporation of Alexandria Alexandria 1850;s T23 Corn Gatherers $20 Haxby NJ60-12a Farmers and Mechanics Bank Camden 1850s T23 Ducks $5 Haxby TN15-Design 5Aa,5Ab Bank of America Clarksville 1850s T23 Ducks $20 Haxby TN15-Design 20Aa Bank of America Clarksville 1850s T23 Ducks $10 Haxby GA5-G8a,G8b Bank of Athens Athens 1850s T23 Ducks $10 Haxby GA105-G40a,G40b Bank of Columbus Columbus 1850s T23 Ducks $20 Haxby GA105-G50a,G50b Bank of Columbus Columbus 1850s T23 Ducks $3 Haxby ME180-G8,G8c Bank of Commerce Belfast 1850s T23 Ducks $10 Haxby NY1030-G8 Bank of Hornellsville Hornellsville 1850s T23 Ducks $20 Haxby TN40-G6,G6a Bank of Jefferson Dandridge 1850s T23 Ducks $10 Haxby TN65-G10,G10a Bank of Knoxville Knoxville 1850s T23 Ducks $2 Haxby ME146-G4a Bath Bank Bath 1850s T23 Ducks $3 Haxby NJ60-G6a,G6b,G6c Farmers and Mechanics Bank Camden 1850s T23 Ducks $10 Haxby MO15-Design 10Aa Farmers Bank Lexington 1850s T23 Ducks $5 Haxby CT465-G8 Hurlbut Bank Westport 1850s T23 Ducks $5 Haxby PA240-G4a,G4b Lewisburg Bank Lewisburg 1850s T23 Ducks $100 Haxby GA315-G16a,G16b Merchants and Planters Bank Savannah 1850s T23 Ducks $50 Haxby GA315-G14a,G14b Merchants and Planters Bank Savannah 1850s T23 Ducks $10 Haxby NJ305-G10b Millville Bank Millville 1850s T23 Ducks $2 Haxby NJ305-G4b Millville Bank Millville 1850s T23 Ducks $5 Haxby NY1805-G6,G6b New York County Bank New York 1850s T23 Ducks $2 Haxby CT385-G4 Rockville Bank Rockville 1850s T23 Ducks $10 Haxby KY285-Design 10Ba,10Bb Southern Bank of Kentucky Russelville 1850s T23 Ducks $20 Haxby GA50-G10a,G10b,G10c The City Bank Augusta 1850s T23 Ducks $2 Haxby PA640-G4a Tioga County Bank Tioga 1850s T23 Ducks $5 Haxby PA640-G6a Tioga County Bank Tioga 1850s T23 Ducks $20 Haxby PA640-G10 Tioga County Bank Tioga 1850s T23 Ducks $1 Haxby GA250-G2a,G2b,G2c Bank of the Empire State Rome 1850s T23 Ducks $5 Haxby GA250-G6a,G6b,G6c Bank of the Empire State Rome 1850s T23 Ducks $20 Haxby GA250-G10a,G10b,G10c Bank of the Empire State Rome 1850s T32 Entire Note $5 Haxby GA310-G6a Mechanics Savings Bank of Savannah Savannah 1850s T32 Blacksmith $1 Haxby GA310-G2a Mechanics Savings Bank of Savannah Savannah 1850s T32 Blacksmith $1 Haxby MA735-G4a Appleton Bank Lowell May 1, 1862 T32 Blacksmith $50 Haxby NC105-G12 Bank of Yanceyville Yanceyville 1850s T32 Blacksmith $5 Haxby NC105-G6 Bank of Yanceyville Yanceyville 1850s T32 Blacksmith 25c Sheehen 820 City of Charleston Charleston Jan 1 1867 T32 Blacksmith $3 Haxby NJ105-G6a-d Farmers Bank of Wantage Deckertown 1850s Paper Money • January/February 2014 • Whole No. 28944 Type Vignette Value Reference Bank T32 Blacksmith $2 Haxby CT10-G6,G6c Hatters Bank Bethel 1850s T32 Blacksmith $1 Haxby NY2230-G2a,G2c,G2d Iron Bank of Plattsburgh Plattsburgh 1860's T32 Blacksmith $1 Haxby NJ40-G2a,G2b Merchants Bank Bridgeton 1850s T32 Blacksmith $20 Haxby TN25-G16,G16a Ocoee Bank Cleveland 1850s T32 Blacksmith $20 Haxby PA560-G12,G12a Pittston Bank Pittston 1850s T32 Blacksmith $2 Haxby NJ505-G4,G4a Delaware and Hudson Bank Toms River May 1, 1851 T32 Blacksmith $5 Haxby NJ150-G8,G8a Farmers Bank of Freehold Freehold 1850s T32 Blacksmith $10 Haxby NJ110-G48,G48a,G48c Union Bank Dover 1850s T32 Boy $20 Haxby PA635-G10a Anthracite Bank of Tamaqua Tamaqua 1850s T32 Boy $1 Haxby GA105-G10a,G10b,G10c Bank of Columbus Columbus 1850s T32 Boy $10 Haxby TN40-G4,G4a Bank of Jefferson Dandridge 1850s T32 Boy $5 Haxby NY1285-G6a,G6c The Bank of Kent Ludingtonville 1850s T32 Boy $1 Haxby ME235-G2a,G2b Bucksport Bank Bucksport 1850s T32 Boy $1 Oakes 36-1 City of Des Moines Des Moines 1850s T32 Boy $10 Haxby MA500-G10a Conway Bank Conway 1850s T32 Boy $3 Haxby VT80-12a Danby Bank Danby 1850s T32 Boy $5 Haxby MO15-Design 5Aa Farmers Bank of Missouri Lexington 1850s T32 Boy $5 Haxby NY865-G8a Farmers Bank of Washington County Ft. Edward 1850s T32 Boy $2 Haxby NJ155-G4,G4a,G4b Freehold Banking Company Freehold 1850s T32 Boy $10 Haxby NJ185-G10 Hackettstown Bank Hackettstown 1850s T32 Boy $3 Haxby MA690-G6 Holliston Bank Holliston 1850s T32 Boy $5 Haxby KY285-Design 5B, 5Ba Southern Bank of Kentucky Russelville 1850s T32 Boy $2 Haxby IL550-G4a,G4b Citizens Bank Mt. Carmel 1850s T32 Boy $3 Haxby NJ305-G6b Millville Bank Millville 1850s T32 Boy $2 Haxby MN205-G6,G6a Winona County Bank Winona 1858 T32 Boy $10 Haxby ME146-G10 Bath Bank Bath 1850s T32 Boy $50 Haxby PA205-G90 Farmers Bank of Lancaster Lancaster 1850s  Member # First Name Last Name PMLM0173  M. Andersen PMLM0302  Arthur E. Atwood PMLM0060  James J. Boyer PMLM0202  Patrick Cyrgalis PMLM0083  Warde H. Dixon PMLM0112  Jeffrey L. Goodall PMLM0110  Quintin H. Hartt PMLM0322  Kristopher K. Hill PMLM0218  Judith Kagin PMLM0180  Charles E. Kirtley PMLM0309  John B. Lagos PMLM0152  Eric Moore PMLM0119  Dan Pavsner PMLM0057  Samuel R. Roakes Jr. PMLM0155  Anthony W. Schmidt PMLM0382  James Sgro PMLM0075  James Sorn PMLM0130  Gil P. Stern PMLM0092  B. M. Stuart M. D. PMLM0209  Ronald D. Van PMLM0150  Bob Waszilycsak PMLM0303  Merrill V. Younkin  Please check out this list and help the Society reconnect with these Life Members. Please provide a mailing address or email address for any that you know to SPMC Secretary Benny Bolin at Paper Money • January/February 2014 • Whole No. 289 45 KEARNY, NEW JERSEY, HOSTED THREE NATIONAL BANKS DURINGthe note-issuing period, the first of which, charter #8627 started life asThe First National Bank of Arlington and became The First NationalBank and Trust Company of Kearny May 5, 1924. But it never left Kearny! How could that be? Charter #9661, The First National Bank of East Newark, was renamed The Kearny National Bank on March 1, 1924. The East Newark bank, which originally was on the west side of Kearny Avenue, moved several blocks up the street and to the other side, thereby ending up in Kearny. It left one of the smallest townships in New Jersey, the origin of which owed itself to a revolt by its citizens who seceded from Kearny in 1895. Hey, there’s gotta be more to these stories! And besides, pairing the notes with the different titles creates very interesting sets. Let’s start with The First National Bank of Arlington. The First National Bank of Arlington Kearny is a sprawling town in northern New Jersey just northeast of Newark bounded by the Passaic River on the west and Hackensack River on the east. The eastern 2/3rds of the town is comprised of the New Jersey meadowlands, a broad tidal estuary, which is a major wildlife refuge and disposal ground for mob hits that is crisscrossed by just about every major highway and rail arterial feeding from that part of New Jersey to New York City. The western side of town is a slightly elevated north-south ridge that sup- ports a dense suburban population where the principal thoroughfare is Kearny Avenue. Kearny Avenue trends north-northeast and links the towns of North Arlington to the north with Harrison on the south. As Kearny Avenue extends south from Kearny, it makes a gentle bend to the east where it becomes Frank E. Rodgers Boulevard in Harrison. The northeastern corner of the tiny berg of East Newark abuts the west side of the boulevard for half a block here. Ok, the geography is simple. North Arlington lies north of Kearny along The Paper Column by Peter Huntoon & Robert Hearn Kearny, NJ, National Banks Yield Great Tales Paper Money • January/February 2014 • Whole No. 28946 Ridge Road, which is the northward extension of Kearny Avenue. There is no town of Arlington. However, the northern part of Kearny historically was called Arlington. The name derives from the Arlington Homestead Association, which was organized in 1867 to develop the area. The developers named the area the Borough of Arlington after Arlington Heights, VA because of its elevation, which was the highest in Hudson County (Krasner, 2000). The area hosted a post office called the Arlington Post Office, which was and remains the main post office in Kearny. The post office is on Midland Avenue, which crosses Kearny Avenue. Arlington never was formally incorporated, but instead was a district wholly within Kearny. The neighbor- hood lent its name to two Erie Railroad stations, Arlington and West Arlington. Usage of Arlington gradually faded over time. The post office was renamed Kearny at the beginning of 1955. The First National Bank of Arlington was organized in 1907. It occupied a building also on Midland Avenue (Figure 1). The bankers desired that their business be identified with the thriving Arlington district within Kearny, so they simply called their bank The First National Bank of Arlington and listed their postal loca- tion as Arlington (Figure 2). Everything on their application ignored the fact the bank was located in Kearny! This is another of those unusual but not unprecedented cases where the title block on a large National doesn’t contain the name of the town hosting the bank! The bankers moved their bank westward along Midland Avenue to a more central location on the northeast corner of Midland and Kearny avenues in 1910 (Figure 3). The new location was now in the heart of the Arlington district, so they didn’t tinker with the title even though by then the identity of the Arlington district was beginning to fade. In 1924 they took advantage of an amendment to the National Bank Act passed September 26, 1918, that permitted National Banks to assume trust functions Figure 1. This red brick building was occupied by The First National Bank of Arlington, charter #8627, at 187 Midland Avenue. It has been converted into an apartment building with little modification to its exterior. (Postcard photo courtesy of Norman Prestup.) Figure 2. There is no town named Arlington in New Jersey. Instead it is a district within Kearny that hosted the Arlington Post Office, which still serves Kearny. Paper Money • January/February 2014 • Whole No. 289 47 if allowed by state law. That action triggered a title change to The First National Bank and Trust Company of Kearny (Figure 4). Finally notes from the bank showed the actual town that the bank was in for the first time in 17 years! There probably are collectors today who have notes from The First National Bank of Arlington who are fruitlessly looking on maps of New Jersey for a town named Arlington so they can circle it! The First National Bank of East Newark The transformation of The First National Bank of Newark into The Kearny National Bank involved a straightforward move. The neat part of the story is East Newark itself. East Newark is only 1/10th of a square mile in surface area, a mere 64 acres. The northeast corner of the town touches Frank E. Rodgers Boulevard for about half a block. You will recall from the description above that the boulevard is the southern extension of Kearny Avenue where it turns to enter Harrison. Figure 4. The First National Bank of Arlington took on trust powers so when they applied for a title change to acknowledge this new line of busi- ness, they finally displayed Kearny as their town on their notes. Figure 3. The First National Bank of Arlington was moved to this building on the northeast corner of Kearny and Midland avenues in 1910. The people and two cars are cut-outs pasted onto the photo by the photographer reflecting the photoshop technology of that era! The building was subsequently remodeled as shown on Figure 10. (Postcard photo courtesy of Norman Prestup) Paper Money • January/February 2014 • Whole No. 28948 The bank building, shown on Figure 5, was located on the west side of the turn just barely inside East Newark. See Figure 6 for a note issued by this bank. The bankers perfected a move in 1924 to a more favorable location in the heart of Kearny on the northeast corner of Bergen and Kearny avenues (Figure 7). They renamed their bank The Kearny National Bank in the process, and enjoyed a degree of success until the Great Depression rolled over them. What they did was move 6/10ths of a mile north on Kearny Avenue and across the street. That location is now a branch of the Bank of America. The origin of East Newark is the real story here. Back in the spring of 1895 a group of citizens in what was then the First Ward in Kearny led a taxpayer revolt claiming they were under-served by Kearny. Led by a storeowner named John Keenan, they petitioned the Court of Common Pleas of Hudson County in June to authorize a special election to form a new borough government to be known as The Borough of East Newark. Their petition was granted and the election was held in early July in John Keenan’s store. The vote was 276 in favor and 57 against. Figure 5. The First National Bank of East Newark, charter #9661, occupied this building at 710 Frank E. Rodgers Boulevard North, which is the southern extension of Kearny Avenue. (Photo by Robert Kotcher) Figure 6. The First National Bank of East Newark was organized in the breakaway 64-acre pocket of land that seceded from Kearny in 1895. East Newark lies across the Passaic River from Newark. Paper Money • January/February 2014 • Whole No. 289 49 Jubilation prevailed and it is claimed the people took to the streets to celebrate, complete with a brass band. They then formed a new borough government. The tiny borough is bounded by the Passaic River on the west and Frank E. Rodgers Boulevard on the east. The town is a little pocket surrounded by Harrison to the east and south and Kearny to the north. Newark lies across the Passaic River to the west. East Newark by design included within its borders the Clark Thread Company and Mile End Spool and Cotton Company. These two mills encompassed the northwestern quarter of the borough along the Passaic River and provided a tax- able land value of one and a quarter million dollars at the time. The two firms even- tually merged to form the Clark Cotton and Thread Company, which was the largest thread manufacturer in the United States. Although the Clark Company is now long gone, that part of East Newark still serves as an industrial park, which materially supports the town, and helps them stave off annexation. Kearny National Bank The Kearny National Bank was hurt sufficiently by the Great Depression, it had to be liquidated May 19, 1931, and the good assets folded into a new bank. The successor was named Kearny National Bank with charter #13537 (Figure 9). The Comptroller adopted a policy during mid-1917 that precluded new banks from using names that had previously been used by defunct banks. Slightly Figure 7. The officers of the First National Bank of East Newark, charter #9661, moved their bank six blocks up Kearny Avenue to this building on the northeast corner of Kearny and Bergen avenues in Kearny, and renamed their bank The Kearny National Bank. (Postcard photo courtesy of Norman Prestup) Figure 8. The officers of the First National Bank of East Newark moved their bank up Kearny Avenue thus placing it squarely in Kearny. They renamed the bank The Kearny National Bank. Paper Money • January/February 2014 • Whole No. 28950 tweaking the title was acceptable, such as omitting The and/or changing the preposition of to in or at. The Kearny bankers dropped the word “The” from their former name to comply. Look a Little Deeper Don’t just hoard your National Bank Notes. Take a little time to learn something about them. Bob Hearn of New Jersey did just that with these Kearny banks, and look at the interesting results. -- Peter Huntoon Sources Krasner, Barbara. Images o f Americ a , Kearny. Charleston, SC: Arcadia Publishing, 2000, 128 p.  Figure 9. The Kearny National Bank was liquidated in 1931 during the depths of the Great Depression and succeeded by a new bank with the same name, except the article “The” had been dropped from the bank name. Figure 10. The First National Bank and Trust Company of Kearny, charter #8627, acquired the former building of First National Bank of East Newark FNB, charter #9661, and used it as a branch. They displayed both the East Newark and their then newly remodeled main office on the northeast corner of Kearny and Midland avenues on this 1950 era matchbook cover. (Photo courtesy of Norman Prestup) Lofthus Paper Money story kicks off local, then national media frenzy Dear Editor: Billy Baeder's #1 1933 SC $10 is getting news. A local Philadelphia TV station did a story where the note was quoted by one of the auction firms as being worth $500,000, so several others (see story at right, © Copyright 2013 Interstate General Media, LLC), FOX, MSN, etc. picked up the story and photos. The original local story cited the Paper Money issue with the story in it. The successors focused on the $500k story line as you might expect. That tale by Lee Lofthus was bound to attract attention. He set a standard for excellence for Paper Money. Unquestionably the best article of the year, and likely one of the best ever. -- Peter Huntoon  Paper Money • January/February 2014 • Whole No. 289 51 DURING THE “WILDCAT BANK” ERA OF THE MID-NINETEENTHCentury in the Nebraska Territory, the City of Omaha joined the free-wheeling monetary times by issuing its own notes. As a result, these notesare often included in discussions of obsolete currency of the Nebraska wildcat bank period. The colorful notes were all in $1, $3 and $5 denominations and are noted for their beautiful vignettes. Today these notes can be found to be readily available (R-1), although higher grades and unsigned notes are a bit harder to find. Issued notes were not redeemed by the city to any extent and dominate the available collector’s market. The notes were issued in 1857 and signed by Jesse Lowe, Mayor, and H.C. Henderson, Recorder. The enjoyment in collecting obsolete paper money has often been pointed out by many others on these pages. Obsoletes were often a canvas for the artist or the medium by which education was conveyed to the masses. City of Omaha notes do not disappoint in this regard. However, their existence as historical documents, the fascinating political story behind their issuance, and details on the personality of Jesse Lowe, Omaha’s first Mayor and principal signor of the notes, provide a signifi- cant added bonus. Historical Background In June of 1853, the Missouri River, constituting Iowa’s western border, marked the edge of the organized States and the beginning of Indian Territory. Council Bluffs, Iowa, recently renamed in 1853 from Kanesville, was a small but bustling city on the eastern bank of the Missouri River. During that month Jesse Lowe and several others had crossed over from Council Bluffs to the Nebraska side and liked what they saw. In anticipation of the land held by the Omaha Tribe becoming a U.S. Territory and the increased western traffic it would generate, Jesse Lowe along with his brother Enos Lowe and others, then formed the Council Bluffs and Nebraska Ferry Company (“Ferry Company”) in July of 1853. Jesse Lowe is often credited with the naming of “Omaha,” the town envisioned to be built on the banks of the Missouri River opposite Council Bluffs. To evidence its claim to the land, the Ferry Company in early 1854 built the first building, known as the “Claim House” (and subsequently grandly named the “St. Nicholas Hotel”, a 16x16 foot log cabin), on the site of the future Omaha. As anticipated, the U.S. Congress in May of 1854 designated Nebraska as an organized territory. On June 24, 1854, President Pierce announced the ratification of the treaty which had been reached with the Omaha chiefs several months earlier. This finally opened up the Nebraska Territory for settlement and the Ferry Company wasted no time in completing a survey to stake its claim. The company staked out over 2500 lots to comprise over 320 “city” blocks. Part of the survey included a tract Nebraska Territory 1857 City of Omaham Notes By Marv Wurzer Paper Money • January/February 2014 • Whole No. 28952 known at that time as “Scrip Town.” Omaha town lots were traded at a rapid pace in the first few years and became a medium of exchange. But the Scrip Town lots were said to have a special pur- pose. During the intense fight to have Omaha initially named the territorial capitol, many of the Scrip Town lots were said to have been used to “entice” legislators to vote Omaha’s way. Therein lay the seeds for future contentious legislative battles and, more importantly for our discussion, issuance of the 1857 City of Omaha notes. On February 2, 1857, “The City of Omaha” (effectively chang- ing its name from “Omaha City”) was formed by legislation passed in the Third Session of the Nebraska Territorial Legislature. Early in the following month Jesse Lowe was elected the city’s first Mayor. (Wm. W. Wyman, the father of A.U. Wyman, who was later to become U.S. Secretary of the Treasury, was named a city councilman.) Lowe served in that capacity from March 5th of 1857 through March 2nd of 1858. Lowe was a larger than life character, both literally and figu- ratively. He was a tall man of six and a half feet, an Indian trader, banker, and real estate man. Lowe was “universally respected, an excellent financier, shrewd in judgment, possessing noble principles to guide him.”2 He was secretary of the Omaha City Company, a company formed to work with the Ferry Company in promoting Omaha, and was elected a County Commissioner by the First Territorial Legislature. He constructed the first bank building in Omaha in 1855. The building was occupied by the first “bank” autho- rized by the Territorial Legislature, the Western Exchange Fire and Marine Insurance Company of Omaha (the Territory’s first “wildcat” bank). The tenancy was short lived. The bank closed its doors during the heart of the financial Panic of 1857. Lowe’s involvement in real estate and Omaha took many forms. Although the U.S. government survey was completed in 1856, the land claims office was not open for the Territory until March of 1857. Until that time, territorial land was claimed by living on it. Disputes naturally arose as to boundary issues or the timing of the claims. Since no person had legal title to the land held by the U.S. Government, all claimants were in effect squatters. The protection and enforcement of their mutual squatters’ claims against claim jumpers was left to “The Omaha Township Claim Association,” formed July 22, 1854. Jesse Lowe was a founding Above: Deed from Jesse Lowe, Mayor of the City of Omaha, N.T. to John A. Smith.1 Above: Jessse Lowe signature as Mayor of the City of Omaha. Below: Jesse Lowe Paper Money • January/February 2014 • Whole No. 289 53 member and club membership included most of the city’s male population. For a time, Jesse’s brother, Dr. Enos Lowe (president of the Ferry Company), served as president of the Club. The Ferry Company claimed the most land in the area and thus had a gen- uine interest in the Club. Jesse Lowe was in fact the captain of the Club’s “regulators” (basically a more civilized term for enforcers). The “all for one, one for all” club was known to enforce members’ claims with a heavy hand when necessary, and there was no appeal from its decision. The Club’s enforcement of “squatter law” often was accomplished by giving the offending party thirty minutes to decide whether to give up his claim or “become bait for the fishes.”3 One of the class was tried last evening and this morning, but would not abide by the decision of the club, which was for him to yield his claim and withdraw his filing. The captain of the “regulators” is our Mayor [Lowe], a man six-and-a-half feet high and well proportioned. He took [in April of 1857] the claim jumper by the collar, escorted him down the street, and a dozen or fifteen men with loaded muskets, they started for the “Big Muddy” [Missouri River] … The party returned without the prisoner and no questions asked.4 When the U.S. Claims Office opened on March 17, 1857, Jesse Lowe was the first person in line to record a claim in the Nebraska Territory. He made the first land entry as Mayor on behalf of The City of Omaha, recording the 320 acre town site of the city originally surveyed by the Ferry Company. With the opening of the land office and the protec- tion it afforded land owners by government title, the Omaha Claim Club lost its reason for existence and soon disbanded by 1858. Financing of a Territorial Capital The Nebraska Territory in 1854 stretched from the northern border of the Kansas Territory, north to the Canadian border and then west to the Rocky Mountains, an area five times as large as the current state of Nebraska. Railroads were ready to cross over the Mississippi River and across Iowa. The capitol of the Nebraska Territory would soon be the gateway to the new western lands and Omaha intended to be that gateway. Various factions in the Nebraska Territory were literally fighting over the location of the territorial capitol. The City of Omaha won the first round and construction began on a capital building with $50,000 the U.S. Congress had provided to the Territory. By late 1856, the project was out of money and only partly finished. The “walls of the abortive structure stood piteously incomplete, ruined and stormed on, and rapidly falling into decay. Other towns that wanted the capitol themselves were greatly tickled with the prospect.”5 Pleas to Washington for more money were denied. “We were shamefully cheated out of our appropriation to finish the capitol in Congress.”6 But business interests in Omaha were not about to let the Territorial capitol slip away. A resolution was passed by the city council on May 26, 1857, to instruct the Mayor “to proceed immediately with the construction of the capitol building” with funds to be raised by selling city lands “or by using the credit of the city.” It was fur- ther ordered that the Mayor “procure plates,” have city scrip issued “and to enter into a contract with the different banks for the circulation and redemption of said script.” $50,000 was authorized and a contract was entered into with various local banks, including Western Exchange Fire and Marine Insurance Co., Bank of Nebraska and “An obstinate Irishman ducked (sic) in the river by the Claim Club.” Paper Money • January/February 2014 • Whole No. 28954 Bank of Tekamah. Each agreed to “receive from the Mayor of the City of Omaha, of the script issued by said city, the amount opposite our respective names…”7 These three named banks would go on to join the ranks of the notorious Nebraska wildcat banks, possibly accelerated by the eventual worthlessness of the $5,000 of “script” which each of them had purchased. (In fact, the Bank of Nebraska held “four thousand dollars in worthless script, issued by the city of Omaha” when it closed its doors.8) In September of 1857, the city issued an additional $10,000 of scrip to the Herndon Hotel to enable it to complete its construction of the city’s first real hotel, bringing the outstanding issuance to $60,000. The city scrip passed at par only for a very short time and then quickly dropped in value once it became known that the city was unable to timely or otherwise redeem the notes. Each of the notes issued by the city read “The City of Omaha Will pay ___ Dollar[s] to bearer one year after date with interest at 10 percent per annum.” On December 14, 1857, a resolution was passed directing the City Recorder to notify Westwood, Hay and Whitney to print no more Omaha scrip and calling for a bond election. The city’s first bond election was passed in late December and approved the issuance of $60,000 in bonds to finance the timely redemption of the outstanding notes. However, the bad economic times during the Panic of 1857 and the poor credit rating of the city prevented the bonds from ever being sold. Things were so bad for the city that by June of 1858, while many issues of the wildcat banks of Nebraska were still trading at 50% to 80% of par, City of Omaha notes were not even quoted. The city made several efforts in succeeding years to seek reimbursement from the U.S. govern- ment for the moneys spent on the territorial capitol, but relief was never received and the city redeemed few if any of the notes. However, a minor amount of the notes was accepted by the city for payment of taxes. Each of the notes did provide that “CITY PROPERTY PLEDGED FOR REDEMPTION OF THESE NOTES.” This turned out to be hollow comfort to the holders since there was controversy over what, if anything, the city had legally pledged as security for the notes. Possibly in an attempt to fulfill some of its pledge, an auction of city-owned lots was authorized in which payment of city scrip was accepted at par. Given the city’s economic woes, note holders were anxious to hold city lots rather than the scrip because the lots, although also plummeting in value, were doing so at a slower pace that city scrip. As a result, the astronomical “dollar” sales prices generated by the sale for the City of Omaha lots had nothing to do with true value, but everything to do with total loss of faith in the city’s promise to pay. Needless to say, businesses did not want to hold the city scrip and would rid themselves of it anyway they could. It basically was a game of musical chairs and it usu- ally left the unsuspecting stranger or laborer holding the worthless notes. Bitterness over this lingered. “If you went to the city of Omaha, when you paid your hotel bill, they always gave you change in city scrip…. It was the poor people of this state who built your state house, for they are the men who did the labor for which they received no pay [the worthless notes].”9 After all the effort and struggle to maintain the territorial capital in Omaha Paper Money • January/February 2014 • Whole No. 289 55 “which lasted with great vehemence for more that twelve years, produced more ill- feeling, gave rise to more difficulties, and was more troublesome to manage, than any question ever decided,”10 the city of Lincoln was named the state capitol when Nebraska was admitted into the Union in 1867. The City of Omaha notes of 1857 helped win the Territorial capitol battle for Omaha but, like their ultimate redemp- tive worth, were valueless and possibly detrimental in the war for the State capitol. End Notes 1. Cover reference page of original “lot” deed from “Jesse Lowe, Mayor of the City of Omaha, N.T.,” dated September 7, 1857, and filed of record on December 27, 1858. (This deed was acquired during author’s research.) Signature date is just a few days after that of the $5 note appearing above. 2. Andreas, A.T., History of the State of Nebraska, Chicago: The Western Historical Company, 1882, Section 33. 3. Sorenson, Alfred, History of Omaha from the Pioneer Days to the Present Time, Omaha: 1889, p. 108. 4. Beadle, Erastus, To Nebraska in 1857: A Diary of Erastus F. Beadle, New York: New York Public Library, 1923, Chap. 6. The related drawing is from Sorenson, p. 109. 5. Warner, A.G., “Sketches From Territorial History,” Transactions and Reports, Nebraska State Historical Society, Paper 16, p. 38. 6. Nebraska Times, June 7, 1857. 7. Savage & Bell, History of the City of Omaha, 1894, p. 86. 8. Sorenson, p. 154. 9. Sheldon, Addison, Offic ial Report o f the Debates and Pro ceed ings-Nebraska [1871] Constitutional Convention, Vol. II, 1907, p. 480. This statement was made by Oliver Perry Mason, Chief Justice (1866-1873) of the Nebraska Supreme Court at the 1871 Nebraska State Constitutional Convention. 10. Savage & Bell, p. 53.  Paper Money • January/February 2014 • Whole No. 28956 Many paper money and bond aficionados used to travel to Strasburg, PA once or twice a year for the old R.M. Smyth-led cur- rency, stock and bond shows. These were held at the Historic Strasburg Inn nestled in a beautiful countryside setting in the rolling hills of eastern Pennsylvania. I attended several of the latter versions of this including the last show in the fall of 2004 where I set up with a table. I recall good times visiting with many friends and discussing Confederate bonds, paper money and other items. I met Dr. Douglas Ball at a couple of these before he tragically passed away in 2003. In fact it was at the February 2003 show where I last saw Dr. Ball and he signed my copy of his Confederate bond book. That book still means a lot to me today. I bring up this show because the former owner of R.M. Smythe, John Herzog, and his team have put together a show at the Museum of American Finance on Wall Street in New York City that brings some of the ambience of the old Strasburg shows back. Granted, downtown New York City is not the Pennsylvania coun- tryside and some of the people who used to go to Strasburg have come and gone, but these shows are fun in the Strasburg sense of warmth and education. If you have not been to downtown New York City recently, you’ll be pleasantly surprised. Not just a finan- cial district anymore, the Wall Street area features residential, his- torical, entertainment and great restaurants these days. And unlike the grid layout of midtown, downtown sports the old winding nar- row streets and old buildings that give it a lot of charm. The Wall Street Coin, Currency and Collectible Show ( ) has run three times. I’ve attended all three shows with a table set up. These are small, intimate shows, smaller than the old Strasburg show. However, the venue at the Museum of American Finance ( ) is not only fitting and educational, but a really cool location to dive into financial his- tory! This year there were about 25 dealers including three Society officers set up – Scott Lindquist, Larry Schuffman and myself. Other Society officers present were Mark Anderson and Mike Scacci along with other members. John and team do a great job seeing to attendee and dealers’ needs, making it as easy to attend as possible. Further, there are great evening social events like the annual dinner as well as free visitation to the Museum of American Finance. We had a great time and encourage those who want to dive into American Financial History and experience a fun show and the new downtown New York City to come. These shows have been held in October, a beautiful time to visit the Northeast. Events like this and the people who attend make this hobby great! I am thrilled to announce Shawn Hewitt as Vice President for our Society. Shawn has been a leader in our paper money hobby for quite some time. From his work on Nationals and Minnesota obso- lete currency through his tenure as governor, Shawn has always put the hobby first with top rate contributions, education and dedica- tion. Notably, he was recognized by SPMC in 2012 with the Founders’ Award for outstanding achievement in designing and get- ting the new web site ( ) up and running for the Society. I am also honored to announce the appointment of Jeff Brueggeman and Kathy Lawrence as interim appointees for the two vacant governor slots. They will serve out the remainder of the vacant slot terms and be up for election in 2016. Jeff Brueggeman currently serves as our Librarian managing the books that we offer on loan to members. His collecting specialty is Federal Reserve Bank Notes. In 2010 he started Action Currency, which specializes in sales of large and small size U.S. type. Kathy Lawrence is probably best known for her service as a currency cataloger at Heritage Auctions and working with Tom Denly, a leading paper money dealer. One of her key areas of interest is U.S. Colonial paper money. I look forward to working with both of these fine officers and thank them for their service. We appreciate those who volunteer their time either as governors, take on a special assignment such as librarian, event coordinator, membership recruitment, or as presen- ters either at Society meetings or soon to come, online presentations or webinars. So please jump in! It is fun! I want to thank the Society membership for supporting our dues increase and understanding why. You, the esteemed members of our Society, are what make the SPMC great and will continue to be a great community and education beacon for years to come! We’ve some interesting ideas being presented to the board to do more on the education front and we’ll bring those forward to you as we flesh them out. The International Paper Money Show at Memphis, TN ( ) looms large again in 2014! This year, it will be held from June 12 through June 15 Cook Convention Center in downtown. This is one of the best paper money events of the year with paper money enthusiasts coming from all over the world. I bring up Memphis now in January to encourage people to send in their applications for exhibits and begin to ready one. It can take a few months of time to finalize a major exhibit so it is not too early to start. On the other hand, smaller exhibits, even only in case, can be great too (and don’t wait till the last minute to start even a small exhibit!). As the motto and sundial on Fugio coppers and currency reminds us – time flies – and it does, so start early. I’ve exhibited various collections of Confederate paper money for most of the last eight or nine years and learn something every time by building my exhibit and viewing other exhibits as well. My exhibits have ranged from one to ten cases and I’m glad I’ve done them. This winter, we look forward to being at the Winter FUN in Orlando ( ) where we have a significant SPMC presence and meeting planned. Usually the meeting is on either Friday or Saturday morning at 9 a.m. one hour before the bourse opens – check the calendar to see the final arrangements. This is a fun get together where you can meet fellow paper money collectors and see a great educational session. Winter in Orlando, FL is a great get away from the cold Northeast where I currently reside, or the even colder Midwest and plains states. We hope to see you there! At the end of January is the Long Beach, CA show followed by the CPMX Currency Show in Chicago, and then the Whitman Spring Coin and Currency Convention in March in Baltimore. Check out our online calendar at ( ) for more events this winter to get out visiting friends and fellow enthusiasts. Also, if you have an event to put on the calendar, please submit it. Listings are FREE! Pierre  The President’s Column Paper Money • January/February 2014 • Whole No. 289 57 WANT ADS WORK FOR YOU We could all use a few extra bucks. Money Mart ads can help you sell duplicates, advertise wants, increase your collection, and have more fun with your hobby. Up to 20 words plus your address in SIX BIg ISSUES only $20.50/year!!!! * * Additional charges apply for longer ads; see rates on page above -- Send payment with ad Take it from those who have found the key to “Money Mart success” Put out your want list in “Money Mart” and see what great notes become part of your collecting future, too. (Please Print) ______________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ONLY $20.50 / YEAR ! ! ! (wow) $$ money mart Paper Money will accept classified advertising on a basis of 15¢ per word (minimum charge of $3.75). Commercial word ads are now allowed. Word count: Name and address count as five words. All other words and abbre- viations, figure combinations and initials count as separate words. No checking copies. 10 discount for four or more insertions of the same copy. Authors are also offered a free three-line classified ad in recognition of their contribution to the Society. These ads are denoted by (A) and are run on a space available basis. Special: Three line ad for six issues ‘ only $20.50! Stamford CT Nationals For Sale or Trade. Have some duplicate notes, prefer trade for other Stamford notes, wil l consider cash. (293) WANTED: 1778 NORTH CAROLINA COLONIAL $40. (Free Speech Motto). Kenneth Casebeer, (828) 277-1779; (292) WORLD PAPER MONEY. 2 stamps for new arrival price list. I actively buy and sell. Mention PM receive $3 credit. 661-298-3149. Gary Snover, PO Box 1932, Canyon Country, CA 91386 (288) WRITINg A NUMISMATIC BOOK? I can help you with all facets of bring- ing your manuscript to publication. Proven track record for 40 years. Create a legacy worthy of your efforts. Contact Fred Reed (294) Authors can request a free one-time ad. Contact the Editor (A) WANTED: Notes from the State Bank of Indiana, Bank of the State of Indiana, and related documents, reports, and other items. Write with description (include photocopy if possible) first. Wendell Wolka, PO Box 1211, Greenwood, IN 46142 (294) vermont National Bank Notes for sale. For l ist contact. (294) WANTED: Any type Nationals from Charter #10444 Forestville, NY. Contact with price. Leo Duliba, 469 Willard St., Jamestown, NY 14701- 4129.t (295) FREQUENT PAPER MONEY AUTHOR (Joaquin Gil del Real) Needs a copy of the Mar/Apr 1997 issue of the SPMC journal to complete his col- lection.  You can contact the editor if you can assist in this matter. (A) TRADE MY DUPLICATE, circulated FRN $1 star notes for yours I need. Have many in the low printings. Free list. Ken Kooistra, PO Box 71, Perkiomenville, PA 18074. (288) BUYINg ONLY $1 HAWAII OvERPRINTS. White, no stains, ink, rust or rubber stamping, only EF or AU. Pay Ask. Craig Watanabe. 808-531- 2702. (291) Civil War Stamp Envelopes, the Issuers & Their Times, 672pp, hardcov- er, $89.95 postpaid. Mail checks to Paper Money editor-author Fred Reed. Paper Money • January/February 2014 • Whole No. 28958 After the post-WWII occupations of Germany and Japan had been established, non-military travelers wanted to enter the occupied zones to re-establish commercial ties. In the case of Japan, Christian missionaries also wanted to return to their min- istries. Such visitors to the occupied nations were described generically as "commercial entrants." I am going to discuss the situation in Japan; Fred will cover Germany. During the Allied occupation of Japan, visitors were not allowed to import non-Japanese currency instruments for use in the country. Foreigners who were not members of the occupa- tion forces were allowed to enter Japan starting August 15, 1947, to re-establish trade contacts. Missionaries may have been allowed to enter even earlier. These non-occupation entrants were allowed to use some of the occupation facilities, such as the communications offices, certain trains, and "overseas service stores," which stocked the same kinds of goods that GIs could buy in the post exchange. But the visitors were not allowed to use the occupation cur- rency—Military Payment Certificates. A new dollar-denominat- ed currency was invented for their use, known as "Foreign Trade Special Type Payment Certificates." The words "Special Type" do not appear on the certificates, which have always been known to users and collectors by the main heading in their designs— Foreign Trade Payment Certificate (FTPC). Please turn to page 60 . . . U n c o u p l e d: Paper Money’s Odd Couple Trade Encouragement Issues Joseph E. Boling Fred Schwan As of January 1, 1947, the British and United States occu- pation zones of Germany were joined for economic purposes. After this date, indigenous resources of the areas, including imports and food, were pooled in order to produce a common standard of living. The responsibility for regulating foreign trade was assigned to the Joint Export-Import Agency, and a joint committee was established in Washington, D.C. The agency also issued a type of currency called "travellers’ coupons." The first time that I saw one of these coupons was in Neil Shafer's basement. He showed me his group of coupons–50 pfg, 1 and 5 DM. I was there working on the manuscript for the 1995 World War II Remembered. I was stunned. He had found the group by digging and digging at a coin show. While I was stunned to see the notes, I was not surprised that Neil had found them–he has an eagle eye. I think that I have mentioned this before. Think Neil the Eagle in the tradition of Eddie the Eagle. The coupons had never been listed anywhere so I was quite pleased to list them in Remembered. They were not listed again until Michael Schöne included them in Militär-, Kantinen-und Lagergeld-Ausgaben der Alliierten Seit 1944 in Deutschland. This is a great book, but unfortunately is in German and not widely available in North America (write to me for availability, Of course I was gleeful that we had this great new listing. It was particularly interesting because there was a corresponding issue for occupied Japan–Foreign Trade Payment Certificates. We coined the term “trade encouragement issues” to describe these two issues. (I do not think that anyone has ever used this term other than Joe and me.) The travellers' coupons were for use only in establishments set aside by American and British military government authori- ties to accommodate and feed foreign visitors (such as business- men and tourists) within the American and British zones of occupation. They could also be used to pay for goods and ser- vices in places designated by the military governments. The coupons were printed by Johannes Weisbecker, Frankfurt a/M, in booklet form (an imprint appears on the booklets). The booklet pages were serial-numbered individually, with each coupon on a page having the same number. However, the printing plate for each coupon included a position letter (after the serial number) identifying the position of each piece in Figure 1. Design set 1, less the $5 note. These pieces are from an exploded booklet, with binding stubs still attached. Paper Money • January/February 2014 • Whole No. 289 59 conjunction with the serial number. The mark coupons were numbered individually. Based on the few observed pieces, the booklets were issued in at least two configurations and probably different denominations. It is possible that the large prefix letter indicates the booklet denomination. The reichsmark issues were not discovered until 2005. Guy Araby, Harold Kroll, David Seelye, and Larry Smulczenski were involved in the discovery. Later still (2008) the 10 DM denomi- nation was discovered by Neil and Joel Shafer and Larry Smulczenski. The discovery of the reichsmark issues was a real hoot. A partial booklet was found and purchased in a coin shop. The buyer sold the booklet and the second buyer sold it again, with nobody noticing that the booklet and notes were denominated in reichsmarks when only Deutsche mark coupons were reported. When that little fact was recognized the phone lines buzzed! All pieces have red serial numbers and are printed on water- marked paper. Two different watermarks have been observed. The more easily identifiable watermark is of wavy lines. The other watermark is much more difficult to see. It is of a repeating hexagon with an unidentified symbol enclosed. All denomina- tions are uniface. The issuer of the coupons was the Joint Export-Import Agency (JEIA). This is a lead for research that has not been ade- quately exploited. The JEIA was a major agency in occupied Germany. It regulated financial transactions that required the use of the coupons. Most interestingly, it issued other items of interest to collectors. The most important of these was taxi tickets. Under a plan created by the JEIA, 27 different taxi companies in something like 60 cities provided taxi service. Riders paid for the service by purchasing booklets of tickets! These tickets were also first listed in Remembered . Of course more have been discovered and Schöne lists them too. Schöne, in addition, also lists and illus- trates a fuel coupon for the first time known to me. Finally, Schöne illustrates a sticker for air mail (Luftpost). This is not truly a numismatic item in any clear way, but I like it as part of the history of the JEIA. This is especially true because it is a small printed item that fits easily in a collection. The really interesting part is that I cannot find out why this sticker is con- sidered a JEIA item. I looked on the internet and find substantial support for the idea that the sticker is such an item, but could not find out why. I actually like that! Finally, I want to make a few comments about collecting the trade encouragement issues. I think that they are wonderful on several levels. One of the most important of these is that in my opinion they are still greatly under-appreciated. They are all scarce, perhaps rare. More importantly, some of the issues are extreme rarities. A $5 FTPC is a dream note. Ditto for 10 mark travellers' coupons. Of course it is very hard to find these rarest items, but if you have any interest in this area at all, I suggest that you go after these issues now.  Schwan continued . . . Figure 9. JEIA 50 pfg travellers' coupons - full page with binding stub. Figure 11. JEIA taxi ticket pair with bind- ing stub. Figure 12. JEIA Luftpost sticker. Figure 10. JEIA 5 DM travellers' coupon. Paper Money • January/February 2014 • Whole No. 28960 FTPC users exchanged dollars for FTPCs at major banks and finance offices upon arrival, and sold back their remaining holdings (up to $150) upon depar- ture. In parallel with the rules for users of MPC, users of FTPC could not convert yen upon departure. Few FTPC users wandered far from the major cities, and one former club officer from Fukuoka said that when he first was offered FTPCs by a journalist, he did not recog- nize them. The local finance officer told him that the club could accept them and that the finance office would see that they were accounted for correctly (as MPC, the only dollar instruments that the club normally handled). On July 1, 1950, as the occupation ended, the Japanese government regained control over foreign exchange transactions, and all FTPC-accepting facilities either switched to yen or stopped serving commercial entrants. FTPC were redeemed and quickly dis- appeared. Clearly the com- mercial entrants were not the souvenir-savers that GIs are. I have been keeping a chart of known pieces since 1975, and have recorded barely 125 notes and four booklet covers. No reports have been found regarding how many certificates were issued. Certainly, near the end of their use, many more were needed than were used in 1947. In August 1948 the entry rules were liberalized, and many more traders began to arrive. By 1950 The Far Eastern Economic Review stated that the conversion of all commercial entrant facilities to a yen basis would have a large effect on Japan's foreign exchange balance, since businessmen would begin using their companies' yen earnings to pay for their accommodations instead of buying FTPC with dollars for that purpose. The Review estimated that Japan was earning about $4 mil- lion per month in foreign exchange through sales in FTPC facili- ties. They also stated that there was no way to estimate the total certificates in circulation. Even so, we can say that there was a tremendous quantity in use; it is amazing that so few have sur- vived. FTPC were issued in denominations of 5¢, 10¢, 25¢, 50¢, $1, and $5. They were printed in Japan on locally available unwatermarked paper and were issued in "club chit" format in booklets of $10 and $50 value. The booklets are serially num- bered, with each piece in the book bearing the same number as the cover. The 5¢ and 10¢ chits were printed five to a page, the 25¢ and 50¢ chits four to a page, and the $1 and $5 certificates as full pages. All pieces are uniface. They are printed on white or cream paper, the minors in a single color and the dollar denominations in two colors. The frame color of the two-color certificates is the same as the color of minors in the corresponding booklet. Later issues are on finer paper than earlier issues (whiter and more Boling continued . . . Figure 2. A $5 note of design set 1. Figure 3. The front cover of a design set 1 booklet, issued by the National City Bank of New York, Tokyo, to P.H. Kipp. Anybody know him? Figure 4. The three designs of the 50¢ note. Figure 5. The $5 note from design set 2 (same design used in set 3). Figure 6. The four minor denominations of design set 3. uniform when viewed against a light). The paper of the earlier issues shows many small brown chips when held to a light. Three design sets in many color combinations have been discovered. Color changed every few thousand serials within a design, and could also be repeated. Nothing in the regulations related to FTPCs explains the purpose for the frequent color changes (or, for that matter, why the designs were changed). Serial numbers progressed monotonically through all designs and colors. The first design set used a common design for the minor pieces, and a more elaborate design for the dollar-denominated notes. Design set 2 used new designs for both types of note, but design set 3 used the same designs for dollars as design set 2 had used. A high-value note found without a same-serial minor needs analysis of its paper and its serial number to assign it to the cor- rect design set. The break in serials appears to have been at 100000 for the transition to design set 2, and at 180000 moving into design set 3. The highest number known to me is 582353. Using the FEER numbers cited above, the 400,000 or so booklets of design 3, even if all had been of the $50 denomination, would last only half a year, so the certificates must have been re-issued in some way (or the FEER numbers were exaggerated). There is one anomalous 5¢ group known, in design set 2, with serial number T000697. They appeared as a strip of four several years ago, and are the only pieces known with a block let- ter in the serial. The serial is also in a different font. We have no clue what these are about. Almost every discovery of one of these pieces adds to our knowledge of the series—please make your finds and holdings known. And, no, I have encountered no counterfeits of these issues, either from the 1940s or made today for collectors. Figure 7. The $1 note from design set 3 (same design used in set 2). Figure 8. The weird one. Paper Money • January/February 2014 • Whole No. 289 61 Whitman Publishing has released The Great American West: Pursuing the American Dream, by award-winning histori- an Kenneth W. Rendell. The 224-page hardcover coffee-table book is available online (including at and in bookstores nationwide. Its retail price is $29.95. Rendell, a founding member of the Rittenhouse Society, has a long-standing connection to numismatics. “In the 1950s I traded my collection of English medieval coins to my friend Dave Bowers, for his collection of presiden- tial letters,” Rendell said. “I immediately became enthralled by the feeling of intimacy with history that these letters gave me.” At the time Rendell was a special- ist dealer in American colonial coinage, but this collection took him on a new path. His career since has focused on historical autographs, presidential memorabilia, royalty, militaria, poli- tics, literature, and other collectible areas—including Western Americana. “The American Dream is fundamentally about hope, and historically it was always connected to the West,” says Rendell. “The hope was that a better life awaits your initiative, your per- severance, your cleverness, your hard work. It’s about making your own future.” The Great American West approaches the question, “Is the American Dream still alive?” In its collected narratives a reader can see the dream as it used to be—in early hand-drawn maps and adventure-promising posters, in letters sent home by lone- some gold miners, in newspaper clippings about famous explor- ers and frontier lawmen, in drawings and photographs from the Wild West. “Marveling at this rich and colorful past,” said Whitman publisher Dennis Tucker, “we can see where the American Dream is today.” Rendell’s numismatic background is well represented in the richly illustrated book. Among the treasures pictured and dis- cussed inside: • A receipt and payment order for 100 gold pesos signed by Hernando Cortéz (conqueror of the Aztecs and Mexico), August 18, 1534, in Mexico City, page 1. • Hudson’s Bay Company scrip, good for one pound ster- ling, issued at York Factory on Hudson Bay, 1821, page 43. • An 1825 American Fur Company scrip note “Good to W. McGulpin for baking fifty loaves of bread,” page 46. • An 1858 Kentucky-issued stock certificate, “for coloniz- ing certain land in Texas,” page 93. • Currency and notes signed by Brigham Young and other early Mormon leaders, page 130. • An 1860s receipt form for Ben Holladay’s Overland Stage Line, page 152. • An 1855 stock certificate of the American Express Company, signed by its two founders, Henry Wells and William Fargo, page 155. “This book illustrates daily life of those who have defined America,” wrote Senator Alan Simpson in the “Foreword.”  Boling continued . . .  Book details American West Paper Money • January/February 2014 • Whole No. 28962 Card shows unused design A rare, unissued 1897 design, or essai, was the subject for a Bureau of Engraving and Printing (BEP) souvenir card that was issued in 1990 for the Florida United Numismatists (FUN) Show. Until this engraved design was made available, I had seen only one example in addition to the specimen at the BEP. This was traced to owner, the late Thomas F. Morris, II, the son of the artist and designer Thomas F. Morris, who designed the back and made some alterations to the original issued version of this note dated 1896. The face design of the $5 Silver Certificate on the souvenir card at first appears to be the same as the one dated and issued in 1896. Under closer scrutiny, however, you will find other changes in addition to the new date. Contemporary artists praised the design work of muralists Will H. Low, Edwin H. Blashfield and Walter Shirlaw, who had been commissioned to design the $1, $2 and $5 notes rrespectively. Most modern collectors con- sider these three bank notes to be among the most artistic of all United States paper money. The $5 Silver Certificate entered circulation in August 1896. By early 1897 the U.S. Treasury Department had received complaints about each denomination---primarily from bankers. The Washington Times printed the follow- ing on May 1, 1897: The Bureau of Engraving and Printing is engaged in making plates for the five and two dollar bills of the last series. These bills when printed were too dark and the number denominations too indis- tinct for rapid use at the banks, and the Treasury received many complaints concerning them. To rem- edy this evil, new plates are being made, which will make the bills much lighter in color, and the figures in the corner of the bill will be plain and distinct. During the week of May 4, The New York Times erroneous- ly reported that Secretary of the Treasury Lyman J. Gage was recalling the three denominations. Although the 1897 $5 note, as seen on the souvenir card is an incomplete design, one can see there was an attempt to make the numeral “5" in the upper corners less “creative.” In addi- tion, more “white space” was added to the background; this also was done on the unissued $1 and $2 notes dated 1897. (These two denominations and altered essais also appear on souvenir cards.) The diary of engraver G.F.C. Smillie records alterations done by him on April 16, 1897. Design elements were deleted or generally simplified. However, something was added to the central figure, Electricity Presenting Light to the World. By comparing the figures of Fame (with her trumpet), and Electricity, the central figure, with those on the 1896 note, you will notice that both figures gar- ments resembling a negligeé have been added. Most often these clothing alterations are linked, corretly or not, with Anthony Comstock. He generally is considered to be the forerunner of those among us who think (believe it or not) that some animals, out of decency, should be clothed. Comstock, who served as Secretary of the New York Society for the Suppression of Vice at the turn of the century, was a cru- sader who led protests against publishers and sellers of books and pictures that he and his followers considered immoral. He condoned book burning and just about anything else that would protect the public morals from being corrupted. When I lived in New York City I decided to investigate the premise that Mr. Comstock had indeed pressured the U.S. Treasury Department to clothe the two figures on the 1896 $5 Silver Certificate. At the main branch of the New York Public Library I found and read the published minutes for the Society for 1896 and 1897---I found nothing. Nor could I find any cor- respondence from Mr. Comstock or the Society in Treasury Department records at the National Archives. The only reference was from a young lady who wrote to the Treasury Department to say that she and her friends thought the “indelicate” figures on the $5 bill were “a distinct insult to our sex.” That one letter was not what prompted the Treasury Department to order the BEP to alter this beautiful design. There is no paper trail that would link Anthony Comstock and his Society to this subject. Nevertheless, he continues to be considered the culprit who created enough concern to have the design altered. After revisions were made, on August 15, 1897, The New York Times reported that the entire 1897 series was “doomed to be retired before it [was] fully completed. The whole series has proved unsuccessful from the point view of han- dlers of money. The first objection to them was that they were new [in design].” Change is difficult for some to accept. Souvenir cards of the original designs and the altered versions of the $1, $2 and especially the $5 notes make interesting additions to a collection. Reprinted with permission from The Numismatist,December 1996  A Pr imer for Col lectors BY GENE HESSLER THE BUCK Starts Here (Image courtesy Rick Reed, Paper Money • January/February 2014 • Whole No. 28964 At the speaker's presentation in Memphis last year I dis- cussed the recently-discovered late finished $5 Series of 1928B face plate 147. I had discovered the plate serendipitously almost two years ago while searching through various $5 Legal Tender plate ledger files. Here’s the story. While browsing plate records for the 1928B faces, I noticed that plates 131 to 156 (all listed on the same page) were certified in 1935-36, except for one. That was plate 147, which was certi- fied in 1943! I likely never would have noticed it had the BEP’s plate handlers not started using date stamps with larger fonts early in 1940. The jumbo stamped certification date for 147 stuck out like a sore thumb when grouped with the smaller date stamps used for the other plates. I mentioned the find to Peter Huntoon and asked him to check the proof for me on his next trip to Washington. He and I were preoccupied with other projects then, and plate 147 fell by the wayside. During 2013 we made some breakthroughs in small-size mule research. Naturally, we recalled plate 147, lifted it to the surface, and discovered its true nature. The plate was one of numerous master plates salvaged and turned into production plates by the BEP beginning in 1938. Other such plates included $1 back 470, $5 back 637, $5 Silver Certificate face 307, $10 Silver Certificate faces 86 and 87, and $20 back 204. Face 147 joined that group when it was certified on September 6, 1943. The plate was started over seven years earlier on March 26, 1936, and was the first new-gauge master basso made for $5 legal tender faces. It was prepared from steel new-gauge mas- ter plate 146. Master basso plates were elec- trolytic iron plates used as templates for making altos, that in turn were used for making actual working plates. Except for the lack of plate serials, master bassos were identical to production plates, inclusive of series dates. New gauge denoted the increased separation between the left and right subjects on the plate. The BEP began phasing all plate production to new gauges in 1934. The new-gauge back sheets had wider interior margins, and allowed plate printers more tolerance when printing faces on the sheets. Face 147 presumably served as a master basso until the BEP certified the last 1928B face on October 12, 1937. Afterwards they had turned entirely to making 1928C faces. The plates of both series were identical except for the plate serials: 1928Bs had micro plate serials, and 1928Cs had macro serials. Face 147 was surprisingly finished with intermediate plate serials--larger than micros, but smaller than macros. One-dollar back 470 had similar intermediate-sized plate serials. The only connection, so far, is that both plates were finished four months apart in 1943. Unfortunately, unlike back 470 or the other salvaged plates, 147 never had any press time. Likely that’s because some- one finally realized in 1943 that it was an obsolete design. By contrast, the last normal 1928B plate had been used four years earlier on May 26, 1939. Plate 147 was finally canceled on December 31, 1946. Its use would certainly have created some very interesting $5 mules. Acknowledgments The Professional Currency Dealers Association and the Society of Paper Money Collectors supported this research. Peter Huntoon scanned the plate proof of 147 from the collection of the Museum of American History in Washington, D.C. Sources Used United States Treasury. Bureau of Engraving and Printing. Ledgers Pertaining to Plates, Rolls and Dies, 1870s-1960s. Volume 6. Record Group 318: Records of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing. National Archives and Records Administration, College Park, Maryland.  Small Notes by Jamie Yakes Late-Finished $5 Face Plate 147 66 Paper Money • January/February 2014 • Whole No. 289 HENRY DAVID THOREAU (1817-1862), TRANSCENDENTALISTauthor and poet, spent a night in jail in July 1846 for refusing to paypoll taxes because of his opposition to the Mexican-American War andto the practice of slavery. Developed later in his essay On the Duty of Civil Disobedience, Thoreau’s doctrines of individual conscience celebrated resis- tance to public authority on the grounds that, to be just, a citizen should not mere- ly refrain from unjust activities, but had to actively challenge such activities when they were countenanced and sustained by public power. If paying taxes made a citi- zen complicit in injustices, then refusing to pay them represented one’s moral duty. Given Thoreau’s teachings it was thus appropriate that, more than a cen- tury later, the distribution of “Thoreau Money” became a feature of anti-war protests during the 1960s. Produced by the Committee for Nonviolent Action (CNVA) and the War Resisters’ League (WRL), Thoreau Money served as a handbill that explained the theory and practice of war tax resistance. While Thoreau’s refusal remains perhaps the most well- known American example, war tax resistance dates back before the founding of the American republic. Traditionally undertak- en by historical peace churches such as the Quakers, after World War II such tax resistance spread in response to the expansion of a peacetime military establishment and the growth of nuclear arsenals. Groups like the WRL (founded 1923) and the Peacemakers (1948) gave organized expression to pacifism from a secular perspective, including stratagems for avoiding taxes that paid for war. The nuclear arms race of the 1950s imparted a new urgency to the movement and encouraged new forms of anti- war resistance. The CNVA, founded in 1959, sought to engage in Gandhian-style “direct action” that employed targeted episodes of civil disobedience to create publicity for the pacifist cause. Led by long-time peace activist A.J. Muste and Bradford Lyttle, the CNVA organized protests against ICBM sites near Omaha, nuclear testing grounds near Las Vegas, and even attempted to launch a vessel, The Golden Rule, into the Eniwetok Proving Grounds in the Pacific Ocean where the U.S. also tested nuclear weapons. Other notable activities in the early 1960s included “Walks for Peace” from San Francisco to Moscow, and from Quebec to Cuba. As the Vietnam War became a major focus of popular discontent, Muste and other CNVA members traveled to South Vietnam in 1966 to protest American involvement there. Unlike more mainstream anti-war and pacifist groups, the CNVA’s tactics paralleled those of the civil rights move- ment, using acts of civil disobedience like trespassing and obstruction to provoke official responses that would bring public attention to the pacifist cause. In addi- tion to the national organization, regional branches of the CNVA were established in New England and California. A Boston branch of the CNVA focused on the burning of draft cards, acts which proved particularly incendiary in the city’s cli- mate at that time. ‘Thoreau Money’ and War Tax Resistance By Loren Gatch Henry David Thoreau by Henry David Maxham, adapted for the red Thoreau notes. Paper Money • January/February 2014 • Whole No. 28968 The New England branch of the CNVA, co-founded in 1960 by Marjorie and Robert Swann, conducted ongoing protests against the construction and deploy- ment of Polaris nuclear-armed submarines, which were being manufactured at Electric Boat’s facility in Groton, CT. The husband and wife team, both early mem- bers of the Peacemakers, first engaged in anti-war activism during World War II, when Bob Swann served jail time for his refusal to enter military service. Marj Swann later gained some notoriety in 1959, when as a mother of four she was arrested and sent to prison for trespassing at an ICBM base near Omaha. In 1962 the NECNVA established its headquarters at the “Polaris Action Farm” in Voluntown, CT, which became a center for promoting nonviolent civil disobedience. As America’s involvement in Vietnam deepened, tax resistance became more organized. A national 10% charge on telephone bills, passed in 1966 to help fund the Vietnam conflict, became a frequent target of war tax resisters, as was the federal income tax itself, to which was added a 10% surcharge in 1968. Tax resisters were counseled to withhold small amounts of federal tax, so as to force the IRS to spend disproportionate amounts in enforcement and collection. Another common tactic by tax resisters was the declaration of multiple fictitious dependents on their W-4s to reduce their tax bills. In one extreme case, a Quaker couple in North Carolina, Lyle and Sue Snider, claimed 3 billion dependents—about the population of the world at the time! Other protesters went so far as to minimize their incomes through volun- tary poverty so as to deprive the government of income. Two versions of the “War Tax Protest” Thoreau Money exist, both denomi- nated as “1 Peace Yen.” The first, earlier version, was issued by the CNVA, CNVA- West, and the New England CNVA, and features a crude frontal portrait of Thoreau, with red overtones in the scrollwork. Probably derived from the 1856 daguerreotype by Henry David Maxham (see page 66, it is an unflattering depiction (as Nathaniel Hawthorne once described Thoreau, "he is ugly as sin, long-nosed, queer-mouthed”). The second, later version uses a facsimile of Samuel Worcester Rouse’s kinder, 1854 crayon portrait of Thoreau as beardless, younger man (see page 73). Jointly issued by the CNVA and the WRL, this second note features blue overtones in the scrollwork, and dates from after the 1968 merger of the two organizations. Both notes were A.J. Muste (far left) and Bradford Lyttle (third from left) participating in the Quebec to Cuba Peace Walk, 1964 (Photo courtesy of Gene Keyes) Paper Money • January/February 2014 • Whole No. 28970 designed by Mark Morris, an artist associated with CNVA-West, and printed at Grindstone Press in New London, CT. Grindstone Press produced a variety of anti-war ephemera, ranging from handbills and pamphlets to posters, such as Morris’ “Hang up on War” print promoting the CNVA’s campaign against the 10% telephone tax. The obverses of both notes pose the question “why pray for peace and Paper Money • January/February 2014 • Whole No. 289 73 pay for war?” and urge recipients to “use this phony money in refusing to pay that 60% of your federal taxes that goes for war.” War tax resisters publicized that particular percentage, which was much larger than the official Pentagon budget, on the grounds that the true financial burden of war ought to include the indirect expenses of military establishment like veterans’ ben- efits and pensions. The reverses assure that while “this money is not negotiable, international disputes are.” The ratio- nale for war tax resistance on each note is explained in slightly different texts, but both notes exhort their recipients, “rather than willfully paying for war, use your money and imagination to help create nonvio- lent alternatives to present policies and to promote reconciliation.” Coordinated CNVA protests using Thoreau Money were timed for the traditional April 15th deadline that millions of Americans faced for filing their tax returns. For example, in honor of Thoreau’s precedent, Marj Swann led a CNVA march in April 1965 from Walden Pond to the IRS office in down- town Boston, handing out the fictitious notes along the way. Meanwhile, members of the Tolstoy Farm, an intentional community in Davenport, WA, dis- tributed notes in front of the IRS offices in down- town Spokane. At the same time, protesters in New York City passed out the money to the thousands of people lining to make last-minute payments at the IRS office on Church St. Another report from April 1967 described Marj Swann leading a group picketing the Norwich, CT office of the IRS, where the notes were also distributed. War tax resistance aimed not merely to starve the government of funds, but to transform the politi- cal order itself. As Thoreau wrote in his essay on civil disobedience, “if a thou- sand men were not to pay their tax bills this year, that would not be a violent and bloody measure, as it would be to pay them, and enable the State to commit violence and shed innocent blood. This is, in fact, the definition of a peaceable revolution, if any such is possible.” Yet even as the deepening Vietnam con- flict energized antiwar protest and tax resistance in particular, it also under- mined the organizational rationale for the CNVA. A.J. Muste died in February 1967, depriving the group of its most pres- tigious leader. In the con- Henry David Thoreau by Samuel Worcester Rouse, adapted for the blue Thoreau notes. Opposite: A Poster designed by Mark Morris to promote telephone tax resis- tance. Paper Money • January/February 2014 • Whole No. 28974 text of spreading national discontent over the Vietnam War, the CNVA’s tactics of civil disobedience looked less distinctive, and the following year the organization voted to merge with the WRL. After this merger, the New England branch run by the Swanns chose to remain a separate entity for several years longer. Bob Swann later focused his activism on community economics and, along with Paul Salstrom, anoth- er participant in the NECNVA, became associates of Ralph Borsodi in his attempt to create a “Constant” currency (see Paper Money, September/October 2013). By 1969, burgeoning efforts to promote tax avoidance were consolidated within a new organi- zation founded by Brad Lyttle and others, National War Tax Resistance, which exists to this day. The “Polaris Action” farm in Voluntown now functions as Voluntown Peace Trust, and continues to promote strategies for nonviolent social change. References Foley, Michael S., Confronting the War Machine: Draft Resistance during the Vietnam War (University of North Carolina Press, 2003). Katz, Neil H., “Radical Pacifism and the Contemporary American Peace Movement: The Committee for Nonviolent Action 1957-1967” (PhD. Dissertation, University of Maryland, 1974) Mills, Stephanie, On Gandhi’s Path: Bob Swann’s Work for Peace and Community Economics (New Society Publishers, 2010). New York Times, April 15, 1965; November 29, 1965; April 15, 1966; The Day (New London, CT), April 18, 1967. The Harvard Crimson (Cambridge, MA), April 14, 1965 The Spokesman-Review (Spokane, WA), April 16, 1965.  Confederate Paper Money Values, by Pierre Fricke, 2013, iii + 73 pp, 5 ½ by 2 7/8 in., full color. List price is $4.95 Reviewed by Mark Anderson The book reviews published in Paper Money generally focus on more physically substantive texts than this small format handbook, but as soon as I touched this little gem and leafed through it, it delighted me. As is well known, there are many excellent and specialized texts for collectors and students of Confederate currency, and they are understandably pricier than this compact and elegant guide. And this is not really a book aiming to substitute for those resources. But it is aimed at any- body who has curiousity about what real Confederate currency looks like, wants a basic sense of relative rarity of the 72 basic issued types, or, for the proselytizers among us, wishes to show the occasional interested party what collecting Confederate paper money involves, aesthetically and quantitatively. For, reproduced, one image to a page, in as large a format as the page size can reasonably allow, are high quality and very appealing reproductions of each of the issues printed in color. For the potential collector, the quality with which these notes’ images are reproduced and printed can only inspire fur- ther interest, and while there are great and expensive rarities in the field, the book can also encourage formation of an enjoyable, affordable and historical group of these notes. As a collector and a dealer, the author has provided some- thing unusual in this guide. Rather than use this as a vehicle to list retail prices in multiple grades, he has provided practical and pragmatic values for the uninitiated seller. Since valuations are problematic in every field, and highly dependent on market con- ditions, grade, rarity, the specific potential buyer’s situation and the like, the caveats in the introduction need to be read and understood. But the important aspect here is that the price ranges provide a relative guide to rarity, and allow even a novice a basic understanding of what is truly rare and what is not. As a collector, though, this reviewer admits...he just loves the pictures, and bought a few extra copies to show to and [maybe] give away to potentially appreciative non-collectors, and maybe inspire them as the collectors of the future. I wish there were more books like this one, elegant, compact bargains, mak- ing other areas of the hobby equally appealing.  New Fricke CSA booklet offers ‘elegant, compact bargain’ Paper Money • January/February 2014 • Whole No. 289 75 Society of Paper Money Collectors Official Announcement Purpose: The Society of Paper Money Collectors is char- tered “to promote, stimulate, and advance the study of paper money and other financial documents in all their branches, along educational, historical and scientific lines.” The George W. Wait Memorial Prize is available annually to assist researchers engaged in important research leading to publication of book length works in the paper money field. George W. Wait, a founder and former SPMC President, was instrumental in launching the Society’s successful publishing program. The George W. Wait Memorial Prize is established to memorialize his achieve- ments/contributions to this field in perpetuity. Award: $500 will be awarded in unrestricted research grant(s). Note: the Awards Committee may decide to award this amount to a single applicant, or lesser amounts totaling $500 to more than one applicant. If, in the opin- ion of the Awards Committee, no qualifying applicant is found, funds will be held over. Prior Award Winners: Both individuals and groups have been awarded the Wait Memorial Prize. Each received the maximum award. 1st annual Wait winner was Robert S. Neale for a book on antebellum Bank of Cape Fear, NC. The 2nd went to Forrest Daniel for a manuscript on small size War of 1812 Treasury Notes, published posthumously in our S/O 2008 issue. Gene Hessler was honored for a book on international bank note engravers. Honorees also included R. Shawn Hewitt and Charles Parrish for a book on Minnesota obsolete notes, Michael Reynard for a book on check collecting, Matt Janzen on Wisconsin nationals, Tom Carson and Dennis Schafluetzel on Tennessee scrip, J. Fred Maples on Maryland banknotes, and Fred Schwan on World War II Allied Military Currency. Eligibility: Anyone engaged in important research on paper money subjects is eligible to apply for the prize. Paper Money for the purposes of this award is to be defined broadly. In this con- text paper money is construed to mean U.S. federal currency, bonds, checks and other obligations; National Currency and National Banks; state-chartered banks of issue, obsolete notes, bonds, checks and other scrip of such banks; or railroads, municipalities, states, or other chartered corporations; private scrip; currency substitutes; essais, proofs or specimens; or similar items from abroad; or the engraving, production or counterfeit- ing of paper money and related items; or financial history in which the study of financial obligations such as paper money is integral. Deadline for entries: March 15, 2014 A successful applicant must furnish sufficient information to demonstrate to the Society of Paper Money Collectors Awards Committee the importance of the research, the seriousness of the applicant, and the likelihood that such will be published for the consumption of the membership of SPMC and the public gener- ally. The applicant’s track record of research and publication will be taken into account in making the award. A single applicant may submit up to two entries in a single year. Each entry must be full and complete in itself. It must be packaged separately and submitted separately. All rules must be followed with respect to each entry, or disqualification of the non-conforming entry will result. Additional rules: The Wait Memorial Prize may be awarded to a single applicant for the same project more than once; however awards for a single project will not be given to a single applicant more than once in five years, and no applicant may win the Wait Memorial Prize in consecutive years. An applicant who does not win an annual prize may submit an updated entry of the non-winning project in a subsequent year. Two or more applicants may submit a single entry for the Wait Prize. No members of the SPMC Awards Committee may apply for the Wait Memorial Prize in a year he/she is a member of the awarding committee. Winner agrees to acknowledge the assistance of the Society of Paper Money Collectors and the receipt of its George W. Wait Memorial Prize in any publication of research assisted by receipt of this award and to furnish a copy of any such publication to the SPMC library. Entries must include: • the full name of the applicant(s) • a permanent address for each applicant • a telephone number for each applicant • the title of the research project/book • sufficient written material of the scope and progress of the project thus far, including published samples of portions of the research project, if appropriate Entries may also include: • the applicant’s SPMC membership number(s) • the applicant’s e-mail address (if available) • a bibliography and/or samples of the applicant’s past pub- lished paper money research • a photograph of each applicant suitable for publicity • a publishable photograph(s) of paper money integral to the applicant’s research • a statement of publishability for the project under considera- tion from a recognized publisher Judging: All entries must be received by March 15, 2014. All entries must be complete when submitted, and sufficient return postage should be included if return is desired. Address entries to SPMC, attn. Fred Reed, George W. Wait Memorial Prize, P.O. Box 118162, Carrollton, TX 75011-8162. The single, over-riding criterion for the awarding of the Wait Memorial Prize will be the importance of publication of the applicant’s research to SPMC members and general public. All decisions of the Awards Committee will be final. Announcement of the awarding of the Wait Memorial Prize will be in the May/June 2014 issue of Paper Money.  2nd Call: 12th Annual George W. Wait Memorial Prize Fred Reed has hit another homerun with his new book on Civil War Stamp Envelopes. The topic is one that has a limited collector base due to the relatively small number that still exist today (128 merchants issued 514 different varieties). But Fred has once again, as with his Encased Postage Stamp (EPS) and Lincoln books, gone above the normal item catalog and has com- pleted an historical masterpiece. As a collector and researcher, I have been concerned that we are losing the history of the notes and other items as the hobby is seeming- ly becoming more focused on the finan- cial aspect. But what Fred does, in my opinion, better than any other author today, is instill that historical aspect into his books. He did that well in the EPS and the Lincoln books but has surpassed himself with this book. His in-depth research has resulted in a lot of previ- ously unknown and unpublished history of the merchant/printer of each enve- lope. By reading his book, you almost get the feeling of knowing these people from our past. Before Fred’s book, the only reference available was a piece by Milt Friedberg that only had black & white pictures and due to some collectors refusal to share infor- mation, it was an incomplete list. The book begins with a “Foreword” by Art Paradis, the foremost collector of these envelopes who has now amassed the largest collection in existence today. He gives a nice history into his collection and his pursuit of new items. He makes a very poignant statement “I want to know the range of what is avail- able and background information about the companies and peo- ple associated with them. This book fulfills these needs and desires beyond all expectations.” Reed then progresses into a very detailed introduction to the small change crisis of the time, the different types of media that were used and how postage stamps came to be used and the envelopes used to protect them. A timeline follows that is very detailed and starts with the first appearance of the envelopes on July 4, 1862, and then goes into other appearances, major sales and concludes with the release of the book in October, 2013. And then he goes into a lengthy history of prior cataloging efforts and famous collections/collectors. Having known Milt Friedberg for years and considering him my mentor, I know he was frustrated with the information he was able to gather on this subject. I know he would be proud to be mentioned in the book, and with Fred’s efforts to detail the history of these little gems. This is one of the best parts of the book and is essentially a histo- ry of collecting postage stamp envelopes. Fred then goes into the meat of the book, the discussion of the different merchants. He has gone to great lengths to detail with illustrations when possible all of the different envelopes and provides a description, printer and other information. He begins each listing with a history of the envelope as to who has owned it, prices it has brought in past sales and today’s location if known. Some will say the book needs to have valuations in it. I totally disagree as the value of these items are not static but are determined on a “day of sale” basis due to lim- ited supply and demand. Fred does a nice job of including the pertinent sales information, especially the values the envelopes have achieved recently. Then Fred includes the his- torical information, from pictures of the mer- chants, the buildings, newspaper ads, etc. Fred even includes historical information on some envelopes that are known to have been printed but are not known location-wise today as well as those firmly ensconced in the Smithsonian Institution collection. After detailing these 128 merchants, Fred lists and shows pictures of a number of envelopes that have no merchant name on them and therefore cannot be researched. Fred concludes the book with two good references. First is a synopsis of the envelopes by Reed number with Milton Number when known, the issuer name and their business or trade and ends with an extensive bibliography that will provide future historians much to review. It was exciting to read Fred’s latest book. It gives a new per- spective to these envelopes and provides so much new informa- tion it is almost unfathomable. It was a pleasure to be able to contribute in a very small way to the book. If you are a collector of Postage Stamp Envelopes, fractional currency, encased postage or a history buff, I highly recommend this book to you. Paper Money • January/February 2014 • Whole No. 28976 The hardcover edition of this book, Civil War Stamp Envelopes, the Issuers and Their Times, was a complete sellout. “Since we had to go back on press to fill the many orders still at hand, we took the opportunity to swap out some illustrations, amplify some text, clarify some of the cataloging, and add a “How to Use This Book” section making V. 2.0 of this book EVEN BETTER," its author stated. He thanked collectors Joe Boling, David Gladfelter, Chuck Armstrong and Art Paradis for their insightful comments that are incorporated into this second printing. Price of the 672-page hard cover book remains the same, $79.95 (plus $10 per book postage, boxing, and insur- ance). Orders for the book may be sent to author Fred Reed, Dept. PM, P.O. Box 118162, Carrollton, TX 75011-8162. -- Editor  Civil War Stamp Envelopes, Their Issuers and Their Times Book Review by Benny Bolin Paper Money • January/February 2014 • Whole No. 289 77 You are invited to visit our web page For the past 12 years we have offered a good selection of conservatively grad- ed, reasonably priced currency for the collector All notes are imaged for your review NATIONAL BANK NOTES LARGE SIZE TYPE NOTES SMALL SIZE TYPE NOTES SMALL SIZE STAR NOTES OBSOLETES CONFEDERATES ERROR NOTES TIM KYZIVAT (708) 784-0974 P.O. Box 451 Western Springs, IL 60558 E-mail DBR Currency We pay top dollar for • National bank notes • Large size star notes • Large size FRNs and FRBNs P.O. Box 28339 San Diego, CA 92198 Phone: 858-679-3350 Fax: 858-679-7505 See our eBay auctions under user ID DBRCurrency Numismatic Literary Guild honors Paper Money At last summer’s American Numismatic Association World’s Fair of Money in Chicago in August, the Numismatic Literary Guild honored the nation’s hobby press in a variety of categories. Paper Money magazine received recognition for its editor’s article “Civil War Postage Stamp Envelopes Circulated as Small Change” that had been published in the July-August 2012 issue to mark the 150th anniversary of Congress monetizing “postage and other stamps.” This article was an adaptation of the “Introduction” of the author’s book on this subject that was published recently in October 2013. The article had also won an SPMC award at Memphis.  Paper Money • January/February 2014 • Whole No. 28978 The Society of Paper Money Collectors, Inc. [the “SPMC”] is chartered to advance the hobby through education. A key articulation of its fulfillment of this mission is the help it has provided over the decades to authors interested in publishing books whose principal subject matter relates to the study of paper money, fiscal documents and/or related history. In many cases, these books are works whose publication is not warranted from a commercial perspective, due to either the costs of production or ultimate size of print run, but which are deemed important to the hobby. Neither the SPMC nor its officers nor the members of the SPMC Book Committee are professional publishers and historically have not had adequate free time to become publishers and or project managers for these books. As a result, any prospective book author must be pre- pared to be a driving force throughout the project. However, the SPMC recognizes that it can be a significant partner to any author looking to publish specialized works for the hobby, providing a vari- ety of forms of help, advice, direct, non-recoverable grants, production funding, and marketing help. The following represents an effort to clarify the roles and processes which have historically proved successful in the roughly 40 previous books published by the SPMC. The Society recognizes that every publication is created for a different audience, in a different environment, with unique authorship, and as such, recognizes that the following can only represent a general starting point for a successful partnership. The Society views its partnerships with authors as [generally] falling into three phases: the Authorship Phase, the Pre-Publication Phase, and the Publication Phase. It is highly recommended that any author considering approaching the SPMC for assistance involve the Society as soon as possible. Authorship Phase: This phase can generally be thought of as the creative phase, in which the work is written, and brought to the point of pre-publication readiness. • The author is responsible for writing the book. SPMC members and other individuals may function as editors and reviewers, subject to their and the author’s desire. • The author should use a format that may be readily converted into camera-ready PDF, InDesign or Quark (Ready-to-Publish for- mat). Microsoft Word or some other format that can be converted to Rich Text Format input into Microsoft Word are likely choices. • Pictures will need to be identified and delivered to an editor/layout person separately from the Word document. 300 dpi, 100% size scans or photographs are the minimum recommended reso- lution and size. Blow-ups or magnified close-ups should be scanned at 600 dpi [100% true size] or 400 dpi if already at the desired level of magnification (200%, 300%, etc.). At any rate, 300dpi is the absolute minimum. US Federal note scan/picture requirements will need to be met. Photographs of notes are discouraged. • The author and/or his/her financial sponsors are responsi- ble for getting the book edited, laid out, and prepared for publication in a Ready-to-Publish format. This includes preparation of the images and text of the front and back cover, as well as arranging for an ISBN number. (The SPMC can assist with contacts and procedures for this). Pre-Publication Phase: As soon as is practically possible, the author and/or his/her financial sponsors are requested to submit a proposal to the SPMC Book Committee. That proposal would ideally include the following information: • Proposed Title for the book; • Authorship; • Number of pages; •Anticipated or suggested format, i.e., 6” x 9”, 8.5” x 11”, or other, color or black and white or some combination thereof • Whether issuance in DVD and/or eBook (e.g., Kindle, Nook, iPad) format is a meaningful alternative or additional possibility • Proposed number of copies to be printed • The “value proposition” for the intended purchaser, i.e., “Why would someone want to buy this book?” • Clarification as to who will own the copyright – the SPMC or the author[s]. • The intended retail price. Generally, SPMC publications have been discounted [per industry norms] by 40% to dealers who order 3 or more copies, and by 55% to wholesalers ordering by the case quan- tities. Buyers [retailer, dealer or wholesale] pay shipping. • A very basic marketing plan, i.e., which dealers, wholesalers and/or retailers can be expected to sell the book and why. While the SPMC will promote the book through its journal, its website and other channels, the role of and support of the author[s] is critical, and their plans for their own advertisements and/or web related sites or activities is important to us. It is the responsibility of the author(s) to ensure that no viola- tions of third party copyrights occur with respect to any text, photo- graph, or other image or material contained in the book. It is similarly the responsibility of the author(s) to solicit, obtain and maintain any and all releases necessary to the publishing of the work. Upon receipt of the proposal, the SPMC will endeavor to get printing estimates, from domestic and international suppliers, includ- ing any suggestions from the author[s]. In addition, the SPMC will seek out a logistics provider to house inventory, and handle wholesale and dealer orders, which the SPMC will also fund. After all costs have been identified, the SPMC will incorporate the sales estimates and proposed price, and review the complete proposal. If the project proceeds, a contract between the author(s) and SPMC will be negotiated. The SPMC will underwrite some to all of the cost of the printing and shipping expense, depending on the busi- ness case. To the extent that the cost of publishing the book is recouped over time, the health of early sales is critical [generally half of a specialized currency book’s sales occur in the first four months of sale]. In order to reduce the Society’s financial risk and exposure to inventory, authors are strongly encouraged to consider their own will- ingness to support the project in the form of a commitment to pur- chase a portion of the book’s print run [at 45% of the cover price (wholesale price)] with the understanding that the author’s subsequent sale of those books will not be discounted below a certain price until the SPMC’s inventory has been fully liquidated. If the feasibility of a print book is questionable other alternatives may make sense – e.g., a DVD, or eBook. Publication and Sales Phase: Once all necessary clarifications are in place, the parties proceed to contract. Unless other arrangements are made, the author remains the project manager, and will drive the printing, rollout and supplying the logistics firm. The SPMC can con- tinue throughout this phase to provide the author with any necessary contacts or advice. Upon delivery of the books, sales activities begin. Receipts for book sales flow to the SPMC’s Treasurer for deposit to the SPMC’s accounts to replenish the publication fund’s expenditures to publish and print the book. Upon full reimbursement of SPMC expenses, additional proceeds will be delivered per the publishing contract. In Closing: The SPMC is vitally interested in encouraging and assisting potential authors with publications. The foregoing is intend- ed as a clarification of the ways in which the Society can advance the hobby through education. We are vitally interested in hearing from the author community about ways in which we can be more helpful. Comments or questions are encouraged, c/o Pierre Fricke, P.O. Box 1094, Sudbury, MA 01776 or  Draft of SPMC’s revised Book Publishing Policies Looks can be Deceiving By Robert Gill I’d like to share a very rare item from my obsolete sheet collection. Casually looking at this sheet on the Bank of Charleston, one might think that it is a real “dog” because of its condition. But it has a couple of big surprises! First of all, it is possibly the only surviving full business print sheet on this bank. I was able to communicate with Austin M. Sheheen Jr., builder of a very large collec- tion of South Carolina obso- letes, and also author of the book on South Carolina notes. He revealed that his sheet like this one was not complete, as it was lacking the top note when he acquired it many years ago. Not only does this sheet have rarity going for it, but it also has a major plate error. Look at the enlarged scan of the bottom note. Notice that the border reads TWENTY DOLLARS, while the $50. vignette is correct. When this plate was being put together the top and bottom border of the bottom note were made identifying the wrong denom- ination. When asked about the rarity of this error note, Mr. Sheheen said there were probably around 12 to 15 notes in existence, or maybe a few more. This is a very good exam- ple of how something that isn't in a good state of preser- vation can still have a high degree of desirability. Please feel free to contact me at  Paper Money • January/February 2014 • Whole No. 289 79 Paper Money • January/February 2014 • Whole No. 28980 In God We Trust: All Others Collect Scrip Back in September, U.S. District Judge Harold Baer Jr. dis- missed a lawsuit brought by the Freedom from Religion Foundation seeking to remove “In God We Trust” from U.S. coins and currency. The plaintiffs, represented by Robert Newdow, argued that using money with the religious “verbiage” on it forced the plaintiffs to proselytize for a belief system they did not share. This wasn’t the first time that Newdow challenged the phrase “In God We Trust”; back in 2011 a similar suit by Newdow was refused a hearing by the U.S. Supreme Court. An attorney and emergency room physician from Sacramento, Newdow has over the years birthed a cottage industry of Establishment Clause litigation, most notoriously in 2004, when he argued unsuccessfully before the high court (Elk Grove Unified School District v. Newdow, 542 U.S. 1) that the words “under God” in the Pledge of Allegiance represented an uncon- stitutional endorsement of religion. While I don’t have strong feelings about the issue, I do think the jurisprudence surrounding the First Amendment’s reli- gion clauses leaves something to be desired. Inevitably, it puts judges in the unsatisfactory position of deciding what is religious expression and what is not. But what I enjoyed about Newdow’s latest complaint was the harm attributed to his clients as hobby- ists. For instance, “Plaintiff Kenneth Bronstein…is a numisma- tist, whose purchase of coins from Defendant United States Mint date back over sixty years. Because of the ‘In God We Trust’ ver- biage, however, he has opted not to purchase some coins, thus being deprived of an investment opportunity as well as the enjoyment of the hobby. When he looks at the coins he still has, he is personally unwillingly forced to confront the ‘In God We Trust’ phrase, as he is also unwillingly forced to do when he receives mailers, etc., from the United States Mint.” Oh, the horror! What’s a sensitive, numismatic atheist to do? For starters, switch to collecting paper money. “In God We Trust” only began showing up on U.S. currency after 1957, whereas most coin series began sporting it as early as 1908. Ironically, the move to place the phrase on currency was itself initiated in 1953 by another coin collector, the Arkansan Matthew Herman Rothert Sr. (1904-1989). Rothert, who served as President of the ANA from 1965 to 1967, published among other works Arkansas Obsolete Notes and Scrip (1985). There’s always scrip, godless scrip…  Chump Change Loren Gatch Tips for prospective authors • Put your name, address and email address on every element of your article, including the basic text, captions, and tables (if any). • Don’t query. This publication exists to publish your arti- cle(s). Of course we are interested in your work. Do your best and submit it, along with all attendant artwork. • Don’t resubmit your article multiple times with small changes in wording about which you’ve changed your mind. • I repeat, don’t send multiple copies of your article as revi- sions. Do your revisions BEFORE you send it to an editor. • Don’t pester the editor, wanting updates on when your story will be published. You will receive an acknowledgment when your article and art is received, and you will have the opportunity to review a proof of the article BEFORE it is published. Don’t waste your time querying; spend that time researching/writing another article! • Don’t submit an article with images embedded in text, unless you also submit the text document and images separately. • If you refer to illustrations, or tables in your article proper, use this format: Figure X, or Table Y, etc. • Don’t use footnotes, instead use endnotes. • If you employ endnotes, put the endnote number as normal text within parentheses at the appropriate reference point in the text: (X) so I don’t have to hunt for miniscule reference points. • Do send high-resolution images, equivalent to 300 dpi full size in color. • Do square your images so verticals are vertical and horizon- tals are horizontal. The editor spends most of his time cleaning up your submitted images to make them publishable. • If you want closeups of portions of an image, these scans need to be at least twice as large! • Send illustrations of your own items, when possible. • Downloaded internet images (normally low-resolution 72 dpi) will not reproduce well in print. Seek higher resolution images, and be sure that you have permission to submit somebody’s elses image(s). Do seek permission to use others’ images, and do credit the source when you receive such permission. • Images from digital cameras are invariably too red. Faces especially when converted to grey scale for use in the magazine appear too dark, so illuminate your subject to the best of your abili- ty. Don’t pose subjects with backs to the ambient light; use a flash. • List captions separately at the end of your article. • Notes have names. Generally these names are printed on the notes themselves. Please observe the following style: United States Note, Demand Note, Federal Reserve Note, Silver Certificate, Postage Currency, Fractional Currency (when referring to U.S. Fractional Currency), etc. Capitalize National Currency when referring to National Bank Notes or Federal Reserve Bank Notes. More tips will appear here in the future. Pay attention!  The Editor’s Notebook Fred L. Reed III