Paper Money - Vol. LIX - No. 4 - Whole #328 - Jul/Aug 2020

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Table of Contents

$20 Series of 1882 Gold Certificate Intaglio Plate Layout Varieties—Peter Huntoon

Paper Money with a Connection to Keokuk’s Estes House—Tom Gardner

Napier-Burke Nationals are Sleepers—Peter Huntoon

The National Howard Bank of Baltimore, Maryland—J. Fred Maples

Pat Lyon at the Forge—Terry Bryan

A Black Issue Date Stamp on Confederate Currency—Dr. Enrico Aidala

Grand Discovery—Gary Bleichner

Paper Money Vol. LIX, No. 4, Whole No. 328 www.SPMC.org July/August 2020 Official Journal of the Society of Paper Money Collectors 1231 E. Dyer Road, Suite 100, Santa Ana, CA 92705 ? 949.253.0916 470 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10022 (Summer 2020) ? 800.566.2580 Info@StacksBowers.com ? StacksBowers.com California ? New York ? New Hampshire ? Hong Kong ? Paris SBG PM ANA2020 HLs 200601 America?s Oldest and Most Accomplished Rare Coin Auctioneer LEGENDARY COLLECTIONS | LEGENDARY RESULTS | A LEGENDARY AUCTION FIRM Call Us for More Information Today! 800.458.4646 West Coast 800.566.2580 East Coast Info@StacksBowers.com ? www.StacksBowers.com ANA World?s Fair of Money? Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania ? August 4-7, 2020 Stack?s Bowers Galleries Featured Highlights Fr. 97. 1875 $10 Legal Tender Note. PCGS Banknote Choice Extremely Fine 45. Fr. 1220. 1922 $1000 Gold Certificate. PMG Choice About Uncirculated 58. Fr. 333. 1891 $50 Silver Certificate. PMG Choice Uncirculated 63 EPQ. Fr. 1133-C. 1918 $1000 Federal Reserve Note. Philadelphia. PMG Gem Uncirculated 65 EPQ. Fr. 163. 1880 $50 Legal Tender Note. PMG Extremely Fine 40. Fr. 2221-E. 1934 $5000 Federal Reserve Note. Richmond. PMG About Uncirculated 55. Fr. 2200-Kdgs. 1928 $500 Federal Reserve Note. Dallas. PMG Gem Uncirculated 66 EPQ. Fr. 190b. 1864 $10 Compound Interest Treasury Note. PCGS Currency New 61. Fr. 268. 1896 $5 Silver Certificate. PCGS Currency Superb Gem New 67 PPQ. Fr. 2221-K. 1934 $5000 Federal Reserve Note. Dallas. PMG Gem Uncirculated 65 EPQ. PAPERMONEY Official?Bimonthly?Publication?of?The?Society?of?Paper?Money?Collectors? Vol.?LIX,?No.?4,? July/August?2020?? ? ? ISSN??0031?1162? 224 Cover Story $20 Series of 1882 Gold Certificate Intaglio Plate Layout Varieties?Peter Huntoon This?article?will?document?all?the?face?plate?varieties?of?the?$20?Gold?Certificates?of?1882?which? came?in?two?varieties,?those?payable?in?New?York?and?those?payable?in?Washington,?D.C.? 230 Paper Money with a Connection to Keokuk?s Estes House?Tom Gardner Keokuk?s?Estes?Hotel?had?a?very?rough?and?unfortunate?history?surviving?the?financial?panic?of?1857,?a?real? estate?crash,?eventually?becoming?home?to?Baylies?Commercial?College.?Notes?from?this?college?were?printed? and?are?shown?in?this?article?along?with?a?more?detailed?history?of?the?building.?? 234 Napier-Burke Nationals are Sleepers?Peter Huntoon This?signature?combination?on?National?Banknotes?is?one?of?the?rarer?in?the?series.?? 241 The National Howard Bank of Baltimore, Maryland?J.?Fred?Maples A?detailed?history?of?the?National?Howard?Bank?of?Baltimore,?Maryland,?charter?#4218?is?given.? 244 Pat Lyon at the Forge?Terry Bryan The?history?of?the?man?and?of?one?of?the?most?popular?vignettes?of?the?era?is?discussed?at?length.? 251 Postage Currency Note with Cairo, Illinois Bank Stamp?Rick Melamed 274 A Black Issue Date Stamp on Confederate Currency?Dr. Enrico Aidala 294 Grand Discovery?Gary Bleichner Departments Advertisers Uncoupled 254 Stacks-Bowers IFC Denly's 267 Quartermaster Column 260 CSNS 240 Vern Potter 296 Cherry Picker's Corner 265 ANA 250 FCCB 296 Obsolete Corner 268 Lyn Knight 270 Higgins Museum 296 Chump Change 271 DBR PCDA IBC New Members 272 Fred Bart 264 Heritage Auctions OBC Pierre?Fricke?Buying and Selling! 1861?1869?Large?Type,?Confederate?and?Obsolete?Money!? P.O. Box 33513, San Antonio, TX 78265; pierrefricke@buyvintagemoney.com; www.buyvintagemoney.com And many more CSA, Union and ObsoleteBankNotes for sale ranging from$10 to five figures _____________________________________________________________ Paper Money * July/August 2020 * Whole No. 328___________________________________________ 221 259 Officers & Appointees ELECTED OFFICERS: PRESIDENT?Shawn Hewitt, shawn@shawnhewitt.com VICE-PRESIDENT? Robert Vandevender II rvpaperman@aol.com SECRETARY?Robert Calderman gacoins@earthlink.net TREASURER?Bob Moon robertmoon@aol.com BOARD OF GOVERNORS: Mark Anderson mbamba@aol.com Robert Calderman gacoins@earlthlink.net Gary J. Dobbins g.dobbins@sbcglobal.net Matt Drais Stockpicker12@aol.com Pierre Fricke pierrefricke@buyvintagemoney.com Loren Gatch lgatch@uco.edu Steve Jennings sjennings@jisp.net William Litt Billlitt@aol.com J. Fred Maples maplesf@comcast.net Cody Regennitter cody.regennitter@gmail.com Wendell A. Wolka purduenut@aol.com APPOINTEES: PUBLISHER-EDITOR Benny Bolin, smcbb@sbcglobal.net ADVERTISING MANAGER Wendell A. Wolka LEGAL COUNSEL Robert Galiette LIBRARIAN--Jeff Brueggeman jeff@actioncurrency.com MEMBERSHIP DIRECTOR Frank Clark frank_spmc@yahoo.com IMMEDIATE PAST PRESIDENT-- Pierre Fricke WISMER BOOK PROJECT COORDINATOR--Pierre Fricke From Your President Shawn Hewitt In this July/August edition of the journal, I would normally provide some comments about the just-held IPMS in June in Kansas City. The cancellation of the physical event, however, did not prevent Lyn Knight from arranging a virtual version over Zoom, along with the usual auctions, all day on Friday, June 12. Earlier that week, we were informed of the event details, added it to our calendar, wrote a press release, and sent a special email to those subscribing to our newsletter. From what I can tell, it was fairly successful. I hear there were about 60-80 participants for each of the presentations. I was able to catch most of Lyn?s presentation of his national bank note cutting machine. Kudos to Lyn for making lemonade out of lemons. I am excited to tell you that we have some significant changes coming up in the appearance of our journal. I will hold off on particulars for now, but very soon it will have a new look. In that edition we will also announce the winners of our annual literary, ODP registry sets and service awards that we normally present at the SPMC Breakfast at IPMS. Another recent change is that Joshua Herbstman recently resigned as one of our board members, for personal reasons. I think Joshua?s greatest contribution is that of helping to craft our mission statement a couple years ago, of which I am very proud. It is concise and clear -- found on the home page of our website -- much more so than I could have drafted. Joshua leaves with our thanks for his service. Replacing Joshua in that seat is Bill Litt. At my urging, Bill was able to gather the required number of recommendations and submitted them to the board, who voted him in at our most recent meeting. I?m pretty sure many of you know Bill personally, or at least heard the name. I?ve long thought that Bill would be a valuable asset on our board, and I am looking forward to working with him. See his biography elsewhere in this edition. Finally, I would like to thank Megan Regennitter, spouse of board member Cody Regennitter, for agreeing to be our legal counsel. She replaces long-term counsel Robert Galliette, whom we also thank for his service. There is no denying that the year 2020 seems to be packed as a year of change. It is my hope that we can find ourselves in a better place by the manner in which we handle change. _____________________________________________________________ Paper Money * July/August 2020 * Whole No. 328___________________________________________ 222 Editor Sez ? Just four short months ago, I was sitting care-free on a beach in Hawaii contemplating what I was having for dinner that night. Times have sure changed now haven?t they? A global pandemic, the likes of which have not happened in a very, very long time. Unrest and protests (and unfortunately riots with damage to both people and property) seeking equality and an end to police brutality and then in the midst of all that, we enter into a political season that has and will put the UG in UGLY! I hope you are all doing well and have managed to stay safe and well. I know in our hobby, dealers have been hit especially hard by the pandemic and the resultant stay at home orders. I with you the best as you are truly the backbone of our hobby. Hopefully, we have seen the worst of the pandemic but we must be smart in the future. Social distancing and masks seem to be the new norm. Someone tell me when in the past you felt uncomfortable going into a bank not wearing a mask! A quick nod or elbow smashing has now replaced handshaking. With the cancellation of the KC show, followed by Long Beach, summer FUN and now the summer ANA, and any number of regional and local show, we are all show hungry. Hopefully we will be able to return to them soon. In the meantime, there have been some wonderful advancements on the technology side related to our hobby. The board of the SPMC is now holding their meetings live on ZOOM. The MPC group held an e-Fest that was well attended and had many great presentations. Lyn Knight replaced the IPMS with a virtual one that had good attendance and of which I have heard good things about. So, we shall see what the future holds for us and see what the new ?norm? is. Speaking of changes, the next issue of Paper Money will look differently. A new and updated, modern cover will greet you as you take it out of the envelope. The inside will have some more changes cosmetically to make it more modern along with the ones we have already done. But, the content will remain the same. Our authors and their works are what makes this journal so great. Thanks to Robert Calderman and Phillip Mangrum for making this transition a reality. Also, in the next issue, we will announce the winners of our literary awards and our Obsolete Database winners as well as our service awards. As you spend this expanded amount of time at home, I ask that you continue to write and research and turn that into an article. I have a number of larger articles and really need some short and medium length ones. Benny Terms?and?Conditions? The Society of Paper Money Collectors (SPMC) P.O.Box 7055, Gainvesville, GA 305504, publishes PAPER MONEY (USPS 00-3162) every other month beginning in January. Periodical postage is paid at Hanover, PA. Postmaster send address changes to Secretary Robert Calderman, Box 7022, Gainesville, GA 30504. ?Society of Paper Money Collectors, Inc. 2020. All rights reserved. Reproduction of any article in whole or part without written approval is prohibited. Individual copies of this issue of PAPER MONEY are available from the secretary for $8 postpaid. Send changes of address, inquiries concerning non - delivery and requests for additional copies of this issue to the secretary. MANUSCRIPTS Manuscripts not under consideration elsewhere and publications for review should be sent to the Editor. Accepted manuscripts will be published as soon as possible, however publication in a specific issue cannot be guaranteed. Include an SASE if acknowledgement is desired. Opinions expressed by authors do not necessarily reflect those of the SPMC. Manuscripts should be submitted in WORD format via email (smcbb@sbcglobal.net) or by sending memory stick/disk to the editor. Scans should be grayscale or color JPEGs at 300 dpi. Color illustrations may be changed to grayscale at the discretion of the editor. Do not send items of value. Manuscripts are submitted with copyright release of the author to the Editor for duplication and printing as needed. ADVERTISING All advertising on space available basis. Copy/correspondence should be sent to editor. All advertising is pay in advance. Ads are on a ?good faith? basis. Terms are ?Until Forbid.? Ads are Run of Press (ROP) unless accepted on a premium contract basis. Limited premium space/rates available. To keep rates to a minimum, all advertising must be prepaid according to the schedule below. In exceptional cases where special artwork or additional production is required, the advertiser will be notified and billed accordingly. Rates are not commissionable; proofs are not supplied. SPMC does not endorse any company, dealer or auction house. Advertising Deadline: Subject to space availability, copy must be received by the editor no later than the first day of the month preceding the cover date of the issue (i.e. Feb. 1 for the March/April issue). Camera-ready art or electronic ads in pdf format are required. ADVERTISING RATES Space 1 Time 3 Times 6 Times Full color covers $1500 $2600 $4900 B&W covers 500 1400 2500 Full page color 500 1500 3000 Full page B&W 360 1000 1800 Half-page B&W 180 500 900 Quarter-page B&W 90 250 450 Eighth-page B&W 45 125 225 Required file submission format is composite PDF v1.3 (Acrobat 4.0 compatible). If possible, submitted files should conform to ISO 15930-1: 2001 PDF/X-1a file format standard. Non- standard, application, or native file formats are not acceptable. Page size: must conform to specified publication trim size. Page bleed: must extend minimum 1/8? beyond trim for page head, foot, and front. Safety margin: type and other non-bleed content must clear trim by minimum 1/2? Advertising copy shall be restricted to paper currency, allied numismatic material, publications and related accessories. The SPMC does not guarantee advertisements, but accepts copy in good faith, reserving the right to reject objectionable or inappropriate material or edit copy. The SPMC assumes no financial responsibility for typographical errors in ads but agrees to reprint that portion of an ad in which a typographical error occurs upon prompt notification. _____________________________________________________________ Paper Money * July/August 2020 * Whole No. 328___________________________________________ 223 $20 Series of 1882 Gold Certificate Intaglio Plate Layout Varieties by Peter Huntoon Introduction and Purpose Section 12 of the Act of July 24,1882?the same act that provided for 20-year corporate extensions of charters for national banks?provided for the issuance of gold certificates against deposits of gold with the U. S. Treasury. The 1882 act was a compromise between the hard and soft money factions in Congress whereby the hard money advocates received this gold provision, which was their tentative foot in the door on their way to eventually placing the nation on a gold standard, whereas the soft money crowd won The Paper Column Figure 1. Series of 1882 $20 gold certificate payable in New York City that carries the engraved signature of Assistant Treasurer John C. Acton. It has a variety 2 layout using the classification presented herein. Heritage Auction Archives photo. _____________________________________________________________ Paper Money * July/August 2020 * Whole No. 328___________________________________________ 224 extensions for their national banks, which perpetuated legal tender based national currency. The Series of 1882 gold certificates that resulted initially came in two types, those payable in New York and others labeled ?Department Series? payable in Washington, DC. Those payable in New York were discontinued before A. U. Wyman replaced James Gilfillan as Treasurer in March 1883. This two-part subdivision created two types of notes, but the series is further enriched with lesser modifications to the overall designs printed from the intaglio face plates. It is the purpose of this article to document all the face plate varieties on the $20s. An intaglio plate variety is herein defined as a specific combination of variable elements other than the Treasury signatures. The $20s serve as a good template for identical varieties on the higher denominations in the series. However, some of the varieties found on the $20 are absent from the suites of varieties available for the various higher denominations. To compensate, some of the treasury signature combinations found on the higher denominations didn?t appear on the $20s! Plate Classification Scheme The classification scheme proposed here applies only to the variable design elements printed from the intaglio face plates other than the Treasury signatures. The main element that varies is the language that differentiates notes redeemable in New York from those redeemable in Washington. ?Department Series? appears above the lower left serial number on all the Washington notes whereas it is absent from all those redeemable in New York. A secondary element that varied on the New York notes was whether a blank was provided for Assistant Treasurer Thomas C. Acton?s signature or whether his signature was engraved. This variable yields either a variety 1 or 2 layout for the New York plates. Secondary elements that varied on the Washington plates were whether Washington was presented with or without D.C. and whether the plate date of Sept. 1, 1882 appeared or not. The combinations used were: (1) Washington with date, (2) Washington without date and (3) Washington, D.C. without date, yielding varieties 3, 4 and 5. The intaglio plate variety is determined before the Treasury signatures are considered. Consequently, the note illustrated in Figure 2 is an intaglio variety 5 with Rosecrans-Huston signatures. The most available of the Series of 1882 $20 gold certificates are variety 5 Lyons-Roberts notes. You can then go on to specify the seal used on your note. The note in Figure 2 comes out as a variety 5 Rosecrans-Huston with large brown seal. Figure 2. Spectacular Series of 1882 $20 Department Series gold certificate with a large Treasury seal redeemable at the Treasury in Washington. Carefully contrast the language on this note to that on the note pictured on Figure 1. This note was printed from plate 799 after the signatures had been altered to Rosecrans-Huston and D.C. had been added to Washington. It has a variety 5 layout using the classification presented herein. Heritage Auction Archives photo. _____________________________________________________________ Paper Money * July/August 2020 * Whole No. 328___________________________________________ 225 Ta b le 1 . V ar ie ti e s o f $ 2 0 S e ri e s o f 1 8 8 2 G o ld C e rt if ic at e s as r e a d f ro m t h e p ro o fs in t h e N at io n al N u m is m at ic C o lle ct io n . In ta gl io Se q u en ce Tr ea s P la te A ss t Tr e as u re r P re se n ta ti o n o f P la te N u m b er P l N o Se r N o R e gi st e r Tr e as u re r N e w Y o rk C it y W as h in gt o n , D C P la te D at e C e rt D at e V ar ie ty P ay ab le a t th e o ff ic e o f th e A ss is ta n t Tr ea su re r, N e w Y o rk C it y: 1 B ru ce G ilf ill an b la n k p ro vi d ed W as h in gt o n Se p t 1 , 1 8 82 Se p 1 9 , 1 8 82 1 1 B ru ce G ilf ill an Th o m as C . A ct o n W as h in gt o n Se p t 1 , 1 8 82 2 2 2 B ru ce G ilf ill an b la n k p ro vi d ed W as h in gt o n Se p t 1 , 1 8 82 1 2 2 B ru ce G ilf ill an Th o m as C . A ct o n W as h in gt o n Se p t 1 , 1 8 82 2 3 3 B ru ce G ilf ill an b la n k p ro vi d ed W as h in gt o n Se p t 1 , 1 8 82 1 3 3 B ru ce G ilf ill an Th o m as C . A ct o n W as h in gt o n Se p t 1 , 1 8 82 2 4 4 B ru ce G ilf ill an b la n k p ro vi d ed W as h in gt o n Se p t 1 , 1 8 82 1 4 4 B ru ce G ilf ill an Th o m as C . A ct o n W as h in gt o n Se p t 1 , 1 8 82 2 D e p ar tm e n t Se ri e s? P ay ab le a t th e U . S . T re as u ry , W as h in gt o n , D C : 5 1 B ru ce G ilf ill an W as h in gt o n Se p t 1 , 1 8 82 N o v 1 0, 1 8 82 3 5 1 B ru ce W ym an W as h in gt o n Se p t 1 , 1 8 82 3 5 7 98 1 R o se cr an s H u st o n W as h in gt o n O ct 2 4 , 1 8 90 4 5 7 98 1 Ly o n s R o b er ts W as h in gt o n , D .C . A u g 4 , 1 8 99 5 6 2 B ru ce G ilf ill an W as h in gt o n Se p t 1 , 1 8 82 3 6 2 B ru ce W ym an W as h in gt o n Se p t 1 , 1 8 82 3 6 7 99 2 R o se cr an s H u st o n W as h in gt o n , D .C . N o v 4 , 1 89 0 5 6 7 99 2 Ly o n s R o b er ts W as h in gt o n , D .C . A u g 1 2 , 1 89 9 5 _____________________________________________________________ Paper Money * July/August 2020 * Whole No. 328___________________________________________ 226 Table 1 lists all the intaglio plate varieties along with all the signatures found on the $20 Series of 1882 gold certificate proofs in the National Numismatic Collection. The holding appears to be complete. Plate Alterations A total of six 4-subject $20 Series of 1882 gold certificate plates were made. All were made at the outset of the series in 1882, the first four for notes payable in New York and the other two for notes payable in Washington. All were subsequently altered to yield the suite of entries on Table 1. The most obvious design element that was altered was the addition of Thomas C. Acton?s signature to the four New York plates, a change that probably took place before the end of 1882. Originally a blank was provided for his penned signature because hand signing the notes quickly became impractical. Curiously they didn?t bother to remove the line from under his engraved signature. The most interesting alterations occurred when the Rosecrans-Huston signature combination was added to the two Departmental Series plates in 1890. They dropped the superfluous plate date of Sept. 1, 1882 from both plates, a date that appears to have no particular significance. Someone also decided that D.C. should be added to Washington, but that change made it only to plate 799 at the time. D.C. was belatedly added to plate 798 when the signatures on it were updated to Lyons and Roberts in 1899. Figure 3. Variety 1 intaglio plate layout characterized by a blank for the Assistant Treasurer?s signature at New York, display of the plate date and no D.C. after Washington. Figure 4. Variety 2 intaglio plate layout characterized by the addition of Assistant Treasurer Thomas C. Acton?s signature, display of the plate date and no. D.C. after Washington. _____________________________________________________________ Paper Money * July/August 2020 * Whole No. 328___________________________________________ 227 Figure 5. Variety 3 intaglio plate layout for a Department Series plate characterized by having a plate date and Washington without D.C. Figure 6. Variety 4 intaglio plate layout for a Department Series plate characterized by having no plate date and Washington without D.C. This proof was lifted from plate 798. Figure 7. Variety 5 intaglio plate layout for a Department Series plate characterize by have no plate date and Washington, D.C. The only difference between this layout and Variety 4 is the addition of D.C. to Washington, a feature brought to my attention by Doug Murray. This proof was lifted from plate 799, the same plate used to print the note shown in Figure 2. _____________________________________________________________ Paper Money * July/August 2020 * Whole No. 328___________________________________________ 228 Plate Numbers Two types of plate numbers were assigned to the $20 Series of 1882 gold certificates at the outset: sequence numbers and plate serial numbers. In addition, Treasury plate numbers?a third type of plate number?were added to the Washington plates after that numbering scheme was adopted in 1886. Understanding these numbers helps unravel the entries on Table 1. Sequence numbers were assigned to the $20 plates in the order in which they were made. The four New York plates were made first followed by the two Washington plates, all during the latter months of 1882. The sequence numbers were placed in the top margin of the plates except they were omitted from the first for both New York and Washington. A 5 was added to the first Washington plate when it was reentered during the Bruce-Gilfillan era so it finally appears on the proof lifted to prove that reentry. Plate serial numbers were assigned to plates of the same denomination that have the same design. Conseqeuntly, separate sets of plate serial numbers were used for the New York and Washington plates. These numbers appear below the upper left plate position letter on all of the notes. An omnibus set of Treasury plate numbers was adopted in 1886 that threaded through all the plates made for the Treasury Department including plates made for currency, bonds, revenue stamps, checks, etc. Initially the still servicable existing plates were numbered and then numbering progressed sequentially to new plates as they began to be made. The still current $20 Washington plates were assigned numbers 798 and 799. Those numbers were added to the bottom margins of the plates in 1890 when the plates were altered to carry the Rosecrans-Huston signature combination. Altered Treasury Signatures It was common practice for the Bureau of Engraving and Printing to update the Treasury signatures on still servicable plates on an as-need basis. Consequently the two New York $20 plates ultimately carried four difference Treasury signature combinations as listed on Table 1. Some of the possible signature combinations were skipped on the $20s but appeared on the higher denominations in the series. Overview All of the Series of 1882 $20 gold certificates were printed from six plates that were made in 1882. Those plates were repeatedly altered over the life of the series, primarily in order to display current Treasury officials as printings were required. Assistant Treasurer John C. Acton?s signature was added to the New York plates shortly after they were made, probably before the end of 1882. No further alterations were made to the New York plates because their use was discontinued before a new Treasury signature combination came along. Minor tweaks were made to improve the presentation of information on the Washington plates by apending D.C. to Washington and removing the sperfluous plate date. As an aid for accounting, Treasury plate numbers were added to the lower margins of those plates after adoption of that numbering system in 1886. The demand for $20 Series of 1882 gold certificates was small so the Washington plates lasted to the end of the series. Their long lives provide excellent examples of plates that underwent repeated alterations. The changes that occurred yielded for collectors interesting and very collectable varieties beyond simple signature changes. The fact that plate serial numbers were appened to the upper left plate position letters allows us to unambiguously determine exactly which plate produced a particular note. _____________________________________________________________ Paper Money * July/August 2020 * Whole No. 328___________________________________________ 229 Paper Money with a Connection to Keokuk?s Estes House by Tom Gardner Keokuk?s Estes House hotel had the misfortune to be built at exactly the wrong time. Before it was completed in 1857, a financial panic swept through what was then considered the West but would today be called the Midwest. This panic, or "business revulsion," was the result of a bubble in western land prices, and it hit Keokuk especially hard, with some real estate parcels taking several decades to recover the prices they had sold for at the time the Estes House was first proposed. Furthermore, Keokuk lost well over a third of its population in the late 1850s, dramatically reducing the community?s need for a hotel. So, for a couple of years the Estes House stood nearly empty on Keokuk?s Main Street, though at 150 by 140 feet and five stories high (six stories high on at the lower alley behind it), it clearly dominated the downtown district. And then the Civil War started in April of 1861. Keokuk, located on the Mississippi River in the southeastern corner of Iowa, became a principal point of departure for Iowa?s volunteer soldiers, off to fight for the Union further south. Within a few months, some of these soldiers began returning to Iowa, some dead or dying, to be buried in Keokuk?s National Cemetery, while others were seriously ill or wounded, in need of hospitalization. For some years Keokuk had had a medical college, so it had both physicians and those training to become physicians. What it needed was suitable space to care for an ever-increasing number of patients. In the spring of 1862, just after the battle of Shiloh, the Estes House was converted into the largest of Keokuk's five Civil War hospitals. By the time 300 wounded soldiers arrived in Keokuk from Pittsburg Landing in Tennessee, 179 rooms had been fitted out for hospital use. Doctors from Keokuk's medical college attended to these wounded and ill soldiers, and they were nursed by the women of Keokuk, who also provided a lot of the hospitals? supplies during the first few months of operation. By the end of the Civil War, Keokuk had regained much of its lost population and the promise of peacetime prosperity encouraged the establishment of a number of new businesses in Keokuk as well as other communities across Iowa and the Midwest. This quickly led to the establishment of a number of new business colleges and the expansion of the few business colleges that predated the war. In the first two years after Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox, business or commercial colleges were established in Burlington, Davenport, Des Moines, Iowa City, Keokuk, Oskaloosa and several smaller cities. Baylies Commercial College, later to be called Baylies Mercantile College and other names, got started in Keokuk in 1866 by the same firm that established Baylies Commercial College in Dubuque in 1858. An advertisement for Baylies Great Mercantile College that features an image of the Estes House. _____________________________________________________________ Paper Money * July/August 2020 * Whole No. 328___________________________________________ 230 The man for whom both institutions were named was Aaron Baylies. In 1862 he brought his cousin Cornelius Bayless into the firm, first as an instructor, and then, in 1863, as his partner. On August 2, 1863, just a few months after forming this partnership, Aaron Baylies died suddenly during a visit to Boston. Cornelius would continue operating the college in Dubuque until 1909, at first spelling his last name the same way as his cousin did, but then changing the name of the college to Bayless Commercial College in the 1880s. Under this name it continued to be run by several different owners until 1967. In 1866 Cornelius Bayless established a branch of Baylies Commercial College on the second floor of the Estes House in Keokuk. William H. Miller, a senior instructor at the Dubuque college, was put in charge of this enterprise. A ?5? denominated note was issued for ?THE United States BAYLIES? COMMERCIAL COLLEGE Keokuk, Iowa.? It is signed ?C. Baylies, Prest.? And ?W.H. Miller, Cash.? This note is not listed in Schingoethe, and most likely it did not have much of an instructional role to play, but was used in advertising the college. Shortly after this note was issued, a ?1000? denominated note was issued with the same two signatures but a different institutional name. It reads ?First National Bank OF BAYLIES MERCANTILE COLLEGE KEOKUK STATE OF IOWA. It is listed in Schingoethe, and because of its high denomination, it probably also functioned as an advertising piece. There is a series of ?Baylies? College Bank? notes, again with the same signatures, that were most likely issued for instructional purposes. They are printed face side only on blue paper and can be found with the usual run of lower denominations that might be encountered in ordinary business situations: ?$1,? ?$2,? ?$10,? ?$50,? and perhaps other denominations. Schingoethe does not list them. The 5 denominated note for Baylies? Commercial College. The 1000 denominated note for Baylies Mercantile College. _____________________________________________________________ Paper Money * July/August 2020 * Whole No. 328___________________________________________ 231 As the Schingoethe?s point out, Cornelius Bayless apparently sold the Keokuk branch to William Miller in 1871. Miller continued to operate the school through the 1870s, but under yet another change of name. There are two denominations of notes, a ?100? note and a ?1000? note (that I know of) that have the name presented as ?First National Bank OF GREAT MERCANTILE COLLEGE KEOKUK STATE OF IOWA. On these notes ?W.H. Miller? has signed as president and ?F. Longwith? has signed as cashier. Both of these notes, along with the 1000 note from Baylies Mercantile College, were printed by A Gast & Co., St. Louis. Schingoethe does not list the 1000 denominated Great Mercantile College note. Again, as noted by the Schingoethe?s, the Great Mercantile College underwent another change of ownership in the early 1880s. The new owner is Chandler H. Pierce. He evidently thought there was an adequate supply of college currency on hand, and that he did not need to add to this supply any additional notes, even though he changed the name of the institution to Peirce?s Business College. Instead, he used a rubber stamp with this name on it to update some of the notes. By 1890 Pierce had changed the name of his business college once again, renaming it the Gate City Business College. In 1894 it was reported that half of the upper floors were being used as a "strictly first- class hotel with elevator and all modern conveniences." These modern conveniences included new furnishings and hot and cold running water. They may have led to an increase in the rent Pierce was paying or there may simply have been a decline in his school?s enrollment. Business conditions throughout the United States in the 1890s were not good. In any event, late in 1894 C.H. Pierce accepted a position of Supervisor of Writing with the Evansville, Indiana, City Schools, and that was the end of the Gate City Business College in Keokuk. From 1866 on, through all of its name and ownership changes, Keokuk?s business college had remained in the Estes House. Initially, it had also been considered a good location for shops, offices and a meeting hall, but even in the years just after the Civil War it was most likely seen as somewhat deficient in the amenities of a first-class hotel. Most notably, it had been constructed without even the provision for indoor plumbing. All water had to be carried up as many as five flights of stairs to be used for bathing, shaving or drinking. The courtyard in the middle of this 200+ room hotel contained one of the seven wonders of the American West: a five-story, cone-shaped outhouse, a marvel of mid-nineteenth century engineering that ran all the hotel?s waste out to a sewer on Morgan Street and then into the Mississippi River. Flushing out this system was accomplished through a combination of used water that had been carried up to guests and rainwater from the roof, all of which was directed to the central outhouse. It was not a system that worked very well after a prolonged dry spell. Still, several prominent Keokuk attorneys had their offices in the Estes House, including William W. Belknap, one of Keokuk's Civil War generals, who later became Secretary of War in the cabinet of Ulysses S. Grant until he resigned just ahead of being impeached by the House Of Representatives. That 1876 impeachment effort was led by Representative Hiester Clymer, who many years earlier had been Belknap?s college roommate at Princeton. Belknap had been accused of receiving kickbacks from men he had appointed to post traderships on the western frontier. The kickbacks soon became established fact, The 100 and 1000 denominated note for the Great Mercantile College, Keokuk. _____________________________________________________________ Paper Money * July/August 2020 * Whole No. 328___________________________________________ 232 but they had been arranged by his second and third wives. They were sisters, the third Mrs. Belknap succeeding her sister some months after the second Mrs. Belknap?s death. It was never determined if Belknap actually knew where the money was coming from, and in the subsequent Senate trial a number of acquittal votes were based on the fact that Belknap had resigned prior to any congressional action. In 1866 the shop at the main entrance to the Estes House was the clothing emporium of Marks and Ehrlich. The firm was listed in an 1866-1867 city directory for Keokuk but not in the 1868 directory. It issued an advertising note that leaves off the ?s? at the end of Marks? name, though it can be seen in his signature as well as in the directory. This ?5? denominated note reads ?No. 3 ? Estes House United States MARK & EHRLICH CLOTHING EMPORIUM Keokuk, IOWA Call and See H. Ehrlich, Treas. Abe Marks, Pres. A. McLean lith. Alexander McLean, like August Gast, was a prominent St. Louis lithographer in the 1860s. This note is not listed in Vlack?s Early North American Advertising Notes. We know little about Abe Marks and even less about H. Ehrlich. Abraham Marks (1841-1892) and his wife Jeanette (1842-1904) had a daughter, Dora, who was born in Keokuk October 28, 1868. Both Abraham and Jeanette died in St. Joseph, Missouri, which is probably where they went to live not long after the birth of Dora. H. Ehrlich, apparently the junior partner in the firm, may also have moved to St. Joseph. He may have been single while living in Keokuk, and so may have lived at the Estes House, which might be why there is no separate directory listing for him. When the Estes House was torn down in 1928 several treasures that included paper money were found. A local newspaper reported that in the walls a pocketbook was found that contained $50 in well-worn U.S. notes?so worn that some doubted if it would be possible to turn them in for newer notes. No record was kept of who found or who got to keep this money. Then, as the demolition continued, more money was found: three $1000 notes, a source of some curiosity, for the notes were not U.S. currency. Some later speculation was that these notes may have been issued by the State of Iowa or even by the City of Keokuk, both of which did issue paper money in the years before the Civil War. However, neither Iowa nor Keokuk issued notes of a higher denomination than $10. Most likely these notes were issued by either Baylies College or by the Great Mercantile College. Finally, in August, as the demolition got down to ground level, anticipation grew about the remaining, well- known treasure of the Estes House: the contents of its cornerstone. It was known to contain a bottle of Catawba wine, copies of three city newspapers, a one- dollar bill of City of Keokuk scrip, an 1857 one cent coin, an 1854 three cent piece, an 1857 quarter, a copy of Mayor Hawkins inaugural speech and a list of the premiums of the Lee County Fair. Gathered together for the opening of the cornerstone was nearly every Keokuk dignitary, so you can imagine their dismay upon discovering that the cornerstone had been looted! The wine had been drunk and the rest of the treasure was missing. Within hours two men had been taken into custody. (Could it have been wine on their breath that gave them away?) However, both men denied their participation and no evidence could be found to back up the charges against them, so they had to be set free. The contents of the cornerstone were never recovered. Works Consulted ? ?Bayless Business College.? Encyclopedia Dubuque. www.envuclopediadubuque.com. ? Bickel, R.J. ?The Estes House.? The Annals of Iowa, 40(6) Fall 1970: 427-444. ? Keokuk General Directory, City Guide, and Business Mirror? for 1866-?67. Keokuk, Iowa: Rees? Book and Job Printing Office, (1866). ? Lee County Gazetteer, Containing? City Directories of Keokuk and Fort Madison, (etc.) Chicago, IL: J.F. Coffman & Co., 1868. ? Shrock, J. ?Rise and Progress of Business Education in Iowa.? The Annals of Iowa, 7(3) July 1869: 294-299. ? plus, several issues, available online, of The American Penman and Business Educator. The 5 denominated note for the Mark & Ehrlich Clothing Emporium. _____________________________________________________________ Paper Money * July/August 2020 * Whole No. 328___________________________________________ 233 The Paper Column Peter Huntoon Napier-Burke Nationals are Sleepers Two common signatures on large size notes are those of Register of the Treasury James C. Napier and Treasurer John Burke. Napier served from May 18, 1911 to October 1, 1913; Burke from April 1, 1913 to January 5, 1921. Both of those terms of office were sufficiently long that their signatures got on plenty of printing plates in both type and national bank note series. The big deal, though, was that Napier was leaving as Burke was arriving so the two overlapped for only six months between April 1 and October 1, 1913. Only six other signature combinations were current for shorter periods during the large note era. Although their signatures are common when mated with other officials, they are decidedly scarce when paired. Type note collectors have long recognized that the Napier- Burke combination is a rarity The fact is that the combination didn?t even make it to most type note plates. It appeared only on $100 and $10,000 Series of 1882 and $1000 Series of 1907 gold certificates, and $10,000 Series of 1900 certificates of deposit. Figure 1. James C. Napier, born a slave, served as Register of the Treasury from 1911 to 1913 under President Taft. Blackpast.org photo. Figure 2. Honest John Burke, governor of North Dakota, was appointed U. S. Treasurer by Woodrow Wilson, a post that he held from 1913 to 1921. Library of Congress photo. _____________________________________________________________ Paper Money * July/August 2020 * Whole No. 328___________________________________________ 234 Of these four, you would expect one of the canceled 1900 $10,000s to be the most readily available because plenty of the type are floating around. But none with Napier-Burke signatures have been reported yet despite the fact that 6,000 were printed. It turns out that the 1882 $100s are the most readily available so you can purchase a used one for a couple of thousand bucks. The Napier-Burke combination is available on national bank notes, but only on Series of 1902 date and plain backs. A total of only 85 national banks received 1902 notes with the combination. This compares to 132 that got notes with Napier-Thompson signatures. Astute national bank note collectors delight in finding a Napier-Thompson note, but few would notice if a scarcer Napier-Burke passed through their hands! The Napier-Burke is a sleeper. The combination hasn?t received its due from national bank note collectors because most could care less what treasury signatures are on their notes. The more recognizable Napier- Thompson combination was current for a little over four months. Far fewer banks got Napier- Burke notes despite the fact that the combination was current for six months. The Series of 1882 still was current when the Napier-Burke combination came along in 1913, but the only way an 1882-issuing bank could receive notes with it would be if the bank received approval for a title change while the combination was current. New plates would have been prepared bearing the new title. The important thing is that the new plates would carry the title change date so Napier=s and Burke=s signatures would be mated with it. No 1882-issuing banks applied for a new title during their joint tenure so it didn?t happen. That=s too bad because it would have yielded 1882 Napier-Burke date and even value backs. Table 1 is a list of all the banks that received Napier-Burke Series of 1902 notes. There are enough of them that type collectors who have to have the combination can obtain it with a bit of searching. The way that a bank made it to this list was that the plate date had to have fallen within the period when the Napier-Burke combination was current, regardless of how that plate date came about. There were six exceptions. Often the previous signature combination was used on plates made for the first banks that were extended after a new signature combination became current between 1911 and 1922. The result was that the first six banks that were extended during the Napier-Burke era in April 1913 ended up with Napier-Thompson signatures. These were 2106 Figure 3. Type collectors desiring the Napier-Burke signature combination have to fight over big ticket gold certificates to have the opportunity unless they will accept a national bank note. Heritage Auction Archives photo. _____________________________________________________________ Paper Money * July/August 2020 * Whole No. 328___________________________________________ 235 FNB of Missoula, MT (Apr 11, 1913), 2108 Union Market NB of Watertown, MA (Apr 11, 1913), 4910 Columbia NB of Pittsburgh, PA (Apr 3, 1913), 4897 FNB of Cresco, IA (Apr 7, 1913), 4900 Citizens NB of Hillsboro, TX (Apr 12, 1913), 4901 Second NB of Vincennes, IN (Apr 12, 1913) and 4902 FNB of Blanchard, IA (Apr 13, 1913). Some of the banks that received Napier-Burke notes would flame anyone who came into possession of one. The stellar example is a note from one of the 200 sheets of 10-10-10-20 1902 dates banks sent to The First National Bank of Paia, Territory of Hawaii!. Obviously such a note would command attention, but forget it. The bankers never circulated any. Instead they held on to their entire stock of sheets and sent them back to the Treasury for redemption when they liquidated their bank in 1917. A truly great Napier-Burke note that is possible, but which hasn?t turned up, is a note from The First National Bank of Seeley, a minimally capitalized California bank. A note from that bank ranks as one of the most eagerly sought of all the little California banks, being from a wide spot on old US 80 in Imperial County a little west of El Centro and some ten miles north of the Mexican border. The town is all but gone today with at most possibly a little of the foundation of the bank visible. The bank was the last to receive Napier-Burke notes. A favorite Napier-Burke issue of mine is from The Farmers National Bank of Hydro, Oklahoma, because I was educated as a hydrologist. This is from a small bank in a small town just north of I40 half way between Oklahoma City and the Texas line. The bank was organized in 1913 and liquidated three years later after issuing a handful of notes. Two notes are reported from the bank. Figure 4. The Napier-Burke signature combination graces the to-die- for but impossible notes shipped to The First National Bank of Paia, Territory of Hawaii, charter 10451. Figure 5. One of the most sought notes from California is from wide-spot- in-the-road Seeley, charter 10462, which happens to sport Napier-Burke signatures. _____________________________________________________________ Paper Money * July/August 2020 * Whole No. 328___________________________________________ 236 Not all states had banks that received Napier-Burke notes. Notes from only 28 states and the Territory of Hawaii sported them. James Carroll Napier was born a slave June 9, 1845 in Nashville, Tennessee. He and his family were freed when he was three years old. By 1864, Napier had become involved in politics and worked alongside Ohio Republican Congressman John Mercer Langston on behalf of newly freed Blacks. He studied law at Howard University in Washington, D.C., where he earned a law degree in 1872. He then married Lanston=s daughter Nettie in 1873. He returned to Nashville in 1878 to become the first African-American to preside over the Nashville City Council, where he served until 1886. He was instrumental in the hiring of Black teachers in public schools for Blacks. He organized the Nashville One-Cent Savings Bank in 1904, the first bank in Tennessee owned by an African-American. He was appointed Register of the Treasury by Republican President William H. Taft whereupon he served from 1911 to 1913. He died April 21, 1940, at age 94. John Burke was born February 25, 1859 in Sigourney, Iowa, and earned a law degree from the University of Iowa in 1886. He moved to Dakota Territory in 1888 and, after North Dakota was admitted to the union, he served in the state House of Representatives in 1891 and Senate from 1893 to 1895. He married Mary E. Kane, a teacher, on August 22, 1891. He then served three terms (1907B1913) as the tenth Governor of North Dakota esteemed as a man of unquestioned integrity. ?Honest@ John?s greatest accomplishment was ridding North Dakota of corrupt political control. He initiated many reforms, including regulation of lobbying, establishment of a tax commission, and laws providing for the first primary election. He supported legislation regarding child labor, juvenile courts, and an employment compensation commission. His concern for public welfare was reflected in food and sanitation laws; a public health law; and regulation of medicine, surgery and public utilities. Burke enthusiastically supported Woodrow Wilson at the 1912 Democratic National Convention in Baltimore where he swung all of North Dakota's votes to Wilson on the first ballot. William Jennings Bryan, himself a supporter of Wilson and also a good friend of Burke's, wanted Burke to run for Vice-President. Burke demurred owing to a promise he had given Indiana delegates for their votes. As a result, Thomas Marshall of Indiana was chosen Vice-President. Burke was appointed United States Treasurer by Wilson where he served from 1913 to 1921. Later he was elected as a justice on the North Dakota Supreme Court from 1924 until his death on May 14, 1937. During that period, he served as Chief Justice from 1929 to 1931 and from 1935 to 1937. Burke County, North Dakota was named in his honor. The State of North Dakota donated a statue of Burke to the United States Capitol National Statuary Hall Collection in 1963. Figure 6. Ground water hydrologist Huntoon=s favorite Napier- Burke notes were issued from Hydro, Oklahoma, charter 10442. _____________________________________________________________ Paper Money * July/August 2020 * Whole No. 328___________________________________________ 237 Biographical Sources Asanta, Molefi K., and Mark T. Mattson, 1998, The African-American Atlas, Black History and Culture, an Illustrated Reference: Macmillan USA, Simon & Schuster, New York, 251 p. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Burke_(politician) https://www.aoc.gov/capitol-hill/national-statuary-hall-collection/john-burke Table 1. National banks that issued Series of 1902 date or plain backs bearing Napier-Burke Treasury signatures. The number of issuing banks was 85 compared to 132 for Napier-Thompson. The Napier-Burke combination was current April 1, 1913 through October 1, 1913. There were no Series of 1882 Napier-Burke issuers. Code for why the bank received Napier-Burke plates: N = newly organized bank, E = extended, T = title change. Ch. No. Location Bank Name Plate Date Code 252 PA Pittsburgh The First-Second National Bank of Apr 21, 1913 T 906 KY Lexington The First and City National Bank of Aug 8, 1913 T 2114 TN Fayetteville The First National Bank of Jun 9, 1913 E 2116 IL Griggsville The Griggsville National Bank May 13, 1913 E 2117 NY Ellenville The Home National Bank of May 6, 1913 E 2119 IN Plymouth The First National Bank of Marshall County at Jun 19, 1913 E 2125 WI Chippewa Falls The First National Bank of May 1, 1913 E 2126 IL Lincoln The First National Bank of Jul 29, 1913 E 2127 TN Memphis The Central-State National Bank of Jul 26, 1913 E 2128 IL Shelbyville The First National Bank of Aug 21, 1913 E 2129 CO Central City The First National Bank of Sep 15, 1913 E 2130 IA Red Oak The First National Bank of Sep 24, 1913 E 3417 WA Tacoma The National Bank of Sep 2, 1913 T 4319 AL Jacksonville The First National Bank of Apr 7, 1913 T 4857 PA Patton The First National Bank of Sep 13, 1913 E 4868 ME Portland The Chapman National Bank of Sep 16, 1913 E 4904 IL Carbondale The First National Bank of Apr 15, 1913 E 4905 TX Hempstead The Farmers National Bank of Apr 15, 1913 E 4907 MA Springfield The Springfield National Bank Apr 22, 1913 E 4908 PA Reynoldsville The First National Bank of Apr 20, 1913 E 4912 WI Stevens Point The Citizens National Bank of Apr 27, 1913 E 4913 PA New Kensington The First National Bank of May 6, 1913 E 4914 NY Matteawan The Matteawan National Bank May 9, 1913 E 4915 PA Athens The Farmers National Bank of May 1, 1913 E 4916 MN Wadena The Merchants National Bank of May 15, 1913 E 4917 PA Newport The First National Bank of May 8, 1913 E 4918 PA Pittsburgh Western National Bank of May 18, 1913 T 4919 PA Blairsville The Blairsville National Bank Jun 9, 1913 E 4920 IL Decatur The National Bank of May 16, 1913 E 4921 IA Waukon The First National Bank of Apr 22, 1913 E 4922 TX Atlanta The First National Bank of May 13, 1913 E 4923 PA Ephrata The Farmer's National Bank of May 27, 1913 E 4925 NY Liberty The Sullivan County National Bank of May 29, 1913 E 4926 MD Frostburg The Citizens National Bank of May 24, 1913 E 4927 PA North East The First National Bank of Jun 3, 1913 E 4928 MN Owatonna The National Farmers Bank of May 29, 1913 E 4929 VT Chelsea The National Bank of Orange County at Sep 9, 1913 E 4930 IL Normal The First National Bank of Jul 3, 1913 E 4937 WI Appleton The Citizens National Bank of Jun 1, 1913 E _____________________________________________________________ Paper Money * July/August 2020 * Whole No. 328___________________________________________ 238 6535 IL Chicago The Drovers National Bank of May 22, 1913 T 8230 ND Lidgerwood The Farmers National Bank of Sep 6, 1913 T 8827 CA Los Angeles Security National Bank of Sep 2, 1913 T 9966 CA Alhambra The Alhambra National Bank May 27, 1913 T 10416 SD Henry The First National Bank of Apr 30, 1913 N 10417 NJ Lyndhurst The First National Bank of May 20, 1913 N 10418 TX Krum The First National Bank of Jun 26, 1913 N 10419 IN Fishers The Fishers National Bank Jul 5, 1913 N 10420 TX Freeport The Freeport National Bank Apr 23, 1913 N 10421 AL Enterprise The Farmers and Merchants National Bank of Jul 2, 1913 N 10422 AR Green Forest The First National Bank of Jun 7, 1913 N 10423 AL New Decatur The Central National Bank of Jul 10, 1913 N 10424 OK Broken Bow The First National Bank of Jul 3, 1913 N 10425 ND East Fairview The First National Bank of Jun 19, 1913 N 10426 TX Omaha The First National Bank of Jul 7, 1913 N 10427 CA Riverbank First National Bank of Jun 26, 1913 N 10428 IA Mason City The Security National Bank of Jul 16, 1913 N 10429 ID Rupert The First National Bank of Jul 29, 1913 N 10430 NJ Westville The First National Bank of Jul 16, 1913 N 10431 OK Tishomingo The Farmers National Bank of Jul 23, 1913 N 10432 OR Paisley Paisley National Bank of Jul 14, 1913 N 10433 KY Whitesburg The First National Bank of Jul 14, 1913 N 10434 AR Morrilton The First National Bank of Jul 19, 1913 N 10435 CA San Diego The Union National Bank of Jul 23, 1913 N 10436 OH Haviland The Farmers National Bank of Aug 1, 1913 N 10437 OK Braggs The First National Bank of Aug 1, 1913 N 10438 MT Plentywood The First National Bank of May 12, 1913 N 10439 AR Judsonia The First National Bank of Jul 3, 1913 N 10440 NJ Minotola The First National Bank of Jul 25, 1913 N 10441 AL Boaz The First National Bank of Sep 1, 1913 N 10442 OK Hydro The Farmers National Bank of Aug 9, 1913 N 10443 MT Baker The First National Bank of Aug 19, 1913 N 10444 NY Forestville The First National Bank of Sep 3, 1913 N 10445 IL Mounds The First National Bank of Aug 29, 1913 N 10446 NY Heuvelton The First National Bank of Mar 28, 1913 N 10447 AR Horatio The First National Bank of Aug 15, 1913 N 10448 KY Bowling Green The Warren National Bank of Sep 8, 1913 N 10449 TN Ripley The First National Bank of Sep 6, 1913 N 10450 WV Worthington The First National Bank of Apr 14, 1913 N 10451 HI Paia The First National Bank of Jul 29, 1913 N 10452 PA Strausstown The Strausstown National Bank Jul 19, 1913 N 10453 CA Gardena The First National Bank of Sep 10, 1913 N 10455 WV Wheeling The Citizens National Bank of Jun 7, 1913 N 10456 NY Jeffersonville The First National Bank of Sep 8, 1913 N 10459 AR Stuttgart The First National Bank of Sep 25, 1913 N 10462 CA Seeley The First National Bank of Sep 5, 1913 N _____________________________________________________________ Paper Money * July/August 2020 * Whole No. 328___________________________________________ 239 L otel & vations: Central States Numismatic Society 81st?Anniversary Convention Schaumburg, I Schaumburg Renaissance H Convention Center April 21-24, 2021 Early?Birds:?April?21???11am?3pm;?$125?Registration? Fee?Public?Hours:?Wednesday?Saturday? No Pesky Sales Tax in Illinois Hotel Reser Schaumburg Renaissance Hotel - 1551 North Thoreau Drive ? Call (847) 303-4100 Ask for the ?Central States Numismatic Society? Convention Rate. Problems booking? - Call Convention Chairman Kevin Foley at (414) 807-0116 Free Hotel Guest and Visitor Parking. Visit our website: www.centralstatesnumismaticsociety.org? Bourse Information: Patricia Foley foleylawoffice@gmail.com ? Numismatic Educational Forum ? Educational Exhibits ? 300 Booth Bourse Area ? Heritage Coin Signature Sale ? Heritage Currency Signature Sale ? Educational Programs ? Club and Society Meetings ? Free Hotel Guest and Visitor Parking ? $5?Daily?Registraton?Fee?/?$10???4?Day?Pass Wednesday???Thursday???Friday???Saturday Now Including: The Chicago Coin Expo ? a foreign and ancient specialty event Also including: The National Currency Convention ? a rare currency specialty event sponsored by the PCDA The National Howard Bank of Baltimore, Md., Charter 4218 by J. Fred Maples The National Howard Bank of Baltimore, Md., Charter 4218 was converted to the national system in 1890 with Dr. John R. Hooper, president, and Thomas P. Amoss, cashier. As reported by the Baltimore Sun on January 9, 1890: ?The stockholders of the Howard Bank of Baltimore held a meeting yesterday at Benson's Hall, on North Howard street, and unanimously resolved to change from a state bank to a national bank. The name of the new institution will be the National Howard Bank of Baltimore.? The bank was reportedly named for Baltimore patriot John Eager Howard, a Revolutionary War hero, governor, and U.S. senator. As expected the bank continued successfully at its Howard Street location, but by 1903 its growth warranted erection of a larger building in the same location, of ?very handsome design? and including an adjoining lot. This bank operated for 25 years before consolidating with The National Exchange Bank of Baltimore, charter 1109, in 1915. This bank issued $1,064,650 in 1882 Series and 1902 Series notes, while averaging about $70,000 in circulation, but increased its circulation nicely in 1907 and 1909. While just a few notes are available for collectors today, one resides in the Smithsonian Institution, and one in the Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia. As president Hooper was followed by the equally successful Henry Clark from 1894 to 1915, and Amoss was followed as cashier by William H. Roberts, Jr. from 1892 to 1915. Interestingly Hooper was an amateur astronomer, and Halley's Comet authority, who observed and lectured on the comet in 1910. Hooper was fortunate as the comet is only visible from Earth every 75-76 years. As cashier Amoss was a successful bookkeeper and businessman, who lived a long and productive life, but was unlucky in love, and widowed three times. Clark was a shoe manufacturer, and earlier from Massachusetts, who came to Baltimore in 1856. Roberts, son of a produce dealer, was a career bookkeeper and a bachelor. The best note known from this bank today is this $100 1882 Brown Back, Friedberg # 524, certified by PMG as Extra Fine 40. This note is wonderful in all respects, combining rarity and grade, with great color, pen signatures, broad margins, and eye appeal. This note is one of just eight known $100 Brown Backs from Figure 1: $100 1882 Brown Back. The National Howard Bank of Baltimore, Md. Ex-Grinnell Lot 1255. The bank was named for Baltimore patriot John Eager Howard, a hero of the War of 1812. This note was issued to the bank on December 19, 1904, where pen signatures of W.H. Roberts, cashier, and Henry Clark, president, were applied. This bank issued 2,640 sheets of $50 and $100 1882 Brown Backs between 1890 and 1908. _____________________________________________________________ Paper Money * July/August 2020 * Whole No. 328___________________________________________ 241 Maryland, and according to the National Bank Note Census, the highest grade $100 from the state. This note has a distinguished pedigree -- most notably from the Albert Grinnell sale in the 1940s, Part III, lot 1255. Recently this note was a highlight of Marc Watts? Maryland collection before selling for $31,200 in Heritage?s 2018 FUN sale, lot 20878. Previously this note sold in Lyn Knight?s February 2000 auction for $30,800, and a Stacks auction in 1990 for $6,325. The 1882 Brown Back national currency series was created by the Act of July 11, 1882. The new legislation was required to allow extensions of the earliest national bank charters, and formation of new ones. The Act required new notes to look distinctly different, resulting in the new design, and the backs of notes were changed to create the Brown Back style of that color. Banks that extended their charter from mid-1882 until 1902, and any new bank chartered during that period, received notes of this Brown Back type for up to 20 years, even as new Series of 1902 notes were introduced to other banks. Indeed 1882 Brown Backs were printed until March 1908, when the Aldrich-Vreeland Act mandated new wording on notes, and production of 1882 and 1902 Date Backs took over. The layouts of $100 1882 Brown Backs are stunning in every way. Refer to Figure 1 -- top left this note is highlighted by the distinctive Roman numeral C, followed by the decimal 100. Below the left decimal 100 is the beautiful vignette named "Commodore Perry's Victory on Lake Champlain", which depicts Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry leaving his flagship, the Lawrence, during the Battle of Lake Erie in 1813. In the center is the bank?s official name ?The National Howard Bank of Baltimore? in four interesting fonts. Immediately left and right of ?The? in the bank?s name are facsimile signatures of W.S. Rosecrans, Register of the Treasury, and J.N. Huston, Treasurer of the United States, although Huston?s signature is obscured by the bank?s charter number. Immediately right of the charter number is the regional letter ?E? for East ? both are overprinted in reddish brown. Regional letters helped workers with sorting and redemption, and their use started in 1902. Nearby the Treasury seal is also overprinted in reddish brown. Top right the distinctive Roman numeral C is repeated, followed by the decimal 100. Just below the decimal 100 is this note's treasury serial number, B411125, which was unique across all banks. Separately this note can be identified by its bank serial 1869-A, but that serial is only unique to this bank. And finally, the right vignette is a depiction of Liberty, seated by a fasces representing the Union, along with the message ?Maintain It!?. Figure 1: Reverse of $100 1882 Brown Back, treasury serial B411125. The National Howard Bank of Baltimore, Md. At far left and below the decimal 100, is a vignette with Maryland?s official state seal, including a farmer and his spade, a shield, coat of arms, and a fisherman. At center the bank?s charter # 4218 is prominent in large blue-green numerals. Far right is a vignette of a majestic perched eagle. _____________________________________________________________ Paper Money * July/August 2020 * Whole No. 328___________________________________________ 242 Refer to Figure 2 for the reverse of this $100 1882 Brown Back and its distinctive style. While the bank?s charter is featured in the center, with a perched eagle on the right, a vignette with the Maryland state seal is included on the left. While this note was issued (and likely printed) in 1904, Brown Backs printed before 1896 used an older state seal. During its history Maryland has used multiple seals, with the newer and present Maryland seal being adopted by the Maryland General Assembly in 1876. The newer seal relates back to the days of Maryland's original settlements, with a farmer with his spade, a shield, coat of arms, and a fisherman. William S. Rosecrans (1819?1898), served as the Register of the Treasury from 1885 to 1893, but was also an American inventor, coal-oil company executive, diplomat, politician, and U.S. Army officer. Rosecrans gained fame for his role as a Union general during the American Civil War, and was victorious in prominent Western Theater battles, but his military career was effectively over with his disastrous defeat at the Battle of Chickamauga in 1863. Rosecrans spent much of his postwar life in California, and was elected to Congress as a Democrat in 1880. The first Democratic president elected after the war was Grover Cleveland in 1884, and newspaper reports say Rosecrans was seriously considered to be Cleveland?s Secretary of War, but instead Rosecrans was appointed as the Register of the Treasury. James N. Huston (1849?1927) was a banker, businessman, and politician who served as Treasurer of the United States from 1889 to 1891, as appointed by President Benjamin Harrison. Huston, like Harrison, was a Republican. Huston was in a number of business ventures, including coffins, milling, silver plating, buggies, hosiery, and gas. After leaving office, Huston later became president of the National Trust Company, but was charged and convicted of mail fraud with two associates in 1910. Baltimore is Maryland's largest city and birthplace of the Star-Spangled Banner. Baltimore acquired its name "The Monumental City" after an 1827 visit and toast by President John Quincy Adams. Originally Baltimore was part of Baltimore County but seceded in 1851 to become an independent city. Baltimore's history dates back long before the American Revolution, when its main industry was the refinement of sugar cane from the Caribbean. During the War of 1812, the British attacked Fort McHenry from land and sea after burning Washington, D.C., but were repulsed from both directions. This historic battle was the setting for Francis Scott Key's Star-Spangled Banner. During the Civil War Maryland was a border state, but didn?t secede from the Union. However, when Union soldiers marched through the city at the start of the war, Confederate sympathizers attacked the troops, which led to the Baltimore Riot of 1861. Baltimore?s history also includes the Great Baltimore Fire of February 7th and 8th, 1904, which destroyed several banks and hundreds of buildings ? but not this bank. After much of the city was rebuilt over the next two years, the Baltimore American reported the city had risen from the ashes, and "one of the great disasters of modern time had been converted into a blessing." Indeed, it had. Welcome Bill Litt ? New SPMC Governor William Litt started collecting U.S. paper money in 1980, at the age of thirteen, after having collected coins for several years. He saw his first National Bank Note, a 1902 example from the Bank of Italy in San Francisco, while working on Saturdays at a neighborhood coin shop. Soon after acquiring that note, he bought a beautiful EF 1902 $5 from the Crocker First National Bank of San Francisco, from John Heleva, a note he still has in his collection. When he found out by looking in the back of the Friedberg book that two National Banks in his hometown of Palo Alto, California, issued Nationals, he set out to acquire them. He succeeded in finding a note from the more common bank while still in eighth grade, and added an example from the rare, large-size only institution before graduating from high school. Since the early 1980s, Bill has been an active collector of, and part-time dealer in, U.S. currency, with a particular love of Nationals and National Bank memorabilia. He collects seven counties in Northern and Central California, and enjoys dealing in Nationals from across the country. Bill is married, with one teenage stepson and two dogs. He graduated from Cornell University and the UCLA School of Law, and has practiced law since 1993. He currently is a Deputy County Counsel for Monterey County, California. _____________________________________________________________ Paper Money * July/August 2020 * Whole No. 328___________________________________________ 243 Pat Lyon at the Forge by Terry A. Bryan The blacksmith was an important member of every community from ancient times. Gods in many cultures were identified with forging, thunder, fire or lightning. Techniques used in iron foundry were derived from earlier copper, gold and bronze workings. There is evidence of iron forming back to 1500 B.C. The second most famous American blacksmith was Patrick Lyon (1769-1829). Admittedly, John Deere became more famous. Lyon?s fame originated with riveting news of a huge bank robbery, then a landmark court case, and finally an admired oil portrait. Dramatization of his story appeared on stage in 1858. Lyon rose from ordinary workingman to wealthy Philadelphia businessman, but he never presumed to be a ?gentleman?. His outlook remained influenced by his humble beginning and by his ill-treatment by Philadelphia?s upper crust. Engraving companies and bankers sought images to grace their currency. Famous news items and paintings were rendered into engraved work for printing reproduction. Prideful representations of ships and railroads on local money would suggest the vigorous commerce of a town. Blacksmith images became one of the most common vignettes on United States Obsolete Currency. The smith was recognizable by all, and he represented business vitality, labor and craftsmanship. Many different engraved vignettes of blacksmiths and farriers are found. Several engravers copied John B. Neagle?s life- sized portrait of blacksmith Pat Lyon, and the image was variously re-worked or improved. There were many uses of this portrait on currency, scrip and checks from about 1832 onwards. Roger Durand attributes one Lyon vignette to the artist?s son, engraver John B. Neagle, Junior. The use of his image on currency is not the only connection Pat Lyon has to numismatics. People in his story figure into many aspects of money history. Artist John Neagle (1796-1865) was born in Boston. Early talent was recognized, and he studied under several reputed artists of his time. Most of his life was spent as a portrait artist in Philadelphia. He married a (step-) daughter of portrait artist, Thomas Sully (1783-1872). [Prolific vignette designer Felix Octavius Carr Darley (1822-1888) married another of Sully?s daughters.] Neagle made two business trips with his friend, James Barton Longacre (1794-1869), also a portraitist and later chief engraver of the U.S. Mint for 23 years. Longacre designed several U.S. coins, among them the Indian Head Cent. Neagle was gaining a reputation when businessman Pat Lyon commissioned a portrait in 1825. Lyon was emphatic in his requirements: ?I wish you, sir, to paint me at full length, the size of life, representing me at the smithery, with my bellows-blower, hammers, and all the et-ceteras of the shop around me. I have no desire to be represented in the picture as a gentleman - to which character I have no pretension. I want you to paint me at work at my anvil, with my sleeves rolled up and a leather apron on.? - Patrick Lyon Presumably, Lyon also specified that his late- lamented apprentice appear in the picture. The site of Lyon?s imprisonment in 1798 was also added to the composition. The instructions were so rigid that Neagle went to a blacksmith shop to measure the tools for accuracy. Lyon and the artist were so busy during this time, that Neagle had trouble scheduling sittings, and the job extended into January, 1827. The large portrait (93?x68?) caused a sensation. Lyon?s personal picture now resides at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Arts in Philadelphia, and he sold the earlier version, now at the Boston Museum of Fine Arts. The Boston painting is considered more finely painted, but the Philadelphia version has more detail and vividness. The painting insured further lucrative commissions from substantial citizens, and Neagle achieved success. One aspect of public acclaim was the unique setting of a working man in ordinary John Neagle?s portrait Pat Lyon at the Forge gained national fame. Lyon sold this copy in Boston and had a second painted. _____________________________________________________________ Paper Money * July/August 2020 * Whole No. 328___________________________________________ 244 clothes. This is considered a first in American portraiture. People wealthy enough to afford a painter usually flaunted their success by their fine dress and surrounded by symbols of status. The laborer celebrated in a painting was a new concept for the time, and the public was astonished. The man and the picture somehow typified the American Work Ethic, such as earlier espoused by the likes of Ben Franklin. Patrick Lyon was born in London about 1769 and immigrated about age 25 in 1793. He gained a reputation as a mature expert workman and within 5 years had a shop with four or five apprentices. It is known that he taught his helpers basic math and geometry, and apparently treated them well. The Philadelphia portrait includes a diagram of Pythagoras? Theorem, perhaps a reference to Masonic membership, perhaps to his reliance on science over the unpredictability of people, or to his teaching of apprentices. One apprentice appears prominently in Lyon?s story. Another major facet of the tale involves yellow fever. After coming to America, both Lyon?s wife and a daughter died of the terrible infection. The periodic epidemics continued to influence Pat Lyon?s life. The Bank of Pennsylvania was founded in 1793, and closed during the Panic of 1857 due to gross mismanagement. Their first location was in a Masonic Hall, possibly a converted Philadelphia dwelling. Pat Lyon contracted to build iron doors for the ?book vault?. The bankers supplied locks that he found to be questionable. A few months later, someone attempted to break in. Doubts about the security of the location influenced the decision to seek better quarters. The next summer?s fever season coincided with the Bank?s move. A vacancy occurred at the more prestigious Carpenters? Hall, when the [First] Bank of the United States shifted to their new building in 1797. Carpenters? Hall was built in 1775, and it is still in the hands of its original owners, the Carpenters Company of the City and County of Philadelphia. The first Continental Congress met in the unfinished hall in 1774. The building was occupied by the British in 1777, and it served as a hospital for both sides during the Revolution. Ben Franklin?s Library Company and the American Philosophical Society were tenants. The Bank of North America and both the First and Second Banks of the United States rented there. It was briefly the U.S. Customs Office for Philadelphia. The new location suited the Bank of Pennsylvania better. However, the bankers were unwise to economize on security. They hired Pat Lyon to alter the old iron doors of the ?book vault? to fit the cash vault of the new location. The bank?s ledgers were kept in a book vault, mainly to guard against fire. Initially, cash was kept in an iron chest. One lock recycled on the old doors secured the street door of the first location. The other lock was similar to a brass latch on a ship?s cabin. Lyon agreed to alter the doors, but again he warned the supervising bank carpenter that the locks were not adequate security for the money vault. Later, a witness testified that newer locks were obtained, but Pat warned that ?any ironmonger? could supply keys for these cheap devices. Lyon finished the doors in his shop while being urged to hurry the installation. This was August of 1798?prime Yellow Fever Season. Yellow fever is caused by a virus spread largely by mosquitos. Today it is controlled by vaccination and by mosquito control measures. The disease is thought to have been brought from Africa by the slave trade. Outbreaks occurred in the 1600s. In 1793, it is estimated that 9-10% of Philadelphia?s population died. Terrible fevers, headache and chills were followed by liver and kidney failure. Catastrophic bleeding was caused by deficiency of clotting factors. Primitive medical intervention, such as bloodletting, made it worse. It was truly horrible, and of course, not understood at the time. The outbreak in Philadelphia in 1798 killed an estimated 1,300 people. Summers in plague areas were the time when cities were deserted by those who could afford to leave. Pat Lyon and his apprentice, James (Jamie) McGinley, age 19, a ?favorite of him? got the work done and sped to the docks to secure transport out of town. They sailed down the Delaware River on Wednesday, August 29, 1798. On Thursday, young Jamie complained of illness. The next day, he was so weak that he almost fell overboard. The sloop landed at the mouth of the Broadkill River Philadelphia?s Carpenters? Hall was the home of many distinguished tenants since 1774. _____________________________________________________________ Paper Money * July/August 2020 * Whole No. 328___________________________________________ 245 in Delaware on Friday. Pat Lyon took the boy to Cornelius Fleetwood?s tavern a few miles inland and went the 7 miles to Lewestown [Lewes, Delaware] for help. He returned to find Jamie worse, and he died September 4 after two doctors had consulted. Lyon obtained a coffin and arranged to bury him in a nearby plantation graveyard. Lyon did not have enough cash on hand to pay the innkeeper and Jamie?s expenses, so he left his watch as security. What little cash he had was used to pay for a room in Lewes. During the next week, Delaware River pilots and people fleeing Philadelphia brought news. Lyon learned of the huge robbery of the Bank of Philadelphia, and he was sought as a suspect. [Lewes, Delaware has some numismatic connections. The iconic Cape Henlopen Lighthouse was featured on Pennsylvania Colonial Currency, on a bank note vignette, and on numerous medals. Two months before Lyon?s adventure, the British brig- sloop HMS (De)Braak capsized off shore. Lyon met the British Captain whose ship was attempting salvage of the wreck. The rumor of great treasure persisted until 1986 when major salvage was accomplished. Quite a few coins were recovered, but no great gold fortune. Archaeological treasure was realized from the quantity of ordinary goods preserved. Director Peter Weir of the movie Master and Commander with Russell Crowe, insisted on absolute authenticity, and the DeBraak artifacts were examined for costuming and props.] On September 1, 1798, the Bank of Pennsylvania was found to have been robbed overnight. Philadelphia and the nation were shocked by the amount taken, some $162,821.61 in bank notes and specie. There was little damage done to doors and locks, and employees were immediately suspected. The Bank notified area banks and advertised a $1,000 reward nationally. The bank notes that were stolen were typical for the time. Contemporary counterfeits exist. Fancy engraved words were printed from copper plates. Any vignettes would have been only the simplest designs. Their appearance was elegant, but unadorned. Pat Lyon detailed his actions in a biographical tract and in later court testimony. He was anxious to appear at home to answer any suspicions about his part in the robbery. Heading to Philadelphia by boat, on Thursday, September 20, he landed at the Brandywine River, found yellow fever active and liveries and inns closed. Boats were not moving north, and he had no alternative but to walk to Philadelphia. He made an appointment to meet a magistrate the next day, September 21, 1798. Lyon?s acquaintance, the Philadelphia alderman John C. Stocker was also a member of the Board of the Bank and a Pennsylvania legislator. Lyon related suspicions about the Bank?s carpenter who had brought a stranger around to his shop during the door alterations. Next day, Stocker called in the Bank President and Cashier from their country places to the ?sickly? town. He also lined up a Constable to arrest Lyon. Lyon was taken immediately to Walnut Street Prison, a foul jail, locked into a solitary cell with no bed and with bars so close together that he could not receive food and water in the usual way. He was prohibited visits by friends, and he had no way to get money to better his situation in jail. While he was there many prisoners died of yellow fever. The death toll in Philadelphia in 1798 was almost as bad as in 1793. Walnut Street Prison was built in 1773, and lasted for over 60 years at 6th and Walnut Streets in Philadelphia. A 1790 addition was the first penitentiary in the country. In 1793, the first manned balloon flight took off from the courtyard. In the large crowd were George Washington, Adams, Jefferson, Madison and Monroe. The prison building was featured on the reverse of Pennsylvania Colonial Currency dated April 10, 1775. The origin of the suspicion that fell on Lyon was his possession of the vault doors and locks. In November, another man was caught and confessed to the robbery. He had visited Lyon?s shop while the iron doors were there, and he hung around the Bank with one of the porters. The Bank porter was an accomplice. The Bank was already shorthanded with the yellow fever death of another porter. With watchmen outside, the porter slept in the bank. Later testimony revealed that he periodically held the keys to the vault. He avoided capture and punishment by dying of yellow fever shortly after the robbery. Pennsylvania Colonial Notes of April 10, 1775 featured the Walnut Street Jail on the reverse. _____________________________________________________________ Paper Money * July/August 2020 * Whole No. 328___________________________________________ 246 The bankers failed to question the trusted bank employee who had brought the stranger to Lyon?s shop. The stranger and the deceased Bank porter were the robbers, but Lyon was still not let out of jail. The perps were discovered when one made large deposits in the three city banks, including the Bank of Pennsylvania where the money was stolen. This mastermind also lent out money in his mother?s name. While his buddy was on his fever deathbed, the other Prince of Thieves took away his share. The Bank recovered $161,979.53, including the mother?s assets. With restitution and confession, the Governor pardoned the robber. The robbers never spent a day in jail, and Pat Lyon languished for a few more weeks before his bail was lowered enough for friends to pay it. Lyon?s total jail time was a miserable 85 days in a solitary 4?x12? cell most of the time. The Mayor?s alderman?s court heard the charges and failed to return an indictment for theft on January 7, 1799. Prosecutors spoke on abetting. The alderman again refused to indict. The third try was ?accessory after the fact? which went to the Grand Inquest (Jury) with no findings. The bankers were determined to implicate Lyon, no matter what the evidence. Testimony reiterated at length the suspicions without evidence; this was all repeated in the subsequent lawsuit. Lyon?s own coherent story, and the proceedings of his later lawsuit were widely distributed when published. Pennsylvania Chief Justice Tilghman later spoke to the issues: ?defendants had not shown probable cause, but alleged that they suspected Lyon for his ingenuity; which doctrine, if admitted in a court of law, would encourage stupidity and punish genius.? The Mayor?s Court was a distinguished crew: Mayor Wharton (1757-1854) was a war veteran, and held the longest term ever as Mayor of Philadelphia. Alderman Michael Hillegas (1729-1804) was the first Treasurer of the United States, and a charter stockholder of the Bank of Pennsylvania. He is pictured on the 1907 and 1922 Ten Dollar Gold Certificates. Alderman/architect Gunning Bedford (1720-1802) had a son who signed the Constitution and signed Continental Currency in 1778. Pat Lyon survived his ordeal, but his business and physique suffered greatly. Later testimony revealed that the Philadelphia Bank (1803?) decided not to hire him for vault work. Business was revived by manufacturing of elegant fire pumpers. Gangs of firemen could man the levers to send water three stories high. About 12 of Lyon?s heavy fire wagons still exist. He is credited with improvements in the mechanism. As he was picking up the pieces, he had time to write an account of his experience. In March of 1801 Pat Lyon brought suit against the bankers and magistrates who engineered his arrest and poisoned his reputation. The suit alleged malicious prosecution, which was an unfamiliar issue in U.S. courts. Again, the players were among the elite class. Samuel Mickle Fox (1763-1808) and Jonathan Smith were President and Cashier of the Bank of Pennsylvania. John C. Stocker, magistrate, Bank Board member, consigned Lyon to jail. He was a Pennsylvania Legislator at the time. John Haines was High Constable of the City. It was alleged that his interest in the arrest was the reward. These men insisted on Lyon?s guilt in the face of all evidence to the contrary. Presumably, the bank notes that were stolen had Fox?s and Smith?s signatures. Defense lawyers were: Jared Ingersoll (1749- 1822), ex-Continental Congress, a former Pennsylvania Attorney General, and he argued the first two cases ever to appear before the U.S. Supreme Court. William Lewis was one of the charter members of the 1802 Philadelphia Bar Association. The Justices of the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania were distinguished senior men from backgrounds in British law. Hugh Henry Brackenridge (1748-1816) founded the University of Pittsburgh. Patrick Lyon?s attorneys were similarly qualified: Alexander James Dallas (1759-1817) had been Secretary of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, later was Madison?s Secretary of the Treasury, created the Second Bank of the United States, and briefly held simultaneous offices of Secretary of State and War. Dallas? portrait appears on the $1,000 U.S. Treasury Note of 1847. Joseph Hopkinson (1770-1842) was the son of signer of the Declaration and of Pennsylvania Colonial Currency. Hopkinson wrote ?Hail Jonathan Smith was still cashier of the Bank of Pennsylvania when this later design was issued. Pictured is a contemporary counterfeit that typifies the plain style of early Obsolete Notes. (Image courtesy Heritage Auctions). _____________________________________________________________ Paper Money * July/August 2020 * Whole No. 328___________________________________________ 247 Columbia? and was in the U.S. Congress at the time of the trial. Jonathan W. Condy served on the Philadelphia Common Council with Hopkinson, was a Clerk of the U.S. House of Representatives and the son of a famous nautical instrument maker. Lyon?s all-star lawyer lineup eventually produced a large settlement from the defendants. $9,000.00 was a huge amount, talked about across the country. It was the first litigation of its kind in United States courts. Success returned to Lyon in the coming years. He married Catherine. Census figures show a number of step-children in a large household. Lyon owned income-producing properties in several wards of Philadelphia, and his manufacturing facilities turned out fire engines, machines and commissioned ironwork. Late in life, he had the famous portrait painted, posing over a protracted period of time, due to his many business activities. It was hard to make him sit still. He died at age 60 in 1829 and is buried in Philadelphia. His portrait broke new ground in raising the workingman to a position of respect in the American consciousness. The bank note usages of Lyon?s portrait are many. The engraved dies were in the hands of several related companies. One vignette is much like the painting, but the view outside the shop is a board fence and a railroad viaduct. This view is found cropped into an oval and a rectangle. Another cropped picture is from a different die. A refinement of the first oval is found on later notes. [The Confederate #20 T-19 blacksmith vignette is sometimes mis-identified as Pat Lyon.] Numerous cartoonish lithographic reproductions were also done for scrip and checks. Notes have been found with the following imprints: [all dates from Hessler] Charles Toppan 1829-1834 (portrait is on his ad sheet) Draper, Toppan, Longacre 1835-1839 Draper, Toppan 1839-1844 Draper, Underwood 1828-1833 Draper, Underwood, Spencer 1833-1835 Underwood, Bald, Spencer 1835-1837 Underwood, Bald, Spencer, Hufty 1837-1843 Danforth, Underwood 1839-1840 Danforth, Hufty 1847-1850 Bald, Spencer, Hufty, Danforth 1843-1844 Danforth, Spencer, Hufty 1845-1847 Danforth, Bald, Spencer, Hufty 1843-1844 Spencer, Hufty, Danforth 1844-1847 (Roger Durand attributed this engraving to John B. Neagle, Jr (1801-1866). Danforth, Bald 1850-1852 Toppan, Carpenter & Co. 1852-1858 (none found, but cited in print) American Bank Note Company 1858-present The early engraved version of the famous painting expanded the scene at the sides. A board fence and elevated train replaced the Walnut St. Jail in the original. Several versions of the popular image of Pat Lyon were used under the imprint of successive companies. _____________________________________________________________ Paper Money * July/August 2020 * Whole No. 328___________________________________________ 248 REFERENCES: ? Anderson, Laurie Halse. Fever 1793. Simon & Schuster, 2000. ? Durand, Roger. Interesting Notes about Vignettes III. 2001. ? The E-Sylum. ?America?s First Bank Burglary?? Cole Shenewerk. Vol.14#20m 2011 (Numismatic Bibliomania Society). ? The E-Sylum. ?The 1798 Pennsylvania Bank Heist?. Dave Ginsburg. Vol.18#17, 2015 (Numismatic Bibliomania Society). ? Haxby, James. United States Obsolete Bank Notes. Iola: Krause. 1988. ? Hessler, Gene. The Engraver?s Line. Scott Publishing, 1993. ? Lloyd, Thomas. The Robbery of the Bank of Pennsylvania in 1798: The Trial in the Supreme Court of the State of Pennsylvania. Phila.,1808. ? Lyon, Patrick. The Narrative of Patrick Lyon: Who Suffered Three MonthsSevere Imprisonment in Philadelphia Gaol; On Merely a Vague Suspicion of Being Concerned in the Robbery of the Bank of Pennsylvania; With His Remarks Thereon. Philadelphia: F. & R. Bailey. 1799. ? Newman, Eric P. The Early Paper Money of America. Iola: Krause, 1990. ? Patrick, Ransom R. ?John Neagle, Portrait Painter and Pat Lyon, Blacksmith?. The Art Bulletin, Vol.33 #3, 1951 (College Art Association of America). ? Scharf, J. Thomas. History of Delaware. Philadelphia: J. Richards, 1888. ? Shenewerk, Cole. ?America?s First Bank Robbery?? Coin Week. May 13, 2011. Expansion of E-Sylum article above. ? Weinsteiger, Brigitte. Pat Lyon at the Forge, Portrait of an American Blacksmith. Penn State University, 2010. ? www.ancestry.com at the Public Archives of Delaware. ? www.history.com Carpenters? Hall History/Robbery. Bank of Pennsylvania. ? www.nnp.wustl.edu The Newman Numismatic Portal. ? Special thanks for Danielle McAdams, Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts for kind advice and articles. Announcing the H. G. ?Bill? Corbin Silent Auction of Past issues of the SPMC journal, Paper Money The Society of Paper Money has received a donation of back SPMC Journals. The donation was made by Sue Corbin, wife of Bill Corbin (1928-2011), SPMC Member#6. Mike Gibson, a former member of SPMC and lifelong friend of Bill and Sue Corbin was instrumental in contacting the SPMC and delivering this material. We are selling these via Silent Auction, by volume (year). This is a great opportunity for you to add to your library while benefitting the SPMC. The Journals are consecutive and complete from Volume 1 (Year 1962) thru Volume 28 (Year 1989). The other complete Volumes in this set are years 1992, 1993, 1994, and 1997. Volumes 1 thru 12 (1962 thru 1973), contain 4 Journals per year. The Journal advanced to a bi-monthly publication, (6 per year), beginning with the 13th Volume in January of 1974. Five years of the volumes are incomplete. 1990 (Nos. 3 and 4); 1991 (Nos. 4,5 and 6); 1995 (Nos. 1 and 2); 1996 (Nos. 2,4,5 and 6); and 1998 (Nos. 1 and 2) are all incomplete year sets. If you are interested in bidding, send your bids to Bob Moon (SPMC Treasurer) at robertmoon@aol.com. Bob will notify successful bidders. For simplicity in bidding, identify the desired volume(s) by year - i.e. Year , Amount $XX.XX. If bidding on more than one volume (year), bid on each item individually (ex. - Year 1981, Amount $XX.XX; etc). Please note that the amount you bid will be the amount entered and bids will not be reduced. The cost of Priority Mailing will be added to the winning bids--a medium Priority (flat rate) Box is $15.05 and a flat rate cardboard envelope is $7.75. The bidding will conclude on August 31, 2020. _____________________________________________________________ Paper Money * July/August 2020 * Whole No. 328___________________________________________ 249 POSTAGE CURRENCY NOTE WITH CAIRO, ILLINOIS BANK STAMP By Rick Melamed? I recently came across a fractional (1st issue 25? postage note ? Fr. 1281) with a vivid bank stamp from the City Bank of Cairo, Illinois. The stamp is dated December 18, 1863. Banks frequently stamped currency to show that the note had been received in deposit. These are scarce on fractionals since the denomination is so small, but they do occur from time to time. In the past, I have seen bank cancellation stamps on fractional currency from some far-flung locations such as Australia and Germany. CAIRO HISTORY Cairo (pronounced ?care-o?) is the southernmost city in Illinois and is the county seat of Alexander County. It was founded in 1818 and was named after the Egyptian capital. Cairo is located at the confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers. It served as an important port city for steamboats coming to and from New Orleans. During the Civil War the city became a major military hub for the Union Army and Navy with training facilities and a large supply distribution center. ?Late 19th Century Cairo, Illinois At the start of the Civil War, Union General Ulysses S. Grant and Admiral Andrew Foote surveyed Cairo with plans to build military headquarters. Being such a strategic site and a very short distance to the Confederate state of Kentucky, the city was an ideal location. By June 1861, 12,000 Union soldiers were deployed in the Cairo area and another 38,000 soldiers within 24 hours. The soldiers built Fort Defiance to protect the confluence. There were many supporting businesses in Cairo for the War effort (stables, hospitals, drug stores, post office gun shops, blacksmiths, harness shops?as well as some unseemly businesses such as brothels, gambling houses and saloons). General Grant relied heavily on Cairo as a supply chain as he pushed forces deeper into the Confederacy. Though never engaging in direct battle, the fortified city quickly gained national attention, drawing many reporters to observe the military presence. The New York Times referred to Cairo as ?the Gibraltar of the West 1.? _____________________________________________________________ Paper Money * July/August 2020 * Whole No. 328___________________________________________ 251 Fort Defiance ? Union Stronghold During the Civil War With the buildup of railroad supply lines to Chicago, Cairo lost some of its trade importance after the War. As more railroads converged on Chicago, which developed at a rapid pace; stockyards, meat processing, and heavy industries took root in the Windy City. Lighter industries now dominated the Cairo economy. Still Cairo had robust businesses supporting the shipping lanes on the rivers. So much so that the U.S. Government built a Customs building in Cairo. The Civil War dramatically altered the city?s cultural landscape as many runaway slaves took residence. While a majority went back south after the Civil War when work became scarce, 3,000 African Americans remained and took permanent residence. Towards the latter half of the 19th Century, Cairo?s economy continued to do well, and commercial enterprises found Cairo?s convenient geographic location, abundant natural resources, and large labor pool attractive. The river routes and 7 railroad lines into the city bolstered their economy. Things changed in 1905, when a railroad bridge was completed across the Mississippi River at Thebes, a small- town northwest of Cairo. This dealt a heavy blow to Cairo?s status as a railroad hub and adversely affected businesses. As traffic shifted to the new bridge in Thebes, it eliminated the ferry operations over the Mississippi resulting in decreased commerce for the entire town. From that point forward, Cairo economic fortunes never fully recovered to its halcyon days. With deeply rooted segregation, the worsening local economy resulted in contentious race relations. Throughout the 20th century, the city had been marred by racial tensions, often leading to protests and violence. Any attempt at integration was usually met with fierce opposition. This was especially prevalent during the turbulent 1960s where African American boycotted white owned business and repeated arson destroyed several commercial properties. In one extensive essay on Cairo?s history, the subtitle was labeled: ?Death by Racism.? However, there are still a few worthwhile attractions in Cairo. The Custom House, Cairo Public Library, Riverlore Mansion (built in 1865) and Magnolia Manor (a 14-room postbellum mansion built in 1869 that?s on the National Register of Historical Places) are four architectural achievements. Those historical buildings aside, a walk down one of the main streets today (such as Commercial Avenue) would be met with storefronts either razed, closed or boarded up. As of the 2010 census, the population is under 3,000, less than one-fifth of what it was a century ago. A sad coda to a once vibrant community. CITY BANK OF CAIRO CURRENCY The City Bank of Cairo was organized in 1858 by Mr. Lotus Niles of Springfield, Illinois. The bank President was James C. Smith, and Alfred B. Safford was the cashier. Shown are examples of two rare obsolete notes in a $3 and $5 denomination. They are undated and not signed. Knowing what we do about when obsolete notes were printed and the short tenure of the bank under its original name of City Bank of Cairo, we can reasonably conclude that they were likely printed between 1858-1862. After 1862, obsoletes were not being widely produced; replaced by U.S. issued National Bank Notes and Demand Notes. _____________________________________________________________ Paper Money * July/August 2020 * Whole No. 328___________________________________________ 252 City Bank of Cairo continued until 1865, when it became the City National Bank of Cairo; a result of the federal charter underwriting the banks who deposited money into Federal bonds. Commonly known as National Bank Notes, Cairo National Bank issued NBN?s from the Original series of the program through the 1902 series. They are extremely rare; only a few appear in currency auction archives. Four are shown below: An Original Series 1865, two from Series 1882 and one from Series 1902. The bank did not survive long enough to print Series 1929 National Bank Notes. In 1907 the bank ceased operations. The historical context of currency discoveries with an inscription is sometimes poignant often telling stories of love or loss. Notes with bank stamps often convey interesting histories. In this case, the story associated with the City of Cairo initially showed a city growing with hope and prosperity only to suffer a decline due to a poor economy and a marginalized population adversely affected by segregation. For more on the city?s history, I recommend an award-winning documentary on Cairo called ?Between Two Rivers.? It is available for viewing on YouTube. Thanks to Heritage and Stacks Bowers for the use of their archives for the currency images. Also, a big thank you to my son, David Melamed, for his excellent editing skills. Footnote: 1. Gibraltar is a peninsula, overlooking the Mediterranean Sea, in the southeastern part of Spain and has been a British territory since 1713. The British used Gibraltar as a fortified military location which was an important naval outpost during many conflicts including the Crimean War 1853-56; a few years before the American Civil War (1861-65). Fort Defiance in Cairo was called the ?Gibraltar of the West? because it was also a military outpost overseeing a strategically important waterway. _____________________________________________________________ Paper Money * July/August 2020 * Whole No. 328___________________________________________ 253 U N C O U P L E D : PAPER MONEY?S ODD COUPLE Joseph E. Boling Fred Schwan Artwork from Warrington For my talk at IPMS this year I was going to cover the new productions coming out of Warrington under his current eBay user-name (citygroundhero-6). He has been using that handle for two years, the longest he has ever sat on one name (he is up to his 19th eBay account name since I have known him, starting in June 2009). But he has been prolific these two years. In addition to continuing his usual menu of fakes (Fezzan, Berlin, Force-T, Hong Kong, Pakistan, Cape Verde, Fiume, various JIM overprints, Liguria, Operation Torch, and so forth), he has devised many new ones. In addition, he has moved from slapping a Sachsenhausen rubber stamp on every empty watermark window to filling those white spaces with fancy artwork of all kinds?coats of arms, portraits, calligraphy, flags, and commemorative collages. My intention for IPMS was to talk about the numismatic additions first (replications of material that we can find in catalogs), then move to his use of specimen and counterfeit markings to make junk notes salable, then cover the artwork pieces, and finally rip through the ?same-old, same-old? designs that he continues to produce from way back. Needless to say, it was far too much material for a one-hour time slot. I barely got through the first two groups. So my next four columns (including this one) will cover the artwork group?about 25 illustrations per issue (yes, he has been prolific). A lot of these notes are obviously not original (and at 20x all of them are obvious), but many have the look of being at least semi-official modifications of known notes, or of having been made this way from the start. Many legitimate notes have printing on the watermark window (which is dumb on its face, if the watermark is supposed to serve as a security feature, but that argument was lost long ago). So here goes. See Boling page 257 Packaging Writing this column over the past several issues has been relatively easy because the theme had been decided. We discussed allied use of military payment certificates in some detail. Deciding on the subject is usually the hardest part. While I was discussing allied MPC use, Joe was discussing World War I counterfeiting. We had a short editorial meeting trying to come up with a coordinated topic for this issue. Since we could not come up with a solution, we are Uncoupled again. Even without the pressure of coordinating a topic, I had a problem deciding while columnist Boling and Editor Bolin were pressuring me to get it done. I have been working on the fifth edition of the Comprehensive Catalog of Military Payment Certificates. It too is way behind schedule. I was working on that this morning when the subject jumped out at me from the (computer) page that I was working on. Once the decision is made, it seems that the topic was an easy choice. I am going to tell you about MPC packaging. This sounds like a really boring topic, but it provides some collecting opportunities. Military payment certificates were packaged in a uniform way. The system was adopted from Allied military currency, which was packaged in exactly the same way. At the lowest level, MPC was wrapped in groups of 100 consecutively numbered pieces (except for replacements of course). The group of 100 and the paper band that wraps it are called straps. Collectors often call the piece of paper a band and the notes a pack, but the best terminology is to call them both straps. Some years ago, Joe confirmed this terminology with insiders at the Bureau of Engraving and Printing. For MPC the straps come in two sizes (for two different heights of notes) and are color coded by denomination! Of course, that means that series with a $20 denomination had straps of eight different colors. _____________________________________________________________ Paper Money * July/August 2020 * Whole No. 328___________________________________________ 254 The colors were consistent over most if not all series. I am happy to show you the eight colors here. I do not think that these have ever appeared in print. I do not know if I have the straps or just the scans. Building a collection of straps in all eight colors is a formidable task. I know of one additional, and I think quite remarkable, strap. Certainly, pay officers, finance clerks, PX clerks and others used odd scraps of paper to create their own expedient straps. American Express military banking facilities went a step farther, creating straps for internal use. The strap shown here replete with American Express form number (AE 148 12-69) is just about the ultimate throw away item?an expedient throw away. A collector showed this amazing item to me at a show many years ago. It is the only one that I have ever seen and I do not expect to ever see another. Forty straps of 100 notes were gathered together, placed in a cardboard carton, and labeled with the series, denomination, range of serial numbers included, carton number, dates of inspection and verification, and initials of the inspector and verifier. The cardboard cartons were then put in wooden crates. I call them crates to differentiate them from the cardboard cartons of 4000 notes, but I am not sure that the terminology is correct. In the 1970s, it was popular to collect Federal Reserve note end labels. Ideally collectors obtained 5-cent 10-cent 25-cent 50-cent $1 $5 $10 $20 25-cent 50-cent _____________________________________________________________ Paper Money * July/August 2020 * Whole No. 328___________________________________________ 255 the end label as well as the first and last note from the package. The sets made attractive additions to collections of the day. Fortunately (and amazingly in my opinion) this idea carried over to collecting MPC, and some enterprising collector or collectors obtained and kept some labels. A few three-piece sets exist in collections. The number of packages of 4000 certificates packed into the crates varied by denomination, because the notes were printed in different sizes. The stenciled information on the crates deliberately did not identify the contents. Crates are very rare. No crates or even partial crates are known for issued series. A few crates from Series 691 are known in private collections. Crates for Series 691 and 701 remain in government hands. See the picture of Marv Mericle displaying a Series 691 crate. Gene Ryan was a finance warrant officer in Da Nang, Viet Nam. He provided us with the only picture that I have ever seen of ?issued? crates! The pile of crates filled with MPC makes the heart of this MPC collector flutter. As mentioned in the introduction, the entire strap, carton/label, crate system was used during World War II. Fortunately, we have a photograph inside Forbes Lithograph Manufacturing Company of workers loading notes for D-Day (see ?TOMCAT? on the crates). The scene would have looked very similar only two years later packaging MPC. Finance officers were issued a special briefcase for carrying payroll money. To my mind this is sort of a packaging item. It is called leather money bag (the item is marked on the inside of one top flap as ?bag, money, leather?). One of the clasps on the bag has a patent number. Unfortunately, the patent is of a bag very unlike bag, money, leather. Of course, leather money bags are very rare, although it is not known if current finance officers might still use these items (or at least something similar). Of course, they would not use the bags for MPC, but for other forms of cash. The bag shown here also came from Gene Ryan. Now the hard part?a topic for next time! End label and label start note _____________________________________________________________ Paper Money * July/August 2020 * Whole No. 328___________________________________________ 256 Boling continued: I will describe each piece by its illustration number (or group of numbers), giving just a little information where I know it (sometimes I cannot divine the intent behind the choice of artwork). The illustrations are likely to be muddy?I do not own all of these pieces, so for those that I do not have in hand, the resolution we get is what comes off of eBay. I expect it will be adequate. Where more than one decoration has been used for a series of notes, I show only one complete note and then only the artwork for the others in the group. He does not stick to one catalog number in a series?a given decoration can appear on several denominations. Where he has made only one piece from a given issuer, you get the whole note (which will make the artwork a bit harder to discern). All of the underlying notes are genuine; the portions added in Warrington are inkjet. There is one pair that includes some laser printing; I am sure that for those two notes he was not the originator. Figure 1 is a dense black double-headed eagle on an Albania 100 franga. He sold this piece twice; the first buyer evidently did not like it. Figures 2-6 are all on modern Algerian notes (1981-1991). #2-3 are both Emir Abd el-Kader; #4 was labeled as ?National Liberation Front,? and #5 is the Sidi Boumediene mosque. #6 said simply ?commemorative issue,? and since it has no date I cannot guess what it commemorates. Figure 7 is the sole Bangladesh note that he has overprinted. It was described as a Mujibur Rahman commemorative. Similarly, figure 8 is the only Brazilian piece he has prepared. The ribbon on the arms says ?Estado do Tocantins? with date 1 Jan 1989. Tocantins is the youngest Brazilian state. Figure 9 is his sole venture into Brunei in this format (he also creates false errors by removing the ink from the backs of Brunei polymer notes; that was covered in my lecture, which should eventually be available on YouTube through Lyn Knight?s site). I cannot make out the text on the green crescent; it is probably in Arabic script. Figure 10 is from Burma. This note was also counterfeited for circulation (with a ?watermark? printed where the Chinze lion is on this piece). Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 _____________________________________________________________ Paper Money * July/August 2020 * Whole No. 328___________________________________________ 257 Figures 11a,b and 12a,b,c purport to be from Chechnya. Both have adhesive stamps in the upper left corner and a printed device or text at the far right. The portrait on #11 (11b) is Imam Shamil, an anti-Russian cleric of the 19th century in the Caucasus. At right is a watchful dog. Note that the same theme is on the stamp of #12 (12b). At right on #12 (12c) are the denomination and issuer identification. Both stamps are laser-printed (the printer a little out-of-register for the second stamp). The added black on note 11 is also laser; this gives it a bit more credibility than it might have, as our man in Warrington does not use a laser printer. The added text on #12 is wretched inkjet. Has either note ever seen Chechnya? I couldn?t say. Figure 13 is a Chilean note with a Lions Club ?thank you? overprint. One problem?there were no inkjet printers yet in 1960. Figure 14 is a certain fantasy?Chairman Mao was not smiling at the Nationalists in 1936. Figure 15 shows what is presumably intended to be Chiang Kai-Shek inside the Nationalists? insignia (a symbol of the sun). Most of these are more pale than this piece, and this is barely legible. Again, no inkjet printers were available when this propaganda flyer was supposed to have been used. When Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia, this note was adorned with temporary validation stamps for each new nation until new notes were issued. Figure 16 must be A?lseyuote?s stab at remembering the bad old days. Figures 17 and 18 are two more examples of his penchant for filling white space. Number 17 is the Free French Cross of Lorraine; #18 is an ID stamp for a French military school on the Atlantic coast. That stamp was also used to validate a bogus piece of post- Figure 11a (above) Figure 11b (left) Figure 12 (above) Figure 12b (left) Figure 12c (below) Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 _____________________________________________________________ Paper Money * July/August 2020 * Whole No. 328___________________________________________ 258 WWI New Caledonia emergency local scrip (see my live lecture on YouTube when it becomes available). Figure 19 is an amusing cartoon intended to be understood as German anti-Soviet propaganda. I have never seen this design, but I congratulate the maker for digging it up. Note the Star of David on the Christmas tree ornament. Figures 20-24 are all used on notes of the DDR? German (Deutsche) Democratic Republic. All use elements of the DDR logo and were placed on various notes of that government. Notice the ?MILITARGELD? legend on #24, to make the note bearing it a little more attractive. That?s a wrap for this issue. We will take up another group of about 25 notes next time. You can see that some imagination goes into these?they beat having just another note with a Nazi rubber stamp applied. But if you see any of these, or others like them, being offered, don?t buy unless you will be satisfied with what has become a damaged note. Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 22 Figure 23 Figure 24 _____________________________________________________________ Paper Money * July/August 2020 * Whole No. 328___________________________________________ 259 The front of the Type-41 Treasury note endorsed by Maj. W. W. Peirce, Quarter Master image: Roger Adamek The Quartermaster Column No. 13 by Michael McNeil War brings out the best and the worst in human nature. The great Southern evolutionary biologist, Edward O. Wilson, who specializes in species with social organization, believes that genetics determines to what degree we are motivated by the need to compete or cooperate.1 Wars are won by cooperators, those who are willing to set aside their self interest for the common good of winning the war. Abraham Lincoln put it well in his Gettysburg address when he referred to those who had given ?their last full measure of devotion.? War is ugly, and some of those driven by competitive desire will take advantage for their own self interest. While the South had its heroes and cooperators, many of whom are featured in this column, it also had its share of self-interested scoundrels, and one of these turned up as a rare endorsement on a Confederate Type-41 Treasury note.The endorsement reads: ?Paid out Apl 27/ (18)63 W W Peirce Maj & QM? The back of the Type-41 Treasury note with the April 27th, 1863 endorsement by Maj. W. W. Peirce, QM. Raleigh, North Carolina Interest Paid stamps are seen at top for the years 1864 and 1865. image: Roger Adamek _____________________________________________________________ Paper Money * July/August 2020 * Whole No. 328___________________________________________ 260 The spelling of the last name as ?Peirce? is unusual, and 219 documents for this officer in National Archives files on Fold3.com are found under the listing for ?W. W. Pierce.? This is a mis-spelling and it is also seen on the covers of vouchers and invoices written in clerical hands. The genuine signatures are written in a clear script and leave no ambiguity of the intended spelling of ?Peirce.? Although no career summary exists for Peirce, it is clear that he served most, if not all, of his career at Raleigh, North Carolina. His documents mostly consist of the transfer of goods between his post at Raleigh and other quartermasters. In a letter of February 4th, 1865, at Raleigh, North Carolina, Peirce?s letterhead displayed the title of ?Chief Quartermaster for the District of North Carolina.? 1861 Peirce served in a military capacity to the State of North Carolina and signed the earliest known document as an Ordnance Officer on June 12th, 1861. 1862 In a letter dated May 10th, 1862, at Raleigh, North Carolina, Peirce wrote Col. A. C. Myers, Quartermaster General, offering his services to the government. Citing the Conscription Act and the official end of the North Carolina State service on the 18th, along with his current service as the Quarter Master for North Carolina State Regiments, he suggested his offices in Raleigh as the site of his newly proposed service to the Confederate government in Richmond. National Archives summary cards noted that Peirce was appointed on May 21st, 1862, as Capt. & QM reporting to the QM General, taking rank retroactively on May 17th, and confirmed on September 30th of the same year. Peirce was later promoted and confirmed on October 7th, 1862, as Maj. & QM reporting to the QM General, taking rank on August 30th, 1862. Capt. Peirce, AQM, traveled from Raleigh to Richmond and back during May 25th to May 28th, 1862, on Special Order No. 151 of May 24th by Gen?l Winder ?...to collect money due the State [of North Carolina] by the Confederate States on account of clothing and equipment.? A pay voucher dated June 30th, 1862, interestingly described Peirce as a ?Capt. & A.A.G.? Peirce sent a telegram from Raleigh to A. C. Myers, QM General in Richmond on December 19th, 1862, complaining that ?Bad management blocks the NCRR, can nothing be done to alter it? Troops, provisions and all military stores are stopped.? It is noteworthy that on December 14th Union forces attacked the Wilmington & Weldon RR at Goldsboro and overcame Confederate defenders at the Kinston bridge. On December 17th Union forces were destroying tracks at the Goldsboro Bridge. 1863 January 30th, 1863, found Peirce in Kinston, North Carolina. Peirce rarely traveled; virtually all of his documents are signed in Raleigh. Vouchers with the letterhead of ?The State of North Carolina? and signed by Peirce indicate that he worked for both state and central government entities in 1863. 1864 On June 6th, 1864, at Raleigh, North Carolina, Peirce had a discussion of having clothing made in North Carolina rather than shipping the wool cloth to the Clothing Bureau at Richmond. The first indication of impropriety occurs on Abstract L, dated June 30th, 1864: this abstract contains a printed letterhead which confirms the spelling of the name ?Maj. W. W. PEIRCE? and it also details the proceeds of a public auction of large quantities of clothing, some of which was purchased by Capt. H. A. Dowd, QM. The inference is that Capt. Dowd purchased these items at auction rather than having them transferred on a normal voucher at normal prices to his account. 1865 On January 1st, 1865, Peirce wrote a detailed description of his duties in response to a general circular sent to all quartermasters. His response to this circular is by far the most vague and arrogant of any quartermaster seen by the author: Quarter Masters Department C.S.A. Raleigh NC Jany 1st 1865 September 24th, 1862 image: Fold3.com _____________________________________________________________ Paper Money * July/August 2020 * Whole No. 328___________________________________________ 261 Capt. T. H. Hall A. I. G. Raleigh NC Captain, I have the honour to reply to your circular of the 22nd ultimo. Numbering as you require my answers in correspondence with your questions. 1. May 21/ 62 I was assigned to duty here as Post Quartermaster by Col. Myers Quarter Master General. Aug.t 30/ 62 promoted to Brigade Quarter Master and assigned to duty here and by Circular March 24th/ 63 I was appointed Chief Quarter Master for the District of North Carolina. 2. The accompanying lists N. 1. 2. 3. & 4. & 5 embodied the information called for as to the Employees both white & Black. 3. All my offices and stores are in the building known as G(illegible) Hotel, occupied in common by the Assistant Quarter Master of the Post, and by the Adjutant General of the State of N. Carolina with his Staff composed of several Assistant Adjutant Generals Paymasters. Ordnance officers, Quartermasters & Commissaries. From whom rented, as well as to the terms conditions etc., I respectfully refer you to the report of the Assistant Quarter Master of this Post. In connection with which I herewith lay before you the origional (sic) lease. One building on the East Side of Fayetteville Street a few doors South of Williams & Haywood Drug Store, represented by Mr. Ruffin Williams, is occupied by my department by no positive or direct authority, but to meet the requirement of the service, with a due regard to economy as in duty bound virtue of my office as Chief Quartermaster. It is occupied as a Government Shoe Shop at a cost last year of fifty dollars per month. The rent for the present year had not been agreed upon. 4. The work done in my District and under my direction is all done under contract with the exception of the manufactures of shoes to a limited extent in the building above referred to, occupied as a Shoe Shop, which was regularly established on the 1st of November 1864, with no other authority than that derived from the general scope and purposes of my office. This Shop is now operated by twenty-three detailed and light- duty men assigned as set forth in list No. 5 above referred to. For the amount of weekly productions I beg leave to refer you to a copy of the last weekly report herewith submitted Endorsed ?Weekly report of work done in Government Shop for the Week ending December 31st 1864.? The object of this Shop is for the manufacture of Soldier?s Shoes. But the repairing of Officer?s and Soldier?s Shoes is permitted and in some instances the manufacture of Boots and Shoes for Officers is allowed in accordance with the accompanying ?Schedule of Prices.? The production of this Shop is now small and is not remunerative, but as fast as they can be obtained it is proposed to increase the number of shoemakers to Seventy or to such a number as will ensure economy in the production. The work done by contract is exhibited in the accompanying list of Contractors Marked No. (illegible blob of ink). The number of detailed men as set forth in the Employment of the contractors is not entirely accuarate, owing to may (sic) application being in Suspence (sic) and the incomplete returns of the Contractors as to the requirements of Army Regulations Art 40 paragraphs 944, 945, & 946 in regard to contracts. I have to say that the contracts have only been made in duplicates, one given to the contractor and one filed in this office. In compliance with paragraph 945, ? with a very few exceptions, bonds have been required and given by the contractors. Paragraph 946 (illegible due to a paper fold) instance been complied with. 5. Office hours are from 9 A.M. to 2 P. M. but for unfinished business the clerks when necessary are required to be in at 4 P. M. and are sometimes Employed until 9 or 10 O. Clock. Hours in the issureing (sic) Department are from 9 until dark. Respectfully submitted WW Peirce Major & Chief Quarter Master Col. Jno. Withers of the Adjutant & Inspector General?s Office in Richmond brought charges against Major Peirce on January 10th, 1865, Special Order No. 7, XIII, ?...in regard to his conduct in certain transactions with a certain Joseph Boxbaun of Charlotte North Carolina or his agents, and in regard to the reception by said Major Pierce of presents or bribes from the said Joseph Boxbaun or others.? A National Archives summary card noted that Peirce was relieved of his command on January 24th, 1865, Special Order 19/32. Self-interested competitors, having exhausted all excuses and confronted with their behavior, often portray themselves as victims. A letter of February 4th, 1865, from Peirce at Raleigh to Gen?l S. Cooper, Adjutant & Inspector General in Richmond is reproduced in full: I respectfully request that Special Orders No. 7 for the detail of a court to enquire into certain and perticular (sic) matters, touching _____________________________________________________________ Paper Money * July/August 2020 * Whole No. 328___________________________________________ 262 my dealings with Buxboam (sic) and other contractors, be so amended and enlarged, as to embrace a full enquiry into my official conduct as Chief Quarter Master for the State of North Carolina, or such subjects as I may submit for the investigation of the Court, to the end that I may be afforded the opportunity of vindicating myself from foul aspersions afloat, effecting (sic) not only myself but including the general question of responsibility and liability of disbursing agents of the government. I am General very respectfully your obedient servant W W Peirce Major & Chf Q.M. Major Peirce and his son embodied the very definition of graft and corruption. Harold S. Wilson, in his book Confederate Industry, noted that ?...an inquiry was ordered by the War Department. An investigating quartermaster from Richmond ?was greatly embarrassed & his report delayed, by the disinclination of this officer [Peirce] to submit his affairs to inspection; by his habits, which render it impossible to transact business with him with any degree of satisfaction; and, by the confusion and want of system that pervade his affairs.? Peirce held agreements with 106 contractors, mostly ?able-bodied men,? and yet ?no copies of his contracts have ever been forwarded to this department, and no list of names or numbers of contractors were kept in the office.? Pierce?s son, the clerk, ?was but 21 years of age, without business experience, capacity, training, or habits.? In expenditures that were ?unauthorized and extravagant,? ...the younger Peirce...erected ?a guard house at a cost of $2,680? for which there were no guards, but it was occupied by a brigadier general without authority. ...He employed numerous clerks and ninety-one of his own slaves on public payroll.?2 Peirce was paroled as a citizen, not an officer, on May 10th, 1865, at Raleigh, North Carolina; he listed his residence as Wilmington, North Carolina. 1866 An 1866 letter in Peirce?s National Archives file from a United States officer: Head Quarters Military Command of NC Raleigh, June 5th, 1866 Col. E. A. Carr 5th U. S. Cavalry Commanding Post Raleigh NC Colonel, The Com?d?g Gen?l desires you to send an officer to be present at the examination of the safe of Mr. W. W. Peirce, late Rebel QM Gen?l of the State of North Carolina. If any of the papers belong to the late Rebel (illegible) the officer will take possession of them. Very respectfully (illegible) J. K. Campbell Asst. Adj. General By 1866 Peirce was dead. ? carpe diem image: Fold3.com _____________________________________________________________ Paper Money * July/August 2020 * Whole No. 328___________________________________________ 263 Notes and References: 1. Wilson, Edward O. The Social Conquest of Earth, Liveright, New York, 2012. Wilson, who was brought up with Calvinist ideals in the Southern Baptist Church, describes competitive self interest as ?sin? and social cooperation as ?virtue.? The 16th century John Calvin had no understanding of genetics, but he sensed that human behavior was predetermined when he claimed that humans are predestined to heaven or hell. Those who find this concept alarming may find great pleasure in reading Robert Plomin?s book, Blueprint, How DNA makes us who we are, Allen Lane, UK, 2018. Decades of meticulous work by Plomin and his staff in the UK support the validity of Wilson?s theories in particular and the genetic basis of behavior in general. 2. Wilson, Harold S. Confederate Industry, Manufacturers and Quartermasters in the Civil War, University Press of Mississippi, Jackson, 2002, p. 75. 3. McNeil, Michael. Confederate Quartermasters, Commissaries, and Agents., Pierre Fricke, Sudbury, 2016. The endorsement of Maj. W. W. Peirce was discovered after the publication of this book. PDF files with the descriptions of all later discoveries may be found on the website: www.csatrains.com. W. W. Peirce?s parole at Raleigh, North Carolina, on May 10th, 1865. Note the inscription in the left margin which paroles him as a citizen, not a military officer. image: Fold3.com _____________________________________________________________ Paper Money * July/August 2020 * Whole No. 328___________________________________________ 264 Collecting the Impossible! In the coin world you always hear the phrase, ?Hoard the keys?. Stemming from the thought that the toughest coins in a given series are the ones to keep your compass pointed to at all times. Why focus on the common dreck when you can buy multiple examples of the toughies? Maybe the hope was that these coins would increase in value, far and above more common issues? Maybe greed is the all too mighty driving force that makes collectors want to hoard them all, ?My precious!!!? Time has proven this logic to be noticeably flawed, and simply a hopeful notion, as key examples in higher grade have in numerous cases lost their footing over the years and dipped in price rather than repeatedly broken previous record sales. With paper money, things get even more murky as a key issue may constitute a scarce large size signature combination variety or a particular district on a small size federal reserve note with a miniscule print run. One of the many facets that make paper money so enticing are the intoxicating instances where the moniker ?Key-Note? is not a term worthy of the caliber of collectible one may have in their collection. Rarity abounds so abundantly that we would rather deem our ultra-keys as Unique! How can there be a higher level of greatness that this? Having the only note known provides an epic opportunity for bragging rights and pride of ownership. Something that cannot be attained as easily in the coin world, with the exception of maybe grade rarity I suppose. Absolutely, the finest known example can carry a measure of gravitas worthy of trophy status. However, to hold a note that is truly unique, grade and condition aside, this is what makes a collection attain legendary status! When you study your favorite paper money reference guide and see notes with lofty price tags, we collectors often ponder, ?Wow, will I ever own one of those??. When a note is listed as unique, and it is a series and denomination that has its hooks in us deep, owning our psyche, the response quickly changes to, ?WOW, will I ever SEE one of those??. National Bank Notes seem to be the area of paper money collecting where this occurs most often. A survivor on a small town suddenly pops out of the woodwork and becomes the Discovery Note! For a time, the note reigns supreme as the only one of its kind ?until another may surface that is. To raise this up even higher, sometimes the example is the only note known and happens to also be serial number one! With over fourteen thousand national banks, ?Unique? can oddly begin to appear common place. Depending on the state, county, and town, interest and demand can waver dramatically even though the note is still 100% unique! While national bank notes see the vast majority of unique collectible examples, Federal issues are quite the polar opposite! This is where we will examine two amazing star notes that are each, one of a kind! Varieties abound in small size with collectors building sets that they know will likely pose an enormous challenge. If they can somehow achieve a complete set ever ?in just one lifetime, constitutes a minor miracle! While this sounds disparaging, reality sinks in quickly and fortunately collectors have more than one avenue to journey towards building a set. Series, denomination, district, serial number block, stars, and varieties comprise a wide range of opportunities for collecting adventure. Grade rarity via third party slabbing has brought about challenging online registry set competitions creating an upper echelon tier of finest known ensembles! The areas that cause the most difficulty are the sets that include ?All? varieties. Many collectors shy away from these challenges as the opportunity to attain completeness cannot simply be attained at will. An unlimited budget provides no guarantee that one can locate the missing key to the set they are after. The thrill of the hunt is overwhelming when it comes to small size rarities! Often, I am asked by new collectors, ?What should I be looking for?? On the surface this is too tough to answer without sitting a pupil down for a 45-minute lecture. So, the common response dealers often give is the canned, ?Buy the best example you can afford!? I typically offer another approach, ?Buy as many books as you can, and study them!? Certain drool worthy trophy notes can only be appreciated to their fullest extent by studying long enough for the light bulb to come on. ?Wow when they said unique, they really meant it. I cannot find a sales record anywhere!? Let?s take a look at two small size star notes that are both one of a kind! If you want to know what you should be looking for while hunting at coin shows, brick and mortar shops, and on the internet ?this is where you need to pay close attention! Both of these notes are equal in grade and not surprisingly, they are also mules! A mule(a) is a note that has a micro plate serial number on one side and a macro number on the other. The first note pictured is a 1928C $5 legal tender red seal mule star note graded VF25 by PMG. Taking a look at the population stats, there are currently 22 examples graded by PMG with 4 of these notes listed as uncirculated, the highest being a single note graded a lofty 66EPQ. PCGS-Currency (Legacy) lists a total of 11 examples By Robert Calderman _____________________________________________________________ Paper Money * July/August 2020 * Whole No. 328___________________________________________ 265 graded with just one uncirculated note in 63PPQ. Now, how can a unique note have a total of 33 examples already slabbed? Has the term unique changed recently? Are there then somehow thirty-three unique notes known, how does that make any sense!?! What makes this star note so important is the three-digit plate serial number found on the back lower right. ?637?. This treasure is unfortunately hidden in the PMG population report since, at the moment, there is not a separate column designated for 637 examples of this Friedberg number. While all examples with back plate numbers 938 and lower are accurately designated as mules, Bp.637 carries a particular cult following that makes it stand alone at the highest level of underscored importance. Up to this point, there has only been one 1928C LT $5 Star example to have ever surfaced featuring this famous back plate number! Taking a close look at the rather archaic, near decade old small-size guide, this note is in fact deemed unique with the serial number listed as *06928533A and a value displayed at a very conservative $4,000 in Very Fine. With some research and help from those in the know, I have confirmed that there was inadvertently a typo in the guide and the actual surviving example is the note here on display featuring SN *06928553A. Back in 2008 this note made its public auction debut as a raw fine+ note. Unlisted in the auction description was the vitally important caveat of Bp.637 and instead just brief reference to a book value of $750 was notated. The bidders that day knew exactly what was being offered on the block as the glass ceiling was significantly shattered when the gavel finally fell at $3,737.50. Take a close look at this note, memorize the serial number, will you be the next cherry picker to pluck one of these amazing treasures out of the wild? At the bare minimum, there are five other Bp 637-star notes that were born along with our featured example when this 6-note half sheet was numbered! Our next note also has the honor of being unique and this one is even more spectacular! Silver Certificates are arguably the most avidly collected area within the small size paper money category. While aces have had the most attention by hard core collectors over recent decades, the five-dollar denomination with Lincoln?s decidedly debonair portrait has been taking hold with a frenzy of collectors competing tooth and nail at recent auctions! It only makes sense as the attractive crossover potential from Lincoln Cent collectors paves the way for expert life-long coin enthusiasts to dive into the ways of the paper via a familiar face on both forms of currency, the modern cent and the small size five-dollar bill. If a numismatist decided to collect paper, it would only follow that he would make the obvious choice to begin with paper money that was backed by actual specie! Here we have another Bp.637 mule star, this time on a $5 silver certificate from the series of 1934C graded VF25 by PMG. A total of fifteen mule stars have been graded by both services combined. For many years, the finest known example was a VF35 no-Q graded by PMG. Until recently no one had even heard an inkling of a CU example having survived the tortures of everyday circulation from life in commerce. Astoundingly as discoveries are still being made in the hobby at any given moment, a small run of uncirculated examples surfaced giving six lucky collectors the chance at a dream note of epic proportions. A scarce mule variety on a five-dollar silver certificate, as an even rarer replacement star note, and in an unheard-of Gem Uncirculated state of preservation! The epic grades now currently known are: (1) 66EPQ, (1) 65EPQ, (2) 64EPQ, and (2) 63EPQ. Included amongst these ranks is an incredible mule to non-mule change over pair! Now we find ourselves in a major quandary again!?! How can there be 15 examples graded and a so-called VF25 as the only known unique unicorn? Take a close look at the face plate number and the insert on the PMG slab. What makes this note achieve the ranks of impossible rarity is only partly due to the 637-back plate. The face plate is what pushes this note over the _____________________________________________________________ Paper Money * July/August 2020 * Whole No. 328___________________________________________ 266 edge! Fp.2028 is the first of the four important Narrow face plates. Prior to the release of the series of 1934D $5 silver certificates, the 34C faces were reformatted giving us four treasured narrow Fp.#?s printed at the tail end of the series. Face plates 2028, 2029, 2030, and 2031 are extremely special animals that account for only 2.5% of the entire 1934C five-dollar issue. For any narrow face example to be mated with a 637 back is an extremely rare occurrence worthy of trophy note status. These narrow face mule aberrations only occur on two of the three possible narrow face (non-star) SN blocks, P-A and N-A. The Q-A block printing dates do not coincide with use of Bp.637 and mules on this block were unfortunately never printed. Currently, there are an absolutely miniscule number of narrow face mules certified. Rare birds are always far from plentiful, and collectors must be vigilant if they want a chance to add an example to their collection. For the N-A block only twelve individual examples have been third party graded. For P-A only two notes in total are currently holdered, a PCGS-Currency (Legacy) VF20 and 65PPQ. The PMG 64 no Q listed in the population report was crossed at one time by a dedicated Hall of Fame registry collector and no longer exists as a PMG note. Narrow face star notes are also extremely significant rarities. Up to this date, only 10 examples have been graded with just one note achieving an original CCU grade of 63EPQ. However, not a single one of these ten narrow star note examples are privileged enough to feature Bp.637. So now that we know how rare 1934C $5 silver certificate narrow face star notes and narrow face 637 mule (non-star) notes actually are, and until a new supreme title can be devised, this one and only narrow face mule STAR note can indeed give new meaning to the word ?Unique?. Will a dedicated student one day unearth another higher-grade example, we may never know?? Do you have a great Cherry Pick story that you?d like to share? Your note might be featured here in a future article and you can remain anonymous if desired! Email scans of your note with a brief description of what you paid and where it was found to: gacoins@earthlink.net. Citations: (a)Huntoon, Peter, Sep/Oct 2015 The Enduring Allure of $5 Micro Back Plates 629 & 637. Paper Money, v. LV, Whole No.299, p.304-326. _____________________________________________________________ Paper Money * July/August 2020 * Whole No. 328___________________________________________ 267 The Obsolete Corner The Monmouth Bank by Robert Gill Hello paper money collectors. I'm hoping that you and your family are doing fine. These last few months have completely changed, temporarily, I am praying, our way of life. We are living in some very trying times, and it is nice for me when I can just go to my in-home office, relax, and enjoy a part of my life. And that is my paper money collection. I've made the statement many times that, "Outside of my family, Obsolete Currency sheets are my passion!" In this issue of Paper Money, we are going to look at a sheet in my collection that could very well be unique. We do have to be very careful when using that word. But looking back in available auction records, and checking with people in authority in our hobby, all indications are that this sheet probably is that "one of a kind". And it is on The Monmouth Bank, which was chartered in the 1820s to operate in Freehold, New Jersey. Neither premier New Jersey Obsolete Currency collector/researcher, David Gladfelter, or forty-year Obsolete Currency dealer/specialist, Hugh Shull, had ever seen a sheet on this bank before this one surfaced in the "Freehold, New Jersey Collection" that Stacks Bowers auctioned off several years ago. I felt very privileged when I was able to acquire it. And now, let's look at the limited amount of history that has been uncovered on this institution. The first bank of the city of Freehold was the ill- fated Monmouth Bank. Receiving its charter in 1824, it was the 22nd bank to be chartered in the state of New Jersey. According to History of Monmouth County, New Jersey, by Franklin Ellis, "In the following year (of receiving its charter) it was (nominally) in business, with William J. Bowne as Manager and Cashier. For a time in that year, whatever funds, securities or other property it possessed, liable to be stolen, was locked, for safe keeping, in one of the cells of the local jail. Afterwards, a safe or strongbox was provided, and the office of the bank was kept in Mr. Bowne's building on Main Street. Of the history of the old Monmouth Bank during the years following the time of its incorporation, very little is known." In reference to the chartering of The Monmouth Bank, in Gordon's Gazetteer is found the following: "Monmouth Bank at Freehold. -- Chartered in 1824. Capital, $200,000. Amount paid in, $40,000. Amount paid to Treasurer, $4,000." The Bank was always regarded with distrust by the community, and finally suspended operations in the early 1830s. The end of it, under its first organization, is marked by an advertisement selling its assets that was printed in the Monmouth Democrat of February, 1836, as follows: "Monmouth Bank will be sold at Public Auction, at the house of Barzillai Hendrickson, in Freehold, on Saturday, the 12th of March next, at 11:00 AM. The vault of Monmouth Bank, consisting of iron and stone, two iron doors, one large fire-proof iron chest, three copper note plates, bank note paper, blank account books, one large bank lock and other articles. W.J. Bowne Assignee. Freehold, 23rd February, 1836." The sale was twice adjourned to Saturday, February 18th, and again to Saturday, the 26th, at which latter time the articles were doubtless disposed of, though no account of the sale is found. The Monmouth Bank was resuscitated under the same name in 1841, but its charter was repealed in 1843. So, there she is. With the issue of security, and probably other things, this little bank was fortunate to last as long as it did. But this "sheet of history" did survive for us to enjoy today. As I always do, I invite any comments to my cell phone number (580) 221-0898, or my personal email address robertgill@cableone.net So, until next time... HAPPY COLLECTING. _____________________________________________________________ Paper Money * July/August 2020 * Whole No. 328___________________________________________ 268 _____________________________________________________________ Paper Money * July/August 2020 * Whole No. 328___________________________________________ 269 Lyn Knight Currency Auct ions If you are buying notes... You?ll find a spectacular selection of rare and unusual currency offered for sale in each and every auction presented by Lyn Knight Currency Auctions. Our auctions are conducted throughout the year on a quarterly basis and each auction is supported by a beautiful ?grand format? catalog, featuring lavish descriptions and high quality photography of the lots. Annual Catalog Subscription (4 catalogs) $50 Call today to order your subscription! 800-243-5211 If you are selling notes... Lyn Knight Currency Auctions has handled virtually every great United States currency rarity. We can sell all of your notes! Colonial Currency... Obsolete Currency... Fractional Currency... Encased Postage... Confederate Currency... United States Large and Small Size Currency... National Bank Notes... Error Notes... Military Payment Certificates (MPC)... as well as Canadian Bank Notes and scarce Foreign Bank Notes. We offer: Great Commission Rates Cash Advances Expert Cataloging Beautiful Catalogs Call or send your notes today! If your collection warrants, we will be happy to travel to your location and review your notes. 800-243-5211 Mail notes to: Lyn Knight Currency Auctions P.O. Box 7364, Overland Park, KS 66207-0364 We strongly recommend that you send your material via USPS Registered Mail insured for its full value. Prior to mailing material, please make a complete listing, including photocopies of the note(s), for your records. We will acknowledge receipt of your material upon its arrival. If you have a question about currency, call Lyn Knight. He looks forward to assisting you. 800-243-5211 - 913-338-3779 - Fax 913-338-4754 Email: lyn@lynknight.com - support@lynknight.c om Whether you?re buying or selling, visit our website: www.lynknight.com Fr. 379a $1,000 1890 T.N. Grand Watermelon Sold for $1,092,500 Fr. 183c $500 1863 L.T. Sold for $621,000 Fr. 328 $50 1880 S.C. Sold for $287,500 Lyn Knight Currency Auctions Deal with the Leading Auction Company in United States Currency What?s in a Signature? Among the 19th century banknote reporters and counterfeit detectors, one curious variety is the so- called ?autographical? detector, of which John Thompson?s are the best-known examples. Instead of listing and describing dodgy banknotes, these publications instead compiled signature samples of all the bank officials whose names might appear on the banknotes. The idea was that, armed with a list of the genuine signatures, a person could tell if their banknote was real or fake by comparing its signatures to those listed in the detector. Like many other defenses against counterfeiting, this one was a two-edged sword. Counterfeiters must?ve been thrilled to have such a convenient compilation of all the signatures they needed to forge! Yet the use of signatures as an authentication device raises a second, and deeply strange, problem. Even armed with one of these autographical detectors, anybody wishing to test a banknote in this way would have to deal with the paradox that no one example of a genuine signature can be completely identical to any other genuine example. Indeed, it?s the variability from one signature sample to the next that is a mark of their very genuineness?that the signature comes from a real human being. Perfectly identical signatures are either forgeries (traced, or otherwise printed as facsimiles of the original) or they are mechanical reproductions done by a lifeless signing machine (an ?autopen?). To put the problem in another way, a banknote that is declared genuine by dint of its signature relies on the authenticity of the signature, as executed idiosyncratically by a bank officer. But otherwise, the standards for a genuine banknote inhere in the exactitude and virtuosity of its reproduction. Ideally, unlike a genuine signature, each genuine banknote should look exactly like any other genuine note. As banknote production grew in the in 19th century, these two modes of validation collided. For example, by the early 1850s, the Bank of England?s note issue was so large that it required the autographical labors of a squad of scriveners, employed at some cost, to engage in the mindless task of signing note after note. A notice in the financial press sketched out the resulting difficulty: ?Although twenty gentlemen were daily employed in signing the notes, it was quite possible that there might be such a difference in the signature at different times of the day as to render it difficult for any one of them to vouch for its identity in a court of law. It was this that gave rise to the act which empowered the Bank, since January 1853, to sign all its notes by machinery, by which the Bank saved the expense of ?10,000 a year, and obtained a uniformity in the note which no individual could perform.?* In the United States, government authorities accepted this change only belatedly. While almost from the very beginning greenbacks sported printed signatures, the government insisted that national banknotes be actually signed by their officers. It did so despite the fact that greenbacks and national banknotes circulated for most purposes side by side as equivalent forms of currency. Bankers pushed back against such an inconsistent and illogical rule, often employing rubber stamps of their facsimile signatures to ease the tedium of penmanship. Only by 1892 did Congress relent by recognizing the legal issue of banknotes with facsimile signatures. One likely reason for this different treatment was that the government regarded greenbacks and national banknotes as genuinely different instruments. As legal tender emissions, greenbacks were backed by the law and power of the state. Any signatures were incidental to this. In contrast, national banknotes did not enjoy legal tender status, but were technically promissory notes of the issuing institutions. The signatures weren?t simply there to make counterfeiting more difficult. They also, in a sense, executed the documents to the extent that they were ?promises to pay? a certain sum to the bearer. Despite circulating at par with other kinds of paper money, government regulators persisted in their legalistic scruples, holding national banknotes to a higher (or at least different) standard than that applied to legal tender notes. With the end of the national banking era, all forms of paper money became legal tender, and signatures receded in their legal significance to being just another design feature of a note. For that purpose, facsimile signatures were good enough. In our present day, the character and quality of such signatures are trivial issues. In 2013, there was a minor kerfuffle over Treasury Secretary Jack Lew?s illegible script. A few years later, people sniffed at the inability of his successor, Steven Mnuchin, to even produce a decent cursive signature. Yet the very levity of these complaints bespeaks a diminished role for the signature now, as opposed to the 19th century. *The Banker?s Magazine and Statistical Register, Nov. 1854. Chump Change Loren Gatch _____________________________________________________________ Paper Money * July/August 2020 * Whole No. 328___________________________________________ 271 The Society of Paper Money Collectors was organized in 1961 and incorporated in 1964 as a non-profit organization under the laws of the District of Columbia. It is affiliated with the ANA. The Annual Meeting of the SPMC is held in June at the International Paper Money Show. Information about the SPMC, including the by-laws and activities can be found at our website-- www.spmc.org. The SPMC does not does not endorse any dealer, company or auction house. MEMBERSHIP?REGULAR and LIFE. Applicants must be at least 18 years of age and of good moral character. Members of the ANA or other recognized numismatic societies are eligible for membership. Other applicants should be sponsored by an SPMC member or provide suitable references. MEMBERSHIP?JUNIOR. Applicants for Junior membership must be from 12 to 17 years of age and of good moral character. A parent or guardian must sign their application. Junior membership numbers will be preceded by the letter ?j? which will be removed upon notification to the secretary that the member has reached 18 years of age. Junior members are not eligible to hold office or vote. DUES?Annual dues are $39. Dues for members in Canada and Mexico are $45. Dues for members in all other countries are $60. Life membership?payable in installments within one year is $800 for U.S.; $900 for Canada and Mexico and $1000 for all other countries. The Society no longer issues annual membership cards but paid up members may request one from the membership director with an SASE. Memberships for all members who joined the Society prior to January 2010 are on a calendar year basis with renewals due each December. Memberships for those who joined since January 2010 are on an annual basis beginning and ending the month joined. All renewals are due before the expiration date, which can be found on the label of Paper Money. Renewals may be done via the Society website www.spmc.org or by check/money order sent to the secretary. WELCOME TO OUR NEW MEMBERS! BY FRANK CLARK SPMC MEMBERSHIP DIRECTOR SPMC NEW MEMBERS 05/05/2020 15102 Thomas Goffigon. (C), Website 15103 Nate Ellis, (C), Website 15104 Roeland Krul, (C), E-Sylum 15105 CVM Enterprises, (C), Website 15106 Chris Birchfield, (C), Website 15107 OliannaZelles, (C), Website 15108 Mark Rielly, (C), Frank Clark 15109 Christian Lengyel, (C), Website 15110 John Gray III, (C), Website 15111 Gildardo A. Bonilla (C), Website 15112 Rick Ewing, (C), Frank Clark 15113 Anthony Gonzales, (C), Frank Clark REINSTATEMENTS None LIFE MEMBERSHIPS None SPMC NEW MEMBERS 06/05/2020 15114 Mike Marchioni, (C), SPMC Mailing 15115 Shawn Senter, (C), ANA Ad 15116 Robert Bauswell, (C), Website 15117 Michael Davis, (C), Website 15118 Kenneth Shepherd, (C), Website 15119 John Rubisch, (C), Frank Clark 15120 Joseph Newmark, (C), ANA Ad 15121 William Brewer, (C), Website 15122 Lindy Harrell, (C), Tom Denly 15123 Robert Beller, (C), Frank Clark 15124 Lawrence Jelsch, (C), Website 15125 Norman Carnovale/Coin Shop Biloxi, (D), Pierre Fricke 15126 Marek Mirski, ?, Frank Clark REINSTATEMENTS None LIFE MEMBERSHIPS None Dues Remittal Process Send dues directly to Robert Moon SPMC Treasurer 104 Chipping Ct Greenwood, SC 29649 Refer to your mailing label for when your dues are due. You may also pay your dues online at www.spmc.org. _____________________________________________________________ Paper Money * July/August 2020 * Whole No. 328___________________________________________ 272 The Texas Association by Robert Gill Obsolete sheets, being my passion, are what I usually collect, research, and write about. But I do, occasionally, delve into the world of scripophily. Recently, I came across a very interesting stock certificate that helps us understand a little more about the settlement of the State of Texas. And that is on The Texas Association. Heritage Auctions gives us a little detail on this neat "piece of history" . In February of 1841, the Texas Congress approved of granting impresario contracts to individuals promising to settle unclaimed public lands belonging to the Republic. President Sam Houston granted Charles Fenton Mercer, of Louisville, Kentucky, a contract to settle at least 100 families a year for five years, beginning in Jan. 1844. Mercer organized The Texas Association to advertise and promote colonization, and sold $500 shares to investors in Virginia, Florida, and Texas. Mercer's association offered 160 acres to families and 80 acres to single men, compared with the 320 acres offered by the adjacent Peters Colony promoters. By the end of the first year of the contract, more than 100 families had complied with the requirements and received land certificates. However, the Mercer Colony's growth was impeded by political wrangling, dishonest land speculators and surveyors, and squatters. Mercer ultimately severed all connections with the grant in February of 1852 by assigning his interest in the Texas Association to George Hancock, of Louisville, Kentucky. By 1858, Hancock had reorganized the association and issued new stock shares. This lithographed certificate is from that issue. This is just another area in the fascinating "world of paper" that we collectors can enjoy and learn about the past history of our great country. As I always do, I invite any comments to my cell phone (580) 221-0898, or my personal email address robertgill@cableone.net. _____________________________________________________________ Paper Money * July/August 2020 * Whole No. 328___________________________________________ 273 A Black Issue Date Stamp on Confederate Currency A search for its location ? by Dr. Enrico Aidala On June 4th, 1862, the Treasury Department of the Confederate States reported the ??. issue [of] Treasury notes of the denomination of one hundred dollars, bearing interest at the rate of two cents per day.... These notes, ?.., offer to the holder the double advantage of an interest of $7.30 per $100, while retained in his hands, and the capacity of being used as currency whenever he may desire to pay them away.? Later on, a Collector or Depositary wrote to the Secretary of the Treasury for the Confederate Government, Christopher Gustavus Memminger asked if it was possible to have someone else do the issuing and if a stamp would be acceptable for this purpose. Memminger answered saying he had only one absolute requirement and it was that a date had to be applied to these notes for the purpose of interest calculation. For interest calculations the only requirement is an issue date, but on the back of many of the so called 7.30 Confederate Notes (T-39, T-40 and T-41) we also sometimes find manuscript issue endorsements by military officers and government agents. Issue Date Stamps by depositaries are not rare, and they generally presented the name of the issuer and/or the place of issue. Only a few of the issue stamps are found without any name and place. The purpose of this paper is to locate as precisely as possible where one of these date stamps was used during the Civil War (Fig. 1). The key evidence in this research was the observation that this Black Issue Date Stamp (BID Stamp) was found alone or with the signatures of only five military officers, all of them from the Army of Georgia. They are Capt. & AQM N. B. Brown, Capt. & AQM Thomas Burke, Capt. & AQM James Hightower, Capt. Jesse R. Hodges Sikes, and Capt. & AQM Nathaniel O. Tilton (Fig. 2). Fig. 1 Black Issue Date (BID) Stamp example Fig. 2 From the database, BID stamps with officers? signature or handwritten officers? signature. 1a: BID stamp and T. A. Burke, 1b: handwritten T. A. Burke, 2a: BID stamp and N. B. Brown, 2b: BID stamp and N. B. Brown stamp, 2c: handwritten N. B. Brown, 3a: BID stamp and N. O. Tilton, 3b: handwritten N. O. Tilton, 4: BID stamp and J. H. R. Sikes, 5: BID stamp and J. C. Hightower _____________________________________________________________ Paper Money * July/August 2020 * Whole No. 328___________________________________________ 274 I started an extensive research of the 7.30 notes with the endorsements by the five officers, with or without the BID Stamp, in the databases of Heritage Auctions and Stacks-Bowers, on eBay, on some U.S. currency dealer websites, and also with the help of the Trainmen, a group of collectors, authors, and researchers who specialize in Type-39, -40, and -41 Confederate Treasury notes and their endorsements, to which I belong. At the moment I was able to find a total of 105 notes, 68 with the BID Stamp alone or with the signature of the five officers, 37 without the BID Stamp but with the officers? signature; in particular: ? 19 notes show only the BID Stamp ? 19 notes were issued by Capt. Thomas Burke: 5 with the BID Stamp, 14 without it ? 35 notes were issued by Capt. N. B. Brown: 27 with the BID Stamp, 8 without it ? 25 notes were issued by Capt. Nathaniel O. Tilton: 10 with the BID Stamp, 15 without it ? 4 notes were issued by Capt. James Hightower, all with the BID Stamp ? 3 notes were issued by Capt. Jesse R. Hodges Sikes, all with the BID Stamp Table 1 below shows the entire database. The BID Stamps are in red font; some notes presented two BID stamps and only the first one has a military officer signature. Hw = handwritten; * = B. Dawson June 19/63 endorsement; ? = Thos. McGrath signature. Type? SN,?plate? Date? BID?Stamp? BID?Stamp?or?other?Issue?date? Officer? IP?stamps? T39? 4908?Ad? 06/17/62? Sept.?29?1862? John?Boston?24?June?1862? ??? Savannah?63,?65;?Macon?64? T39? 4965?Ad? 06/17/62? Sept.?29?1862? 24?June?1862??John?Boston? ??? Savannah?63,?65;?Macon?64? T39? 4968?Ac? 06/17/62? Sept.?23?1862? John?Boston?24?June?1862? ??? Savannah?63,?64? T39? 5572?Ag? 06/13/62? Oct.?07,?1862? Hw?Issued?28?August?1862? ???? Knoxville?63;?Hw?I.P.?64,?Columbia?65? T39? 18582?Aa? 07/09/62? Oct.?7,?1862? ???? ???? Macon?65? T39? 26837?Ab? 07/24/62? Sept.?23?1862? Issued?7th?of?August? Jno?D? Cameron? Capt?AQM? Savannah?63,?64? T40? 50159?Ah? 09/23/62? Oct.?7,?1862? ???? ???? Macon?64,?65? T40? 50463?Aa? 09/23/62? Oct.?10,?1862? ???? ???? Knoxville?63;?Richmond?64? T40? 50465?Ae? 09/23/62? Oct.?10,?1862? ???? ???? ??? T40? 50905?Aa? 09/23/62? Oct.?10,?1862? ???? ???? Savannah?63,?64;?Advertising?Note?Kenneth?Route?Atlanta?? T40? 52039?Ad? 09/23/62? Oct.?8,?1862? ???? ???? Tallahassee?64? T40? 52072?Ad? 09/23/62? Oct.?8,?1862? ?????*? ???? Savannah?63,?65;?Macon?64??? T40? 5219??Ah? 09/23/62? Oct.?9,?1862? ???? ???? ???? _____________________________________________________________ Paper Money * July/August 2020 * Whole No. 328___________________________________________ 275 ? ? Type? SN,?plate? Date? BID?Stamp? BID?Stamp?or?other?Issue?date? Officer? IP?stamps? T40? 52224?Ac? 09/23/62? Oct.?7,?1862? ???? ???? Tallahassee?64? T40? 52301?Af? 09/23/62? Oct.?8,?1862? ???? ???? Macon?64,?65? T40? 52333?Af? 09/23/62? Oct.?7,?1862? ???? ???? Macon?64,?65? T40? 52737?Af? 09/23/62? Oct.?9,?1862? ???? ???? Richmond?64,?65? T40? 53101?Ag? 09/23/62? Oct.?8,?1862? ???? ???? Augusta?63? T40? 53165?Ag? 09/23/62? Oct.?8,?1862? John?Boston?Feb?18?1863? ??? Savannah?63,?Charleston?64,?Columbia?65? T39? 21545?Ac? 07/24/62? Sept.?9th?,?1862? Sept.?23,?1862?? TA?Burke? Savannah?63,?64? T39? 21560?Ac? 07/24/62? Sept.?9th?,?1862? Sept.?23,?1862?? TA?Burke? Savannah?63,?64? T39? 21561?Ac? 07/24/62? Sept.?9th?,?1862? Sept.?23,?1862?? TA?Burke? Savannah?63,?64? T39? 21597?Ac? 07/24/62? Sept.?9th?,?1862? Sept.?23,?1862?? TA?Burke? Savannah?63,?64? T39? 21600?Ac? 07/24/62? Sept.?9th?,?1862? Sept.?23,?1862?? TA?Burke? Savannah?63,?Charleston?64,?? Columbia?65? T39? 23355?Ac? 07/24/62? ???? Sept?19?1862?(Hw)? TA?Burke? IP?Unknown??63;?Jackson?64;?Tallahassee?65? T39? 23400?Ac? 07/24/62? ???? Sept?19?1862?(Hw)? TA?Burke? IP?Unknown?63;?Jackson?64;?Augusta?65? T39? 25332?Ah? 07/24/62? ???? Aug?12?1862?(Hw)? TA?Burke? Savannah?63;?Henry?Savage?Wilmington?64? T39? 25340?Ah? 07/24/62? ???? Aug?12?1862?(Hw)? TA?Burke? Henry?Savage?Wilmington?64? T39? 25493?Ae? 07/24/62? ???? Aug?7?1862?(Hw)? TA?Burke? Jackson?63,?64,?65? T39? 25523?Ah? 07/24/62? ???? Aug?12?1862?(Hw)? TA?Burke? Savannah?63;?Henry?Savage?Wilmington?64? T39? 25524?Ah? 07/24/62? ???? Aug?12?1862?(Hw)? TA?Burke? Savannah?63;?Henry?Savage?Wilmington?64? T39? 25525?Ah? 07/24/62? ???? Aug?12?1862?(Hw)? TA?Burke? Savannah?63;?Henry?Savage?Wilmington?64? T39? 25535?Ah? 07/24/62? ???? Aug?12?1862?(Hw)? TA?Burke? Savannah?63;?Henry?Savage?Wilmington?64? T39? 25536?Ah? 07/24/62? ???? Aug?12?1862?(Hw)? TA?Burke? Savannah?63;?Henry?Savage?Wilmington?64? T39? 25539?Ah? 07/24/62? ???? Aug?12/18?1862?(Hw)? TA?Burke? Savannah?63;?Henry?Savage?Wilmington?64? T39? 25545?Ah? 07/24/62? ???? Aug?12?1862?(Hw)? TA?Burke? Savannah?63;?Henry?Savage?Wilmington?64? T39? 25552?Ah? 07/24/62? ???? Aug?8?1862?(Hw)? TA?Burke? Savannah?63;?Henry?Savage?Wilmington?64? T39? 25595?Ah? 07/24/62? ???? Aug?8?1862?(Hw)? TA?Burke? Savannah?63,?64? _____________________________________________________________ Paper Money * July/August 2020 * Whole No. 328___________________________________________ 276 ? ? Type? SN,?plate? Date? BID?Stamp? BID?Stamp?or?other?Issue?date? Officer? IP?stamps? T41? 24793?X? 10/22/1862? ??? John?Boston?Feb?18? 1863?and?April?3? 1863;?April?6/63? (Hw)? NB?Brown?(Hw)? Savannah?64? T39? 6140?Ae? 06/17/62? Oct?27th?,?1862? John?Boston?July?5?1862?? NB?Brown? (stamp)? Savannah?63;?Macon?64;?Columbus,?GA?65? T39? 21564?Ag? 07/24/62? Sept?16th,?1862? Reissued?9?April?63? NB?Brown?(Hw)? Augusta?63;?Montgomery?64,?65? T39? 21581?Ag? 07/24/62? Sept?16th,?1862? ????? NB?Brown?(Hw)? Augusta?63;?Charleston?64;?Columbia?65? T39? 23308?Ae? 07/24/62? Sept?9th,?1862? John?Boston?Nov?5?1862? NB?Brown?(Hw)? Augusta?63? T39? 23322?Ag? 07/24/62? Sept?9th,?1862? ????? NB?Brown?(Hw)? ???? T39? 23364?Aa? 07/24/62? Sept?1th,?1862? ?????*? NB?Brown?(Hw)? Savannah?63,?65;?Macon?64? T39? 23371?Ad? 07/24/62? Sept?9th,?1862? ????? NB?Brown?(Hw)? Richmond?64,65? T39? 23378?Ag? 07/24/62? Sept?9th,?1862? ????? NB?Brown?(Hw)? Savannah?63,?Columbia?64,65? T39? 23383?Aa? 07/24/62? Sept?1th,?1862? ????? NB?Brown?(Hw)? Savannah?64? T39? 23391?Ad? 07/24/62? Sept?9th,?1862? ????? NB?Brown?(Hw)? Richmond?63;?Augusta?64,?65? T39? 25414?Ah? 07/24/62? ???? Aug?7?1862? NB?Brown?(Hw)? Savannah?63,?64? T39? 25426?Ah? 07/24/62? ???? Aug?7?1862? NB?Brown?(Hw)? Savannah?63,?65;?Augusta?64? T39? 25430?Ad? 07/24/62? ???? Aug?5?1862? NB?Brown?(Hw)? Savannah?63,?Charleston?64? T39? 25465?Aa? 07/24/62? ???? Aug?7?1862? NB?Brown?(Hw)? ??? T39? 25499?Af? 07/24/62? ???? Aug?7?1862,???? NB?Brown?(Hw)? Macon?64? T39? 25565?Ac? 07/24/62? ???? Aug?7?1862? NB?Brown?(Hw)? Savannah?63,64,?65? T39? 25579?Ac? 07/24/62? ???? Aug?7?1862;??John?Boston?Feb?18?1863? NB?Brown?(Hw)? Savannah?63;?Macon?65? T39? 26810?Ag? 07/24/62? Sept?5th,?1862? ????? NB?Brown?(Hw)? Savannah?63;?Columbus,?GA?65? T39? 26816?Ah? 07/24/62? Sept?9th,?1862? John?Boston?Nov?20?1862? NB?Brown?(Hw)? Augusta?63,?64,?65? T39? 26825?Ah? 07/24/62? Sept?9th,?1862? ???? NB?Brown?(Hw)? Savannah?63,?64? T39? 26846?Ag? 07/24/62? Sept?5th,?1862? ????? NB?Brown?(Hw)? Jackson?64;?Columbus,?MS?65? T39? 26848?Ah? 07/24/62? Sept?9th,?1862? ???? NB?Brown?(Hw)? Savannah?63;?Tallahassee?65? T39? 26856?Ag? 07/24/62? Sept?5th,?1862? ???? NB?Brown?(Hw)? ???? _____________________________________________________________ Paper Money * July/August 2020 * Whole No. 328___________________________________________ 277 ? ? Type? SN,?plate? Date? BID?Stamp? BID?Stamp?or?other?Issue?date? Officer? IP?stamps? T39? 26874?Ah? 07/24/62? Sept?9th,?1862? John?Boston??Jan?5?1863? NB?Brown?(Hw)? Jackson?64;?Richmond?65? T40? 52523?Ah? 09/23/62? Oct?21st,?1862? ???? NB?Brown?(stamp)? Savannah?63,?64? T40? 52533?Ac? 09/23/62? Oct?21st,?1862? ???? NB?Brown?(stamp)? Savannah?63,?Augusta?64,65? T40? 52544?Ah? 09/23/62? Oct?21st,?1862? ???? NB?Brown?(stamp)? Savannah?63;?Charleston?64;?Columbia? 65? T40? 52556?Ah? 09/23/62? Oct?21st,?1862? ???? NB?Brown?(stamp)? Savannah?64? T40? 52560?Ah? 09/23/62? Oct?21st,?1862? ???? NB?Brown?(stamp)? Savannah?64? T40? 52564?Ah? 09/23/62? Oct?21st,?1862? ???? NB?Brown?(stamp)? Savannah?63,?64? T40? 52566?Aa? 09/23/62? Oct?21st,?1862? ???? NB?Brown?(stamp)? Augusta?64;?Savannah?65? T40? 52574?Aa? 09/23/62? Oct?21st,?1862? ???? NB?Brown?(stamp)? Savannah?63,?64? T40? 52590?Ah? 09/23/62? Oct?21st,?1862? ???? NB?Brown?(stamp)? Savannah?63,?64? T40? 52980?Aa? 09/23/62? Oct?21st,?1862? ???? NB?Brown?(stamp)? ???? T39? 21560?Aa? 07/24/62? Sept.?5th?,?1862? ??? NO?Tilton? Montgomery?63? T39? 21574?Aa? 07/24/62? Sept.?5th?,?1862? ??? NO?Tilton? Montgomery?63? T39? 25403?Ab? 07/24/62? ???? Aug?7?1862? NO?Tilton? Savannah?63,?Macon?64,?Columbus,?GA?65? T39? 25424?Ab? 07/24/62? ???? Aug?7?1862? NO?Tilton? Savannah?63,?Charleston?64? T39? 25444?Ab? 07/24/62? ???? Aug?7?1862? NO?Tilton? Savannah?63,?Macon?64,?65? T39? 25446?Ab? 07/24/62? ???? Aug?7?1862? NO?Tilton? Savannah?63,?Macon?64,?65? T39? 25449?Ab? 07/24/62? ???? Aug?7?1862? NO?Tilton? Savannah?63,?Macon?64,?65? T39? 25450?Ab? 07/24/62? ???? Aug?7?1862? NO?Tilton? Savannah?63,?Macon?64,?65? T39? 25451?Ab? 07/24/62? ???? Aug?7?1862? NO?Tilton? Savannah?63,?Macon?64,?65? T39? 25454?Ab? 07/24/62? ???? Aug?7?1862? NO?Tilton? Savannah?63,?Macon?64,?65? T39? 25460?Ab? 07/24/62? ???? Aug?7?1862? NO?Tilton? Savannah?63,?Macon?64,?65? _____________________________________________________________ Paper Money * July/August 2020 * Whole No. 328___________________________________________ 278 ? ? Type? SN,?plate? Date? BID?Stamp? BID?Stamp?or?other?Issue?date? Officer? IP?stamps? T39? 25461?Ab? 07/24/62? ???? Aug?7?1862? NO?Tilton? Savannah?63,?Macon?64,?65? T39? 25463?Ab? 07/24/62? ???? Aug?7?1862? NO?Tilton? Savannah?63,?Macon?64,?65? T39? 25465?Ab? 07/24/62? ???? Aug?7?1862? NO?Tilton? Savannah?63,?Macon?64,?65? T39? 25466?Ab? 07/24/62? ???? Aug?7?1862? NO?Tilton? Savannah?63,?Macon?64,?65? T39? 25467?Ab? 07/24/62? ???? Aug?7?1862? NO?Tilton? Savannah?63,?Augusta?65? T39? 25488?Ab? 07/24/62? ???? Aug?7?1862? NO?Tilton? Savannah?63,?Macon?64,?65? T39? 26802?Af? 07/24/62? Sept.?5th?,?1862? Sept.?23,?1862?? NO?Tilton? ?? T39? 26803Ae? 07/24/62? Sept.?5th?,?1862? ???? NO?Tilton? Richmond?63,?64,?65? T39? 26809?Ae? 07/24/62? Sept.?5th?,?1862? ???? NO?Tilton? Wilmington?63;??Henry?Savage?Wilmington?64? T39? 26834?Af? 07/24/62? Sept.?5th?,?1862? Sept.?23,?1862?? NO?Tilton? Savannah?63,?64? T39? 26848?Af? 07/24/62? Sept.?5th?,?1862? Sept.?23,?1862?? NO?Tilton? Richmond?64,?65? T39? 26853?Af? 07/24/62? Sept.?5th?,?1862? Sept.?23,?1862?? NO?Tilton? ???? T39? 26883?Af? 07/24/62? Sept.?5th?,?1862? Sept.?23,?1862?? NO?Tilton? Savannah?63,?64? T39? 26889?Af? 07/24/62? Sept.?5th?,?1862? Sept.?23,?1862?? NO?Tilton? ???? T39? 23314?Af? 07/24/62? Sept?9th,?1862? ???? JC?Hightower? Savannah?63;?Charleston?64,?65? T39? 23317?Af? 07/24/62? Sept?9th,?1862? ???? JC?Hightower? Montgomery?64,?65? T39? 23319?Af? 07/24/62? Sept?9th,?1862? ???? JC?Hightower? Savannah?63;?Charleston?64,?65? T39? 23325?Af? 07/24/62? Sept?9th,?1862? ???? JC?Hightower? Savannah?63;?Charleston?64,?65? T39? 21555?Ah? 07/24/62? Sept?9th,?1862? John?Boston?Feb?18?1863?? JRH?Sikes? Savannah?63? T39? 21579?Ah? 07/24/62? Sept?9th?,?1862? Sept.?29,?1862?? JRH?Sikes? Wilmington?63,?64,?Raleigh?65? T39? 21599?Ah? 07/24/62? Sept?9th,?1862? ???? JRH?Sikes? Charleston???,?Augusta?65? ? Looking at the table, the main observations are the following: - The Date Stamp was present only on T-39 and T-40; no T-41 was found with the BID Stamp and only one T- 41 was signed by one of the five officers, N. B. Brown. - The issue dates on the BID Stamp were all between September 1st, 1862 and October 27th, 1862, in particular, September 1st, 5th, 9th, 16th, 23rd, 29th and October 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th, 21st, 27th. In addition, when two of these stamps were present on the same note, the second date (Reissue?) was September 23rd, 1862 in all the cases, except one note redated September 29th, 1862. _____________________________________________________________ Paper Money * July/August 2020 * Whole No. 328___________________________________________ 279 - Although the Date Stamp could be found alone (Date Only), it was extensively used by five military issuers, all Capt AQM from the Army of Georgia. - The five military officers issued also notes with handwritten dates, meaning without the BID stamp, prior to September 1st, 1862, mostly in August (7th, 8th, 12th, 12/18th), except two cases where September 19th was manuscripted by Capt Thomas Burke. - On eleven notes, it is present with the issue or reissue stamp (7) or endorsement (4) by John Boston, Depositary, Savannah (Fig. 3). All of these notes, except two, show only Georgia Interest Paid stamps. - Three notes show two signatures other than the previously listed military officers: one T-39 #25499 was signed by Thomas McGrath, special agent for the Confederacy: documents on the Fold3.com website show that he was present in Wilmington and later in Savannah in 1863 (Fig. 4); two notes were signed by B. F.(?) Dawson on June 19th,1863 (there is no match to this name in the documents on Fold3.com for a military officer or government agent; this may be an endorsement by a civilian or the name may be unclear). - Among the Registry Dates on the front, almost all the notes presented two dates, July 24th, 1862 (T-39) and September 23rd, 1862 (T-40). Four notes were dated June 17th, 1862, three with the BID Stamp only and one issued by N. B. Brown, another two BID Stamp only notes were dated June 13th, 1862 and September 7th, 1862, and the only T-41 in the database, issued by N. B. Brown, was dated October 22nd, 1862. - One note, T-39, #26837 Ab shows the issue by J. D. Cameron, Capt. & AQM on August 7th, 1862; later the note was stamped with a BID on September 23rd, 1862 (the reason for the second issue date will be detailed later). Capt. J. D. Cameron cannot be considered one of the issuers using the BID stamp, since he wrote his name and a date as in the other examples of his endorsements, and this is different from the four known issuers using the BID stamp. But his issuance again confirms the presence of the BID stamp in Georgia and in the Savannah area. Indeed, John D. Cameron was appointed as Captain & AQM on February 13th, 1862 with the 29th Georgia Infantry Regiment. The 29th remained at Camp Young on Wylly Island about eight miles southeast of Savannah (Fig. 21) through the Spring of 1862 until May 1863, and we could find two documents signed by Cameron in this camp in the National Archives. These data allow the location of Capt. & AQM Cameron around Savannah in the period of use of the BID stamp. We could infer that Cameron signed the note in Camp Young in August 1862, and later in September the note was issued with a new date to account for the payment of interest. - Twelve notes presented two BID stamps: five signed by Capt. Thomas Burke (Sept. 9th & Sept. 23rd), six by Capt. N. O. Tilton (Sept. 5th & Sept. 23rd), and one by Capt. J. H. R. Sikes (Sept. 9th & Sept. 29th). Under the first stamp we find the signature of the officer, while nothing is written under the second stamp. We could imagine at least two situations in that period with a large number of notes being prepared for issuance. In one case the stamped date was placed on the note and it was signed by the officer; however, the note was not issued, and it was held and subsequently issued at a later date. On the later date it was stamped with the new date without the need of a new signature. Or, the stamped date with the officer?s signature was placed on the note and given to a sergeant or someone else to buy whatever they needed in the following period. But if many days had passed, for the calculation of interest a new stamp date was placed on the note at the time of payment, again without the need for another signature of the officer. Fig. 3 John Boston Depositary, Savannah, handwritten signature and issue stamp Fig. 4 Thomas McGrath, special agent for the confederacy: account paid for supply and signature on?T-39 #25499. image Fold3.com _____________________________________________________________ Paper Money * July/August 2020 * Whole No. 328___________________________________________ 280 ? ? Since these notes are interest-bearing currency, on the back of them we very frequently find stamps for interest payment from many different cities for the years 1863, 1864 and 1865. Studying the interest paid (IP) stamps, there was a predominance of IP stamps from Georgia cities, meaning Augusta, Columbus, Macon, and Savannah. The precise numbers are the following (some notes will have more than one IP stamp): IP stamps from Georgia among all the database notes (105 notes): 146/216 = 67.6% IP stamps from Georgia among all the notes including a BID stamp (68 notes): 79/129 = 61.2% IP stamps from Georgia among the notes with only a BID stamp (19 notes): 24/35 = 68.6% From the statistical point of view, the Fisher?s Exact Test with Yate?s continuity correction demonstrated a statistical significance for the association of BID stamps to IP stamps from Georgia, with a p=0.018 and a RR=0.76. According to the evaluation of the database, it is now possible to infer that the BID Stamp has its origin in Georgia: it was used by five Georgia officers, it was present in association with other Georgia issuers (Capt. & AQM J. D. Cameron and John Boston, Depositary), and those notes more frequently remained in the State of Georgia as demonstrated by the statistical higher percentage of Interest Paid stamps from Georgia cities.. As a second step in the research, I tried to better locate the Stamp in Georgia by evaluating the military careers of the five officers during the summer-autumn of 1862. Table 2 below shows the date of issue on the notes (handwritten or BID stamped) for the Georgia officers and for notes with only the BID Stamp and no endorsement by an officer: Au gu st 5 Au gu st 6 Au gu st 7 Au gu st 8 Au gus t 1 2 Au gus t 1 8 Sep tem ber 1 Sep tem ber 5 Sep tem ber 9 sep tem ber 16 Sep tem ber 19 Sep tem ber 23 Sep tem ber 29 Oc tob er 7 Oc tob er 8 Oc tob er 9 Oc tob er 10 Oc tob er 21 Oc tob er 27 Stamp only SO SO SO SO SO SO N. B. Brown hw hw # # # # # # T. A. Burke hw hw hw hw # hw # J. C. Hightower # J. H. Sikes # # N. O. Tilton hw # # Capt. & AQM Nathan B. Brown: There are seventy-six documents for Brown in the National Archives files for Officers and seventy-four for Nathan B. Brown in Georgia, 1st (Olmstead's) Infantry. Born in New York, Nathan B. Brown was enlisted as a Private on August 1st, 1861, at Savannah, Georgia, in Chatham's Artillery; this company was organized into the 1st (Olmstead's) Georgia Infantry and later in October 1862 became independent upon reorganization of the Regiment. Private N. B. Brown was detached to the Quartermaster Department in Savannah, from January 1862 until June 1862, as a clerk (Fig. 5). On May 3rd, 1862 he was recommended for appointment of Assistant Quartermaster in Savannah by Capt. H. Hirsh (Fig. 6) and after being commissioned Captain and AQM, he was discharged from the company on July 3rd, 1862 to take rank in the Fig. 5 Account for commutation of rations to Private N. B. Brown from Chatham Artillery as a clerk in the Assistant Quartermaster Department, Savannah, June 30th, 1862. image Fold3.com ? _____________________________________________________________ Paper Money * July/August 2020 * Whole No. 328___________________________________________ 281 ? ? Quartermaster Department in Savannah, where he worked for the rest of 1862 and in 1863 (Fig. 7). As a Quartermaster and Paymaster, the job was hard and different, handling hundreds of thousands of dollars for pay vouchers, bounty pay, provisions and pay account and signing a bulk of financial and non-financial documents (Figs. 8-9). Fig. 6 Capt.H Hirsh ?recommend private N. B. Brown ?. for the appointment of Assistant Quartermaster.? image Fold3.com Fig. 7 Reverse of T-39 #26816 Ah with endorsement of Capt. & AQM N. B. Brown below the BID Stamp (issued Sept. 9th, 1862) Fig. 8 Abstracts of payment, Capt. N. B. Brown, Paymaster for July-August 1862. image: Confederate States of America Army Records MS 0169, Georgia Historical Society _____________________________________________________________ Paper Money * July/August 2020 * Whole No. 328___________________________________________ 282 ? ? Capt. & AQM Thomas A. Burke: Thomas A. Burke was appointed Capt. & Assistant Quartermaster of the 54th Georgia Infantry Regiment on July 16th, 1862, to rank from April 30th, 1862; later was promoted to Major & Acting QM on August 19th, 1863, to rank from August 1st, 1863 and ordered to report for duty to Brig. Gen'l W. B. Taliaferro. The 54th Georgia Volunteer Infantry was organized in Guyton, Georgia at the Camp of Instruction during the summer of 1862. It was deployed in the defense of Savannah until the summer of 1863 and?they stationed all around Savannah, GA until they moved to Charleston, SC. The regiment before 1864 was often split in assignment with Colonel Way in command of six companies and Lieutenant Colonel (Major) Rawls in command of the other four companies. In some references the 54th Georgia Volunteer Infantry is known as Rawls? Georgia Infantry. The regiment served for some time in the department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida. Capt. Burke appears in the Regimental Return from July 1862 to February 1863; in July 1862 in Savannah; from August 1862 to the first months of 1863 in Beaulieu (Fig.10). Fig. 9 Account of bounty payments by N. B. Brown for October 1862, for Barton Artillery, in Assistant Quartermaster?s Office, Savannah, GA. images: Confederate States of America Army Records MS 0169, Georgia Historical Society. _____________________________________________________________ Paper Money * July/August 2020 * Whole No. 328___________________________________________ 283 ? ? On the Burke?s career summary from the National Archives, the Order 445 of July 23rd, 1862, showed him present at Camp Way, near Savannah. Later, from August 1862 to summer 1863, all the documents referred to Beaulieu as his Station or Head Quarters (Figs.11-12). Confederate camps tended to take the name of the commander of the unit occupying the ground. Thus, one camp might have had several names between 1861 and 1865. Fig. 10 Reverse of T-39 #21561 Ac with endorsement of Capt. & AQM T. A. Burke below the BID Stamp (Issued September 9th, 1862) and another BID stamp (Issued September 23rd, 1862) Fig. 11 Presence of Capt. & AQM Burke in Beaulieu, according to regimental returns, for August, September and October 1862. image Fold3.com Fig. 12 Order for Capt. & AQM Burke from the Head Quarters in Beaulieu, dated October 31st, 1862: ?You will proceed... to Atlanta, Georgia, for the purpose of obtaining, if possible, from Captain Wm. Bacon, AQM, 150 army wall tents and 30 officer?s wall tents for the 54th Regt, Georgia, Vol.? image Fold3.com _____________________________________________________________ Paper Money * July/August 2020 * Whole No. 328___________________________________________ 284 Beaulieu, Chatham County, (pronounced ?Bewly?) was located at the mouth of the Vernon River, 12 miles south of Savannah. This land was deeded on April 27th, 1737 to William Stephens (1671-1753), the first ?president? of Georgia (1743-50). He recorded in his journal in 1740: ?I was now called to give the place a name; ? I fancied that Bewlie, a manor of his Grace the Duke of Montagu in the New Forest was not unlike it much, as to its situation?. It was initially called Beaulieu, though now vulgarly Bewlie?. General Robert E. Lee arrived in Savannah on November 11th, 1861; in planning the defense around the city, he visited Beaulieu and established a battery on Beaulieu Point. Across the Vernon River is Rosedew Island, where another battery set up a protection from the Little Ogeechee River and little bit south there is Genesis point, on the Big Ogeechee River, where Fort McAllister was erected (Figs.13 and 25). In ?Civil War Savannah: Savannah, immortal city,? Camp Beaulieu refers to the Beaulieu Plantation, on the Vernon River, ten miles south of Savannah, owned by Mr. David Cole, Sheriff of Chatham County. Fig. 13 Savannah area, Chatham County (from U.S. War Dept. Map of Portions of Georgia and South Carolina, 1865). Beaulieu (red arrow) and Fort McAllister and Genessis point (left inferior corner) _____________________________________________________________ Paper Money * July/August 2020 * Whole No. 328___________________________________________ 285 Capt. & AQM James C. Hightower: In the National Archives, 11 documents are present for James C. Hightower in the file for Officers and 19 are found in the file for the 30th Georgia Infantry, with only one signature on an 1863 store delivery. J. C. Hightower, born in Clark County, Georgia, was enlisted at Fairburn, Georgia, on September 25th, 1861, reporting to the 30th Georgia Regiment as a Private serving in the role of Acting Assistant Quarter Master. He was appointed on July 31st, 1862 to rank from June 28th, as Capt. & AQM reporting to the 30th Regiment Georgia Infantry and serving for a period of three years. The Georgia 30th Infantry Regiment was assembled at Milledgeville, Georgia, in the fall of 1861. In September 1861, Georgia Congressman David J. Bailey established Camp Bailey with the permission of Governor Joseph E. Brown. Camp Bailey was located between Fairburn and Palmetto, Georgia along the railroad track. On December 16th, 1861, the 30th Georgia moved to Griswoldsville in Jones County, Georgia. By the 23rd it was encamped just below Savannah. Fig. 25 Official report on the positions of troops in the district of Georgia under Brigadier General Hugh W. Mercer on September 25th, 1862: see the 18 companies at Carston?s (Causton?s) Bluff, 8 from the 25th Georgia Regiment, see also other camp locations for Capt. N. O. Tilton, near Thunderbolt and at White Bluff (yellow arrows); see Beauieu (red arrow) with 10 companies from 54th Georgia Volunteers for Capt. T. A. Burke. _____________________________________________________________ Paper Money * July/August 2020 * Whole No. 328___________________________________________ 286 ? ? Capt. & AQM Hightower, according to Regimental Returns, was present in Camp Hardee in June 1862, had two periods of 10 days of furlough in July and August and was then present for the entire September and October period in 1862 (Figs. 14-15) Camp Hardee was located in an old field near Ferguson?s place, a little over a mile above Bethesda Orphanage (Fig. 16). This Institution was founded in 1740 near Isle of Hope, 12 miles south of Savannah, by the Anglican preacher George Whitefield and is the oldest child-care institution in continual operation in the United States. The Thirtieth served until the spring of 1863 in the department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida. It went to Mississippi, forming the brigade of Col. C. C. Wilson which comprised the 25th, 29th, and 66th regiments, First Battalion Georgia Sharpshooters, and the Fourth Battalion Louisiana. The 30th traveled to North Georgia and fought in the Battle of Chickamauga in late September 1863. Hightower was relieved from duty on August 30th, 1864 with its regiment and assigned to duty with Lieutenant Colonel Robertson?s Battn. Artillery, Army of Tennessee. Fig. 14 Presence of Capt. & AQM Hightower in Camp Hardee, according to regimental returns, for September and October 1862. image Fold3.com Fig. 15 Reverse of T-39 #23319 Af with endorsement of Capt & AQM J. C. Hightower below the BID Stamp (Issued September 9th, 1862) _____________________________________________________________ Paper Money * July/August 2020 * Whole No. 328___________________________________________ 287 ? ? Capt. Jesse H. Sikes: Jesse H. Sikes was born on October 10th, 1825 in Norfolk, VA. The documents in the National Archives are very sparse, but his story is very interesting. He was enlisted?at Columbus, Georgia, on July 10th, 1861, in the Muscogee Rifles as Second Lieutenant (Fig. 17). The Muscogee Rifles would become Company E, 12th Georgia Infantry. After organizing, the unit was assigned to Brigadier General Henry R. Jackson?s command and shared in Lee?s Cheat Mountain Campaign. Sikes health failed him and he was furloughed at the hospital of Harrisonburg, Virginia on October 3rd, 1861, for chronic bronchitis?as shown in the report by Acting Surgeon W. W. Butler M.D.?s hospital visit. His health not improving, he resigned the following spring on May 3rd, 1862. An article in the June 20th, 1861 edition of the Richmond Dispatch, quoted from an article in the Columbus Sun, described: ?We paid visits today to the shop of Mr. Moshell, of this city, to witness the operation of sword tempering, which is now an ?institution? of Columbus. Mr. Moshell has engaged the services of a superior work man from Tennessee, who, we believe, was engaged in the service of that State in some capacity, and whose blades were subjected to a test established by a board of competent military men. The same test is applied to the blades turned out in Mr. Moshell?s shop?.. Fig. 16 Orphanage Asylum (Bethesda Orphanage): blue arrow, Camp Hardee: blue rectangle, Beaulieu: left inferior corner. From Defense of Savannah (compiled 1880-81 by Military Division of the Mississippi) Fig. 17 Roll of Muscogee Mounted Rangers, either in Cavalry and Infantry. Lt. J. H. Sikes (red arrow). image Fold3.com _____________________________________________________________ Paper Money * July/August 2020 * Whole No. 328___________________________________________ 288 ? ? He is furnishing blades for the establishment of Mr. DeWitt, and challenges the Confederacy to turn out superior ones.? Though the service of Lt. Sikes with the Muscogee Rifles had been short, the men apparently thought very highly of him, so much so that they presented him with an A. H. DeWitt sword, marked MOSHELL and engraved on the top scabbard mount, in three lines: Capt. J. H. Sikes Muskogee Rifles Georgia (Fig. 18). Not content to sit at home, he raised a company of partisan rangers known as Captain J. H. Sikes? Company Partisan Rangers and reentered the service as Captain of Cavalry in the 7th Confederate Regiment, Claiborne?s Partisan Rangers, also known as the 7th Regiment Confederate Cavalry, where he commanded Company D. Sikes was an Infantry Captain and, later, Major, not a Quartermaster, who may have endorsed the only three known notes as an Acting QM for his unit (Fig. 19). ?Acting? Quartermasters did not have the bond required of commissioned Quartermasters. The 7th CSA Regular Cavalry Regiment was formed by consolidating the 4th North Carolina Battalion Partisan Rangers and seven independent Georgia cavalry companies. It served in the Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia, then in General James Dearing?s Brigade, Army of Northern Virginia. Sikes was captured on December 13th, 1862, near Zunia (Zuni?), Virginia, and was paroled until regularly exchanged and sent from Fort Monroe to City Point, Virginia Fig. 18 Capt. J. H. Sikes? sword. Mark of Mr. Moshell at the base of the blade; engraving on the top scabbard mount; excellent guard. Fig. 19 Reverse of T-39 #21579 Ah with endorsement of Capt. & AQM J. H. Sikes, below the BID Stamp (Issued September 9th, 1862) and documents of Capt. Sikes in 12th Georgia Infantry, 7th Confederate Cavalry and 10th Georgia Cavalry. images of career status cards Fold3.com ? _____________________________________________________________ Paper Money * July/August 2020 * Whole No. 328___________________________________________ 289 Sikes was appointed by Col. W. C. Claiborne on November 13th, 1863 as a Major, reporting to the 7th Regiment Confederate Cavalry, taking rank retroactively on September 12th. On July 11th, 1864, the 7th was ordered to disband. Part of the regiment, including Major Sikes, was transferred to the 10th Georgia Cavalry. Sikes was again captured on September 30th, 1864, at Peebles Farm, Virginia, and was committed as a prisoner of war to Old Capitol Prison, Washington, D. C, on October 6th and later to Fort Delaware on October 21st. Sikes was admitted to Pettigrew General Hospital No. 13, at Raleigh, NC, on February 10th, 1865, complaining of Phthisis Pulmonalis (meaning Tuberculosis); he was furloughed to recuperate on March 17th, 1865 and the War ended a couple of weeks later. He died on May 18th, 1872 at Columbus, Muscogee, Georgia, where he is buried. According to the aim of this research, documents from the National Archives showed Capt. Sikes as being in Wilson, NC, at the end of August and the first of September 1862 (Fig. 20), when he signed the three notes known with the BID stamp. We might assume that the 7th CSA Cavalry, which was formed with some companies of the Georgia cavalry, had one of those stamps for the needs of their Quartermaster and Capt. Sikes used it to issue the notes he endorsed while in North Carolina. Or, as an alternative, since he was not a Quartermaster, he may have signed the notes using the BID stamp from another Georgia officer who might have been present at that moment in Wilson, North Carolina. Capt. & AQM Nathaniel Octavius Tilton: Nathaniel Octavius Tilton was born on March 1st, 1831 in Wadmalaw Island, Charleston County, SC, and in the pre- and post-war period he was the superintendent of the upper rice mill at Savannah, GA. He was enrolled Fig. 20 Special Requisition signed by Capt. .J. H. Sikes on September 6th, 1862 at Wilson, NC _____________________________________________________________ Paper Money * July/August 2020 * Whole No. 328___________________________________________ 290 ? ? by Maj. C. H. Olmstead on July 18th, 1861, at Tybee Island, Georgia, as Lieutenant reporting to Capt. Charlton H. Way?s Company, Forest City Rangers. When the Twenty-fifth Regiment Georgia volunteers was organized during the summer of 1861, Cladius C. Wilson was elected colonel and was commissioned as the unit?s first commanding officer. The unit was mustered into the Confederate service at Savannah, Georgia in early September 1861. Tilton was appointed on November 14th, 1861, as Capt. & AQM reporting to the 25th Regiment Georgia Infantry and stationed at Camp Wilson. The Company H (Chatham County men - Telfair Irish Grays) was established by many men from various companies of the 1st Volunteer Regiment Georgia Infantry (Olmstead?s); its officer was Capt. W. H. Wylly and later Capt. J. R.. Cooper, who signed many Orders for Capt. N. O. Tilton. From November 1861 to March 1863 the documents in the National Archives for Tilton showed he and the 25th Regiment stationing in four different camps around Savannah (Fig. 21). In November-December 1861 he was in Camp Wilson, located three and a half miles below Savannah on White Bluff Road; from January to April 1862 he was in Thunderbolt, five miles southeast of Savannah where, near a small town, also known as Warsaw, there was the Thunderbolt Battery, defending the Wilmington River to the south; from December 1862 to March 1863 he was in Camp Young, on Wylly Island about eight miles southeast of Savannah, on a tract of 110 acres which had been acquired by Judge Levi Sheftall D?Lyon at some time prior to 1860. Wylly Island is a river island formed by a bifurcation of the Herb River, between Thunderbolt Battery, and Battery Daniels at Parkersburg on the Skidaway River. Fig. 21 Military Camps for stationing of Capt. N. O. Tilton: oval area (a): Camp Wilson? on White Bluff Road, yellow arrows: Fort Thunderbolt and Causton?s Bluff, oval area (b): Camp Young on Wylly Island. From Defense of Savannah (compiled 1880-81 Military Division of the Mississippi) _____________________________________________________________ Paper Money * July/August 2020 * Whole No. 328___________________________________________ 291 ? ? In the period we are interested in for this paper, between June and October 1862 (Figs. 22-24), Capt. Tilton was present in Causton?s Bluff, four miles southeast of Savannah. Fort Bartow, or the Causton?s Bluff Battery, as it was known until 1863, was constructed early in 1862, because this area on the Saint Augustine Creek, part of the Wilmington River, strategically commanded the approach to Fort Jackson, on the Savannah River, and to the eastern line of the city. Charles C. Jones Jr, an eminent Georgian historian, states in his 1874 study, The Siege of Savannah in December 1864, that after February 1862, Confederate efforts were concentrated in protecting the water approaches to Savannah, which included ?an interior line of forts and water batteries which, commencing with Fort Jackson and the Savannah River batteries, included Fort Bartow, works at Causton?s Bluff and on Whitemarsh island, batteries at Greenwich, Thunderbolt, the Isle of Hope and at Beaulieu, and rested its right on the Rose Dew batteries?. The first detailed official report on the strength of the garrison at the Causton?s Bluff Battery was made under Brigadier General Hugh W. Mercer on September 25th, 1862 (Fig. 25). At the end of October and in November 1862, Capt. Tilton was sent to Richmond, Columbus and Charleston ?and other places as he may deem proper for the purpose of procuring clothing for the 25th Georgia Regiment.? The Twenty-fifth, after being equipped and drilled, was assigned to the department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida. In 1863 it was sent to north Mississippi, forming part of the army assembled for the relief of Vicksburg. In September of that year, being transferred to Georgia, in the division of W. H. T. Walker, it shared the perils and glories of Chickamauga. After the war, Nathaniel O. Tilton lived in Savannah, where he died on February 11th, 1902 for cardiac embolism, at the age of 70; he is buried in the Bonaventure Cemetery in Savannah, Ga. Fig. 22 Presence of Capt. & AQM N. O. Tilton at Causton?s Bluff, according to troops and regimental returns, for July, August and September 1862 Fig. 24 Reverse of T-39 #26834 Af with endorsement of Capt. & AQM N. O. Tilton below the BID Stamp (Issued September 9th, 1862) and another BID stamp (Issued September 23rd, 1862). image Crutchfield Williams _____________________________________________________________ Paper Money * July/August 2020 * Whole No. 328___________________________________________ 292 ? ? From the evaluation of the history and careers of these officers, I was able to properly locate the Black Issue Date Stamp in Georgia. For a short period in Autumn 1862, the Quartermasters of the Georgia Army used this stamp in Savannah and the surrounding military camps for the purposes of their duties. The stamp could be properly named as the Savannah Black Issue Date Stamp, according to this research. Acknowledgments: I would like to thank Mr. Michael McNeil for the suggestions and the revision of the paper; the Trainmen for the courtesy in sending the images of the notes with the BID Stamps in their collections; Mr. Shannon Pritchard, www.oldsouthantiques.com, for the pictures of Capt. Sikes? sword and for information about this officer. All other images not attributed are in the collection of the author. PostScript: The text on Capt. Sikes in the book Confederate Quartermasters, Commissaries, and Agents on pp. 659- 661 is in error with the statement that Sikes did not provide a date of issue. The author of this book never considered the possibility that a stamp and manuscript would be combined. Dr. Aidala has clearly shown that combinations of Black Issue Date stamps and manuscript endorsements are not at all uncommon. For this new understanding the author of the book is very grateful. ? Michael McNeil BIBLIOGRAPHY: Confederate States of America Army records MS 0169. Georgia Historical Society, (A collection of pay vouchers, muster rolls, etc. from Georgia soldiers as well as soldiers from other states serving in Georgia. They were primarily kept by Captain N. B. Brown, Assistant Quartermaster, Acting Paymaster. They are arranged in numerical order as assigned by Brown). History of the 54th Georgia Volunteer Infantry Regiment. Compiled by William A. Bowers Jr. Civil War Savannah: Savannah, immortal city. Di Barry Sheehy, Cindy Wallace, Vaughnette Goode-Walker. Camp fires of Georgia's troops, 1861-1865. Wm S. Smedlund, R.J. Taylor, Jr., Foundation, Kennesaw Mountain Press, 1994. Beaulieu Plantation. Robert Walker Groves. The Georgia Historical Quarterly 37, no. 3 (1953): 200-09. Historical Sketch & Roster The GA 30th Infantry Regiment. John Rigdon, Eastern Digital Resources 2004. Richmond Dispatch, June 20th 1861. Seventh Confederate Cavalry, National Archives, Compiled Service Records of Confederate Soldiers, Microcopy N. 258. Charlotte?s Boys: Civil War Correspondence of the Branch Family of Savannah. Walter J. Fraser Jr., The Kent State University Press 1997 (refers to Tilton as the superintendent of the rice mill). Levy Sheftall D?Lyon, A Preliminary Biography. Lorraine Netrick, Abraham Armstrong State College, 1992. Reward Offered for Confederate Deserters. Ray City History Blog, February 2017. Two Years at Fort Bartow, 1862-1864. Rogers Young, The Georgia Historical Quarterly, 23, no 3 (1939), 253-264. The War of the Rebellion: a compilation of the official records of the Union and Confederate Armies. Series 1-Volume XIV page 625, 1885 Confederate Quartermasters, Commissaries, and Agents. Michael McNeil, author and editor, Pierre Fricke, Sudbury, 2016. Civil War Service Records. Fold3.com. Fig. 23 Documents at Causton?s Bluff: Receipt from Captain N. O. Tilton, AQM on September 30th, 1862, signed by his Officer Capt. J. R. Cooper (above) and order for travelling to Charleston and receipt for expenses on November 8th and 19th, 1862, signed by Capt. Tilton (below). images Fold3.com _____________________________________________________________ Paper Money * July/August 2020 * Whole No. 328___________________________________________ 293 ?Grand? Discovery by Gary Bleichner Those of you who collect National banknotes know and understand the ?fever? associated with this hobby. Alas, as we know, there is no cure. There is no greater joy to be had than in acquiring that ?hard to find note? to add to a collection. This article is about that. The pictured small size note on Grand Meadow, Minnesota, is the first small size to turn up on the town. The bank issued 99 sheets of type one $5, 41 sheets of type one $10 and just four sheets of type one $20s before closing early in January of 1930. The old-time collectors of Minnesota small size notes, Ed Kuether, Jim Wheeler, and others, predicted this would be the last town to turn up. They were correct. There are other facts that mark the significance of this note. It is now possible to complete a small size city set (188 cities) for the state. In addition, it is now possible to complete a small size charter (248) and title change (5) set (253 total) on the state. A picture (at right) appears of the note being held up in the original vault in which it was stored prior to being issued. I journeyed to the bank about twenty-five years ago to try and get a lead on a note. By then, the bank was a restaurant and you could eat lunch in the vault. I did! I returned in 2018 for the picture. The restaurant is gone but a new business is in the bank. They were kind enough to give me permission to stand in the vault for the picture. I am sure many of you may have had your picture taken in the same way I did in a bank of some significance to you. THIS AND THAT For the record, I now have owned all of the one hundred eighty eight small size city notes and all two hundred fifty three small size charter and titles. Many have since been sold. It took me thirty two years to achieve this. I never imagined this happening when I first started. Those people who saved the notes, the many, many, dealers, other collectors willing to sell/trade duplicates, and above all, John Hickman, made this possible. I must also thank my wife for putting up with phone calls, trips to Chicago, Memphis, etc. as I tried to quell the fever. Last item, Track and Price shows a small $20 note, serial number three eighty three, in the census. I checked with the auction house who is given credit for the note. The serial number was correct but not the charter or city. Just trying to set the record straight. _____________________________________________________________ Paper Money * July/August 2020 * Whole No. 328___________________________________________ 294 A Large Deposit at a Small-Town Bank In 1924 a traveling troupe of entertainers called Singer?s Midgets toured the country to great fanfare, playing cities and small towns alike. Fortunately the troupe was able to find a local bank that could handle large deposits. The troupe was formed by Leo Singer in Europe and moved to the United States at the outbreak of World War I. By the 1920?s the troupe was performing in vaudeville theaters far and wide, complete with three midget elephants. Singer?s Midgets eventually landed in Hollywood, where many of the members were cast as Munchkins in the 1939 film The Wizard of Oz. Photograph from the Library of Congress. Poster is from Wikipedia. Story by Lee Lofthus. _____________________________________________________________ Paper Money * July/August 2020 * Whole No. 328___________________________________________ 295 _____________________________________________________________ Paper Money * July/August 2020 * Whole No. 328___________________________________________ 296 OUR MEMBERS SPECIALIZE IN NATIONAL CURRENCY They also specialize in Large Size Type Notes, Small Size Currency, Obsolete Currency, Colonial and Continental Currency, Fractionals, Error Notes, MPC?s, Confederate Currency, Encased Postage, Stocks and Bonds, Autographs and Documents, World Paper Money . . . and numerous other areas. THE PROFESSIONAL CURRENCY DEALERS ASSOCIATION is the leading organization of OVER 100 DEALERS in Currency, Stocks and Bonds, Fiscal Documents and related paper items. PCDA To be assured of knowledgeable, professional, and ethical dealings when buying or selling currency, look for dealers who proudly display the PCDA emblem. 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