Paper Money - Vol. LV, No. 6 - Whole No. 306 - November/December 2016

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Table of Contents

Hutton & Freligh, Part II

Large Size Type Note Signature Changeover Protocol

Fernando Fernandez--Mexican Banknote Engraver & Printer

A 131 year old Mystery Solved

The Earliest surviving Confederate Note

B. Lask--Huntsville, AL  1862

North Africa/Vichy France

Secretary Barr Gets His Notes

Paper Money Vol. LV, No. 6, Whole No. 306 November/December 2016 Official Journal of the Society of Paper Money Collectors Happy Holidays to All Here at Stack’s Bowers Galleries, our unsurpassed expertise, unwavering commitment to personal service and over 80 years of financial security have earned the trust of the most astute collectors, dealers, museums, bankers and fiduciaries worldwide. Whether you are a seasoned collector or are anticipating your first consignment, the experts at Stack’s Bowers are just a phone call away, ready to share our numismatic knowledge and guidance and earn you top dollar for your currency. Stack’s Bowers Galleries is accepting consignments to auctions throughout the year, including the Official Auctions of the Whitman Baltimore Expos and the ANA World’s Fair of Money. Professionals You Can Trust Consign to our March 2017 Baltimore Spring Auction! Auction: March 29 - 31, 2017 • Consignment Deadline: January 31, 2017 Call one of our currency consignment specialists to discuss opportunities for upcoming auctions. They will be happy to assist you every step of the way. 800.458.4646 West Coast Office • 800.566.2580 East Coast Office Peter A. Treglia Aris Maragoudakis John M. Pack Peter A. Treglia LM #1195608 John M. Pack LM # 5736 Peter A. Treglia John M. Pack Brad Ciociola Brad Ciociola Fr. 212b. 1864 $500 Interest Bearing Note. PMG Very Fine 25 Net. Realized $352,500 Fr. 1700. 1933 $10 Silver Certificate. PMG Superb Gem Uncirculated 67 EPQ. Realized $105,750 Pueblo, Colorado. $1 Original. Fr. 382. The Peoples NB. Charter #2134. PMG Very Fine 25 Net. Realized $49,350 Fr. 1175a. 1882 $20 Gold Certificate. PCGS Very Choice New 64 PPQ. Realized $199,750 Salem, New Jersey. $100 Original. Fr. 454a. The Salem National Banking Company. Charter #1326. PMG Choice Very Fine 35 Net. Realized $164,500 T-2. Confederate Currency. 1861 $500. PCGS Very Fine 25 Apparent. Realized $35,250 Fr. 2221-H. 1934 $5000 Federal Reserve Note. St. Louis. PMG Choice Uncirculated 64 EPQ Realized $258,500 Fairbanks, Alaska. $5 1902. Fr. 598. First NB. Charter #7718. PCGS Superb Gem New 68 PPQ. Realized $129,250 Catasauqua, Pennsylvania. Bank of Catasauqua. ND (18xx). $100. Choice Uncirculated. Proof. Realized $21,150 Manning Garrett 800.458.4646 West Coast Office • 800.566.2580 East Coast Office 1231 E. Dyer Road, Suite 100, Santa Ana, CA 92705 • 949.253.0916 123 West 57th Street, New York, NY 10019 • 212.582.2580 • California • New York • New Hampshire • Hong Kong • Paris SBG PM Gen Cons 161011 America’s Oldest and Most Accomplished Rare Coin Auctioneer Showcase Auctions Terms and Conditions  PAPER MONEY (USPS 00-3162) is published every other month beginning in January by the Society of Paper Money Collectors (SPMC), 711 Signal Mt. Rd #197, Chattanooga, TN 37405. Periodical postage is paid at Hanover, PA. Postmaster send address changes to Secretary Jeff Brueggeman, 711 Signal Mtn. Rd, #197, Chattanooga, TN 37405. ©Society of Paper Money Collectors, Inc. 2014. All rights reserved. Reproduction of any article in whole or part without written approval is prohibited. Individual copies of this issue of PAPER MONEY are available from the secretary for $8 postpaid. Send changes of address, inquiries concerning non - delivery and requests for additional copies of this issue to the secretary. MANUSCRIPTS Manuscripts not under consideration elsewhere and publications for review should be sent to the Editor. Accepted manuscripts will be published as soon as possible, however publication in a specific issue cannot be guaranteed. Include an SASE if acknowledgement is desired. Opinions expressed by authors do not necessarily reflect those of the SPMC. Manuscripts should be submitted in WORD format via email ( or by sending memory stick/disk to the editor. Scans should be grayscale or color JPEGs at 300 dpi. Color illustrations may be changed to grayscale at the discretion of the editor. Do not send items of value. Manuscripts are submitted with copyright release of the author to the Editor for duplication and printing as needed. ADVERTISING All advertising on space available basis. Copy/correspondence should be sent to editor. All advertising is payable in advance. All ads are accepted on a “good faith” basis. Terms are “Until Forbid.” Ads are Run of Press (ROP) unless accepted on a premium contract basis. Limited premium space/rates available. To keep rates to a minimum, all advertising must be prepaid according to the schedule below. In exceptional cases where special artwork, or additional production is required, the advertiser will be notified and billed accordingly. Rates are not commissionable; proofs are not supplied. SPMC does not endorse any company, dealer or auction house. Advertising Deadline: Subject to space availability, copy must be received by the editor no later than the first day of the month preceding the cover date of the issue (i.e. Feb. 1 for the March/April issue). Camera ready art or electronic ads in pdf format are required. ADVERTISINGRATES Space 1 Time 3 Times 6 Times Full color covers $1500 $2600 $4900 B&W covers 500 1400 2500 Full page color 500 1500 3000 Full page B&W 360 1000 1800 Half page B&W 180 500 900 Quarter page B&W 90 250 450 Eighth page B&W 45 125 225 Required file submission format is composite PDF v1.3 (Acrobat 4.0 compatible). If possible, submitted files should conform to ISO 15930-1: 2001 PDF/X-1a file format standard. Non-standard, application, or native file formats are not acceptable. Page size: must conform to specified publication trim size. Page bleed: must extend minimum 1/8” beyond trim for page head, foot, front. Safety margin: type and other non-bleed content must clear trim by minimum 1/2” Advertising copy shall be restricted to paper currency, allied numismatic material, publications and related accessories. The SPMC does not guarantee advertisements, but accepts copy in good faith, reserving the right to reject objectionable or inappropriate material or edit copy. The SPMC assumes no financial responsibility for typographical errors in ads, but agrees to reprint that portion of an ad in which a typographical error occurs upon prompt notification. PAPER MONEY Official Bimonthly Publication of The Society of Paper Money Collectors, Inc. Vol. LV, No. 6 Whole No. 306 November/December 2016 ISSN 0031-1162 Benny Bolin, Editor Editor Email— Visit the SPMC website— Hutton & Freligh, Part II Charles Derby ............................................................ 399 Large Size Type Note Signature Changeover Protocol Peter Huntoon ............................................................ 414 New Members ....................................................................... 423 Fernando Fernandez—Mexican Banknote Engraver & Printer Cedrian Lopez-Bosch .................................................... 424 A 131-year old Mystery Solved Kent Halland & Charles Surasky .................................. 430 The Earliest Surviving Confederate Note Steve Feller .................................................................. 443 B. Lask—Huntsville, AL, 1862 David Hollander ............................................................ 450 Uncoupled—Joe Boling & Fred Schwan .............................. 456 Small Notes—Sec’y Barr Gets His Notes Jamie Yakes ................................................................. 462 Obsolete Corner Robert Gill ..................................................................... 466 Interesting Mining Notes David Schwenkman ...................................................... 468 Chump Change Loren Gatch .................................................................. 470 Presidents Message ............................................................ 472 Editor’s Report ..................................................................... 473 Money Mart ........................................................................... 474 397 Society of Paper Money Collectors Officers and Appointees ELECTED OFFICERS: PRESIDENT--Pierre Fricke, Box 1094, Sudbury, MA 01776 VICE-PRESIDENT--Shawn Hewitt, P.O. Box 580731, Minneapolis, MN 55458-0731 SECRETARY—Jeff Brueggeman, 711 Signal Mtn., Rd. #197, Chattanooga, TN 37405 TREASURER --Bob Moon, 104 Chipping Court, Greenwood, SC 29649 BOARD OF GOVERNORS: Mark Anderson, 115 Congress St., Brooklyn, NY 11201 Jeff Brueggeman,711 Signal Mtn. Rd #197, Chattanooga, TN Gary J. Dobbins, 10308 Vistadale Dr., Dallas, TX 75238 Pierre Fricke, Box 1094, Sudbury, MA 01776 Loren Gatch 2701 Walnut St., Norman, OK 73072 Shawn Hewitt, P.O. Box 580731, Minneapolis, MN 55458-0731 Scott Lindquist, Box 2175, Minot, ND 58702 Michael B. Scacci, 216-10th Ave., Fort Dodge, IA 50501-2425 Robert Vandevender, P.O. Box 1505, Jupiter, FL 33468-1505 Wendell A. Wolka, P.O. Box 5439, Sun City Ctr., FL 33571 Vacant Vacant Vacant APPOINTEES: PUBLISHER-EDITOR---- Benny Bolin, 5510 Bolin Rd. Allen, TX 75002 EDITOR EMERITUS--Fred Reed, III ADVERTISING MANAGER--Wendell A. Wolka, Box 5439 Sun City Center, FL 33571 LEGAL COUNSEL--Robert J. Galiette, 3 Teal Ln., Essex, CT 06426 LIBRARIAN--Jeff Brueggeman, 711 Signal Mountain Rd. # 197, Chattanooga, TN 37405 MEMBERSHIP DIRECTOR--Frank Clark, P.O. Box 117060, Carrollton, TX, 75011-7060 IMMEDIATE PAST PRESIDENT- - Mark Anderson, 115 Congress St., Brooklyn, NY 11201 WISMER BOOK PROJECT COORDINATOR--PierreFricke, Box 1094, Sudbury, MA 01776 REGIONAL MEETING COORDINATOR Pierre Fricke—Buying and Selling Confederate and Obsolete Money!  P.O. Box 1094, Sudbury, MA 01776;;  And many more CSA, Southern and Obsolete Bank Notes for sale ranging from $10 to five figures  The Society of Paper Money Collectors was organized in 1961 and incorporated in 1964 as a non-profit organization under the laws of the District of Columbia. It is affiliated with the ANA. The Annual Meeting of the SPMC is held in June at the International Paper Money Show. Information about the SPMC, including the by-laws and activities can be found at our website, .The SPMC does not does not endorse any dealer, company or auction house. MEMBERSHIP—REGULAR and LIFE. Applicants must be at least 18 years of age and of good moral character. Members of the ANA or other recognized numismatic societies are eligible for membership. Other applicants should be sponsored by an SPMC member or provide suitable references. MEMBERSHIP—JUNIOR. Applicants for Junior membership must be from 12 to 17 years of age and of good moral character. Their application must be signed by a parent or guardian. Junior membership numbers will be preceded by the letter “j” which will be removed upon notification to the secretary that the member has reached 18 years of age. Junior members are not eligible to hold office or vote. DUES—Annual dues are $39. Dues for members in Canada and Mexico are $45. Dues for members in all other countries are $60. Life membership—payable in installments within one year is $800 for U.S.; $900 for Canada and Mexico and $1000 for all other countries. The Society no longer issues annual membership cards, but paid up members may request one from the membership director with an SASE. Memberships for all members who joined the S o c i e t y prior to January 2010 are on a calendar year basis with renewals due each December. Memberships for those who joined since January 2010 are on an annual basis beginning and ending the month joined. All renewals are due before the expiration date which can be found on the label of Paper Money. Renewals may be done via the Society website or by check/money order sent to the secretary. ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * Nov/Dec 2016 * Whole No. 306_____________________________________________________________ 398 Hutton & Freligh and the Making of Mississippi Treasury Notes during the Civil War (Part II with part I appearing in the May/June 2016 issue of PM) by Charles Derby Mississippi Realizes It Needs Currency It was nearing the end of 1861, and the war, though only months old, was lasting longer than many Southerners had expected or planned for. Like other states, Mississippi needed currency to conduct its business. So, on December 19, 1861, the Mississippi Legislature passed an act that authorized the production of $5 million in “cotton-pledged” notes. “Cotton- pledged” meant that the State of Mississippi promised to the bearer of the notes future cash payments in exchange for cotton. Section 1 of this act listed specifics about the notes themselves, including that the notes were to be printed from engraved plates, listing the denominations to be produced, specifying the text to be printed on the notes, how they were to be signed, how they were to be delivered to the State Treasurer, and how the State would pay for them. The remaining 18 Sections of this Act specified other details about these notes, such as the terms of advancement, rates to be paid for the cotton received, how the cotton was to be delivered to the State, bookkeeping and deposition of received funds, and penalties for failure to comply with terms. The Act and Section 1 (Laws of the State of Mississippi 1861/1862) read: CHAPTER XIV. An act to be entitled an act authorizing the issuance of Treasury Notes, as advances upon cotton. Sec. 1. Be it enacted by the Legislature of the State of Mississippi, That the Governor and Auditor of the State shall contract for printing upon engraved plates of Treasury notes of the denomination of one, two and a half, three, five, ten, twenty, fifty and one hundred dollars, to be advanced upon cotton at the rate of five cents per pound, in the mode and manner hereinafter prescribed. Said notes shall be signed by the Treasurer, and countersigned by the auditor, and shall read, on their face, as follows: “On demand, after proclamation to present, the State of Mississippi will pay to the bearer, the sum of ____________ dollar [s] out of proceeds of cotton pledged for redemption of this note, at the Treasurer’s office in Jackson, Mississippi. Issued _________ day of ___________ 186_. _____________ Auditor of Public Accounts _____________ Treasurer” and “Receivable in payment of all dues to the State and counties, except the Military Tax.” The plates so engraved shall be deposited, in a sealed and soldered box, in the office of the Treasurer ; and the Governor is authorized to draw his warrant on the Auditor, who shall draw his warrant on the Treasurer, for the payment of the sum due for the engraving and printing of said plates which shall be paid out of any money not otherwise appropriated. Provided, the amount of notes authorized to be issued by this act shall not exceed the sum of five millions of dollars. ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * Nov/Dec 2016 * Whole No. 306_____________________________________________________________ 399 Fig. 10. Gov. John J. Pettus. Courtesy of Mississippi Dept of Archives & History The State Auditor Finds that the Government Cannot Carry out this Act as Written Fifteen days after passage of the act authorizing issuance of cotton-pledged notes, on January 13, 1862, Mississippi State Auditor Andrew Boyd Dilworth and Mississippi Supreme Court Chief Justice Cotesworth Pinckney Smith reported in a memorandum to Mississippi’s governor John Jones Pettus that their investigations revealed it was impossible to fulfill in a timely fashion the actions specified in the act of December 19th. Specifically, they had expected to have the notes engraved in New Orleans, but learned that this would take nearly six months to complete. They solicited proposals from printers for a more timely production. They received only two proposals. One was from John Douglas of New Orleans to use lithography, and the second was from Hutton & Freligh of Memphis to use electrotyping. The two proposals included examples of the notes to be produced and the rates to be charged. Dilworth and Smith’s report (Journal of the House of Representatives of the State of Mississippi 1861/1862) reads: Sir: After full inquiry and consultation with professional engravers in the city of New Orleans, respecting the engraving and printing upon plates the five millions of dollars of the Treasury notes of the State of Mississippi, we found that the job could not be executed short of the 1st July next, and believing such delay would defeat the whole object of the bill providing for the same, declined entering into any contract. But being anxious to facilitate the design of the Legislature, to give relief to the people at as early a day as possible, received two propositions – one from Messrs. Hutton & Freligh, Memphis, Tenn., to execute the work by electrotype, a specimen of which, with rates of charges, is herewith annexed, marked “A ;” the other from Mr. John Douglas, New Orleans, La., to do the work by lithograph, a specimen of work, with charges, also annexed, marked “B.” All of which is respectfully submitted to your excellency. A. B. DILWORTH C. P. SMITH Pettus Informs the Legislature and Makes Two Recommendations The day after receiving the letter from Dilworth and Smith, on Jan. 14, 1862, Governor Pettus (Fig. 10) communicated to the Mississippi Legislature Dilworth and Smith’s findings. He also made two recommendations. One was his preference that Douglas receive the contract over Hutton & Freligh. The other was that a new bureau be created and funded to manage production and issuance of the Treasury notes. Pettus’ message (Journal of the House of Representatives of the State of Mississippi 1861/1862) reads: Gentlemen of the Senate and House of Representatives. I herewith transmit to the Legislature a report made to me by Judge C. P. Smith and Hon. A. B. Dilworth, who visited New Orleans for the purpose of making the necessary arrangements for issuing the Treasury notes to be advanced on cotton, provided for by act of the Legislature at your recent session. From their report and accompanying documents it will be seen that the requisite number of notes printed from “engraved plates” as required by the act ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * Nov/Dec 2016 * Whole No. 306_____________________________________________________________ 400     above referred to, cannot be prepared and issued in time to meet the wants of the people or the expectations of the Legislature, as it will require several months to engrave the plates and print the notes in the manner prescribed by your recent act. If the Legislature should deem it expedient to authorize the printing in the manner prescribed by John Douglas, engraver in New Orleans (proposition and specimen of work herewith submitted,) these Treasury notes may be prepared and ready to issue in six weeks. Mr. Douglas proposes to print by lithograph, and commence the work at once if his proposition is accepted. He also asks an advance of two thousand dollars, and I suggest the propriety of paying the expenses of issuing these notes out of any funds which may be received from Richmond, as our Treasury notes cannot be used at par in New Orleans. Another proposition was received from Messrs. Hutton & Freligh, of Memphis, Tenn., to print by electrotype. Terms and specimens of work herewith submitted. Should either of these modes of printing be authorized by the Legislature, I am informed the work could be accomplished in time to meet the wants of the people of this State. The lithographing proposed by Mr. Douglas I think the best. I respectfully suggest to the Legislature that the act providing for issuing these Treasury notes be further amended so as to provide for a separate bureau to take charge of the printing and issuing these notes. The labor of the present departments of the State Government have [sic] been more than doubled by the existing war. For this and other reasons I feel confident that the interest of the State would be promoted by organizing a distinct and separate department to manage this important branch of State service. If objections are made to this that additional offices must be created and additional expenses incurred in salaries, A very small per cent. on the amount advanced, say one-fourth of one per cent., paid by parties to whom advances are made, would probably be sufficient to pay the salaries of these additional officers. JOHN J. PETTUS Mississippi Legislature Amends the Act of December 19th Fifteen days after Pettus’ request, on January 29, 1862, the Mississippi Legislature passed a supplemental act that authorized contracting a printer who would produce cotton- pledged using electrotyping rather than engraved plates, and authorized hiring staff to produce notes, including clerks to sign for the auditor and treasurer. Given the specification of electrotyping, it is clear that in the two weeks since Pettus recommended contracting with Douglas, something changed to favor Hutton & Freligh. This supplemental act (Laws of the State of Mississippi 1861/1862) reads: CHAPTER CCXIV. AN ACT supplemental to an act passed at the present session of the Legislature, entitled an act authorizing the issuance of Treasury Notes as advances upon Cotton. Sec. 1. Be it enacted by the Legislature of the State of Mississippi, That in order to expedite the issuance of the treasury notes authorized to be issued in the act to which this is a supplement, it shall be lawful for the governor and auditor to contract for their printing upon plates to be electrotyped from the engraved plates upon which said governor and auditor are now required by said act to have said notes printed ; and said notes when so printed upon said electrotyped plates, shall be signed, countersigned and issued, and in all respects be considered as though they had been directly printed upon said engraved plates as in said original act provided. Sec. 2. Be it further enacted, That the auditor and treasurer are hereby fully authorized and empowered to employ such number of clerks as they may deem necessary to sign and countersign said notes for said auditor and treasurer ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * Nov/Dec 2016 * Whole No. 306_____________________________________________________________ 401 respectively, so as conveniently to furnish said notes after they shall be printed according to the applications that may be made for them under the operation of said act to which this is a supplement, and the signatures of such clerks for said auditor and treasurer respectively, when so employed and duly authorized and empowered by said auditor and treasurer shall be of the same force and effect as though the same were directly signed by said auditor and treasurer. Mississippi Legislature Authorizes Production of Faith-of-the-State-Pledged Notes On that same day, January 29, 1862, the Mississippi Legislature passed another act, this one authorizing the production of $2.5 million in faith-of-the-state-pledged Treasury notes, to be specifically used as a military fund. These notes did not involve a promise for future cash in lieu of a pledge of cotton. Rather, they relied on the citizens’ good faith that the state would eventually be solvent, and the notes were fundable in bonds when given in amounts greater than $500. This act specified that notes were to be printed using electrotyped plates, the text to be printed on the notes, and denominations to be printed. It also stated that, unlike the cotton- pledged notes, these notes were not backed by any specific funds, but rather by “the faith of the state of Mississippi.” It also specified how the Governor would pay for printing of the notes, and that the auditor and treasurer were authorized to hire clerks to produce the notes. The specifics of this law indicate that faith-of-the-state-pledged notes were also to be printed by Hutton & Freligh, though not mentioned by name. The Act and relevant sections (Laws of the State of Mississippi 1861/1862) read: CHAPTER CCLXV. AN ACT authorizing the issuance of Treasury Notes on behalf of the State. Section 1. Be it enacted by the Legislature of the State of Mississippi, That the Governor and Auditor of this State are hereby required, as soon as possible, to contract for the printing upon electrotype plates, of two and a half millions of dollars of the Treasury Notes of this State, which notes, signed by the Treasurer, and countersigned by the Auditor of Public Accounts, and ornamented with such designs as the Treasurer and Auditor may adopt, shall read on their face as follows : "The State of Mississippi promises to pay to bearer ______________ dollars at the Treasury Office. Issued __________ day of __________ 186_. ________________ Auditor, _________________ Treasurer. And on some portion of the face of said notes shall be inserted as follows : "Faith of the State pledged ;" "Fundable in bonds bearing eight per cent., payable in ten years, when not less than five hundred dollars are presented." "Receivable in payment of all dues to the State." Said notes shall be printed in denominations of five, ten, twenty, fifty, one hundred and five hundred dollars, and in such proportions of each as the said Governor and Auditor may determine. Said plates shall be soldered up in a tin box and deposited in the office of the treasury. Sec. 2. Be it further enacted, That the said notes, when procured, shall be deposited with the Treasurer, in the treasury of the State, and shall constitute a military fund to be expended in the defense of the State. All sums heretofore appropriated for military purposes, may be paid out of the said fund, and the Governor of this State is hereby authorized to draw his order upon the Auditor, who shall draw his warrant upon the Treasurer, in favor of such persons and in ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * Nov/Dec 2016 * Whole No. 306_____________________________________________________________ 402 such sums, and for such purposes as he may deem necessary in providing for the military exigencies and general defense of the State. …. Sec. 5. Be it further enacted, That the faith of the State of Mississippi is hereby pledged for the ultimate redemption and payment of the notes and bonds authorized to be issued by this act. Sec. 6. Be it further enacted, That all funds which now are or which hereafter may be, in the treasury, not otherwise appropriate, and all funds which may be obtained from the Confederate States in discharge of their indebtedness to this State, are hereby appropriated as far as necessary, in the payment of the debt contracted for the printing of said notes, and the Governor is authorized to draw his order on the Auditor who shall draw his warrant on the treasurer for the amount of said debt. In addition to the said appropriation, the Governor is hereby authorized, if in his opinion it may be necessary, to procure the printing of said notes at the earliest period, to execute the bond of this State for the amount of said debt, bearing ten per cent per annum interest from its date, and payable at such time as he may agree and for the payment of said bond, the faith of the State is hereby pledged. Sec. 7. Be it further enacted, That the Auditor and Treasurer are hereby authorized to employ the service of such clerks as may be retained in their offices, under any previous law, in carrying out the purposed of this act ; and should said clerks be insufficient, then the said Auditor and Treasurer are hereby authorized to procure the services of such clerks as may be necessary to that end ; Provided, the pay of said clerks shall not exceed the rate of eight hundred dollars a year for the time they may be so employed, and any money in the treasury not otherwise appropriated is hereby appropriated to their payment. Contract for Production of the Faith-of-the-State-Pledged Notes One month after passage of these acts, on March 1, 1862, Governor Pettus and the new auditor, A. J. Gillespie, entered into a contract with Hutton & Freligh for the production of the notes. The contract specified that these notes were to be printed for four cents per note and produced strictly according to the referenced act of January 29th “authorizing the issuance of Treasury Notes on behalf of the State.” The contract (John J. Pettus Correspondence and Papers) stipulated the following: Whereas the Legislature of Mississippi, by act entitled “An act authorizing the issuance of Treasury notes on behalf of the State,” approved 29th January 1862 directs the Governor and Auditor of Public Accounting to contract for printing upon Electrotype plates two and a half millions of dollars of the Treasury notes of this State, the Governor and Auditor aforesaid have this day made and entered into the following contract with W. M. Hutton and J. H. Freligh … viz the said Hutton & Freligh agree and bind themselves to print and furnish for the consideration of four cents per bill or notes as many bills or notes, and of the various denominations authorized to before by said act as the Governor many direct. The same to be executed in a workmanlike manner, upon good bank paper, in all respects according to the directions of said act, and subjected to the approval of the Governor and Auditor aforesaid. They further agree and bind themselves, without additional compensation to furnish the plates upon which said bills or notes may be printed to be deposited in the Office of the State Treasurer as required by said act. ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * Nov/Dec 2016 * Whole No. 306_____________________________________________________________ 403 [signed, with seals, on 1st day of March 1862 by John J. Pettus, A. J. Gillespie, W. M. Hutton, J. H. Freligh, and A. N. Kimball] Governor Pettus Reports on Production of Cotton- and Faith-of-the-State-Pledged Notes Pettus reported to the Mississippi Legislature that Hutton & Freligh were awarded the contract for producing by electrotyping both the cotton-pledged and faith-of-the-state-pledged series. He explained that they were chosen because they were the only printers that could produce the notes of the type and in the time required by the State. He reported the production cost was 4 cents per note. In addition, he reported that 657,156 cotton-pledged notes were printed at a cost of $26,286.24, and 205,295 faith-of-the-state-pledged notes for $8,211.80. Thus Hutton & Freligh were paid $34,498.04 for 862,451 notes. Pettus’ message (Journal of the House of Representatives of the State of Mississippi 1862/1863) read: GOVERNOR'S MESSAGE. EXECUTIVE OFFICE, Columbus, Mississippi, Nov. 3 1863. Gentlemen of the Senate and House of Representatives: I sent Hon. A. B. Dilworth, as agent for the State of Mississippi, to the city of Memphis to make contracts with Messrs. Hutton & Freligh, the only persons known to me in the country in condition at that time to print the Treasury notes for the “Cotton Loan” in the manner provided. Contracts for printing the Treasury notes for the advance on cotton, of the denominations specified in the act approved 19th December, 1861, upon electrotype plates as directed by the supplemental act approved January 29th, 1862, and also for printing the Treasury notes to be issued on State account for military purposes, provided by an act approved January 29th, 1862, were made with them at a cost of four cents per note. Of the notes to be used as an “advance upon cotton” there were printed six hundred and fifty seven thousand, one hundred and fifty-six, which at a cost of four cents per note amounted to the sum of twenty-six thousand, two hundred and eighty-six dollars and twenty-four cents, ($26,286.24;) and for the notes to be issued for military purposes there were printed two hundred and five thousand, two hundred and ninety-five, at a cost of eight thousand two hundred and eleven dollars and eighty cents, ($8,211.80) making the total aggregate cost of printing the notes amount to the sum of thirty-four thousand, four hundred and ninety-eight dollars and four cents, ($34,498.04.) The great demand for change notes of the cotton money made it necessary to have a large proportion of these printed. This caused the disproportion in the cost of printing the five million “cotton money” and the two and one-half millions of Treasury notes. Documents do not show why Pettus passed over John Douglas, despite Pettus’ earlier preference him. Presumably, it was because Douglas could not fulfill the terms of his proposal, in either cost or time. It is understandable that Pettus initially preferred Douglas, as he was a well-known engraver and printer in New Orleans. In 1861 and early 1862, Douglas had a substantial record of printing money and other financial documents. He had produced bonds, government warrants, and other fiscal paper for the Confederacy, notes for Louisiana and Georgia, and notes for railroads such as the New Orleans, Jackson & Great Northern Rail Road Co. and the Mississippi Central Rail-Road Co. Yet his New Orleans business was relatively small and of limited productive capacity. His printing activities took a hit when New Orleans was occupied by Federal troops on April 24, 1862. But clearly Hutton & Freligh in Memphis had ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * Nov/Dec 2016 * Whole No. 306_____________________________________________________________ 404 Figure 12. Examples of Mississippi faith-of-the-state-pledged Treasury notes. established a strong regional reputation as printers, including with the Confederate government and in printing private scrip. Pettus and other Mississippi government officials must have been impressed by their credentials and ability to produce the notes in a timely fashion. Hutton & Freligh produced the cotton-pledged notes in denominations of $100, $50, $20, $10, $5, $3, $2.50, and $1 as specified in the December 19th 1861 act. However, they produced the faith-of-the-state-pledged notes in denominations of $50, $20, $10, and $5, differing from the January 29th 1862 act which also specified $100 and $500 note denominations. Why and how did this change occur? Figure 11. Examples of Mississippi cotton-pledged Treasury notes. ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * Nov/Dec 2016 * Whole No. 306_____________________________________________________________ 405 Fig. 13. Letter from Hutton & Freligh to Gov. Pettus on May 15, 1862. From John J. Pettus Correspondence MF #1218. Courtesy of Mississippi Dept of Archives and History. One hint comes from Pettus’ address to the Legislature on November 3, 1863, during which he said that the State had an unexpected demand for change notes: “The great demand for change notes of the cotton money made it necessary to have a large proportion of these printed. This caused the disproportion in the cost of printing the five million “cotton money” and the two and one-half millions of Treasury notes.” An exchange of telegrams and letters between the Governor and Hutton & Freligh in mid May 1862 explains this change, as described in the next section. Hutton & Freligh Produce Additional “Fifties & under” Notes On May 15, 1862, Hutton & Freligh wrote a letter from Grenada, responding to a query in a telegram from Pettus the previous day (Fig. 13). Pettus asked to receive details about planned production of “Fifties & under” notes. They told him that they planned to arrange notes of $50 and under in sheets of $100, with each sheet having one $50 note, one $20 note, two $10 notes, one $5 note, one $3 note, and two $1 notes. They ended by asking Pettus to telegram if he desired another arrangement of notes on a sheet. Several features of this letter are noteworthy. First, the letterhead shows that Hutton & Freligh used a dual billing of Southern Monthly Magazine and Southern Publishing House, showing the importance of their literary magazine in their eyes, and their economical use of scarce paper. Second, this letter shows that Hutton & Freligh had already moved to Grenada, and thus they printed these notes in Grenada sometime after May 15th 1862. Third, these sheets are probably the same referred to by Kraus (2003): “A partial sheet [of faith-of-the-state-pledged notes] exists with the corner note position unprinted indicating a $100 note was intended but not printed.” This sheet and this letter from Hutton & Freligh, together with a lack of extant $100 denomination faith-of-the-state-pledged notes, help to explain the assertion of Kraus (2003) and Shull (2005) that the $100 denomination faith-of-the-state- pledged notes do not exist. Fourth, this letter by Hutton & Freligh raises a curiosity. They were proposing that these “Fifties & under” note sheets should include $50, $20, $10, $5, $3, and $1 denomination notes Why did they propose these denominations? They do not correspond to denominations produced in either cotton- or faith-of-the-state-pledged series? The faith-of-the-state-pledged series were: July 1862: $10, $5 (note: Shull 2006 and Criswell 1992 list Cr29, a $20 note dated July 1 1862, but its existence is doubtful according to records); and November 1862: $50, $20, $10, $5. The cotton-pledged notes were: March/April/May 1862: $100, $50, $20, $10, $5, ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * Nov/Dec 2016 * Whole No. 306_____________________________________________________________ 406 $2.50, $1; and November 1862: $3, $2.50, $1. So, if these “Fifties & under” note sheets were produced as suggested by Hutton & Freligh, to include $50, $20, $10, $5, $3, and $1 denomination notes, then one possibility is that they were produced for the November 1862 series, which included the November faith-of-the-state-pledged notes ($50, $20, $10, $5) and the November cotton-pledged notes ($3, $2.50, and $1). This makes sense except that Hutton & Freligh’s plan did not mention producing $2.50 notes. Perhaps these were printed in a different run, according to a separate agreement whose documentation is missing, but referred to by Pettus as needed (“The great demand for change notes of the cotton money made it necessary to have a large proportion of these printed.”) In any case, this letter is the most likely explanation for Hutton & Freligh’s deviations from the directives of the Mississippi Legislature. It resulted in their not printing $100 and $500 notes in faith-of-the-state pledged notes. When, Where, and How Were the Notes Printed? The Mississippi cotton- and faith-of-the-state-pledged notes not only lack a printer’s name but they also lack a print date and location. Thus, it is not known when or where they were printed. We know that the contract for the faith-of-the-state-pledged notes was March 1st 1862, and the contract for the cotton-pledged notes was probably before then, probably at least by early February 1862. The first of the cotton-pledged notes were hand signed and dated by representatives of the auditor and treasurer on March 1, 2, 5, 6, and 7 (MS Cr9, 10, and 11C). These first notes probably were produced in late January or February 1862. Some notes ($10, $5, $2.50) were dated April 1. During that time, because Hutton & Freligh were in Memphis, these early notes apparently were printed there. However, Hutton & Freligh had left Memphis, fleeing the Federal invasion of Tennessee, and relocated to Grenada during the first two weeks of April. Most of the cotton-pledged notes are signed on May 1 or November 1, with some on April 1. The faith-of-the-state-pledge notes were mostly dated July 1, November 1, 1862, or even later – January 1, 1863. Unless Hutton & Freligh printed all of their notes quickly in Memphis, finishing by early March before moving to Grenada and having the notes signed later after production, then Hutton & Freligh must have printed some in Grenada. This seems the more likely scenario. Hutton & Freligh’s use of electrotyping was an advanced form of typography in which printing blocks were made of a hard material (Tremmel 2007). After a wooden block of the image was made, the image was transferred to a soft medium, such as wax, which was then coated through electrolysis with a layer of copper. This metal shell was removed from the mold, fitted into a block, and used as part of a plate for printing. An advantage of this technique was that many copper plates could be made from the engraver’s original block. The Mississippi Treasury notes themselves have multiple layers of printing (Shull 2006). They have a colored undertint, either gray or pink. Then, printed on top of that is a colored underprint of the words “COTTON PLEDGED” or “Faith of the State Pledged” and the denomination, in either green or drab according to Shull (although Kraus 2003 distinguishes between brown and gray rather than lumping these as drab). The drab underprint was used on the earliest notes, during March 1–7, 1862, and the green underprint was used on all later notes. The remainder of the printing was done in black ink. All notes are printed uniface, most on plain paper. Because paper was becoming scarce, some were printed on backs of auditor’s bills or fractional notes of the Mississippi Cotton Company. The quality of the production of these notes is not high, as revealed by many of the notes’ features and as seen in the examples in Figures 11 and 12. The undertint often does not ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * Nov/Dec 2016 * Whole No. 306_____________________________________________________________ 407 cover the entirety of the note’s surface, leaving some of the printed text or vignettes partly over colored tint and partly over the uncolored paper. The lettering is often indistinct and in some cases even missing, because the printing type was worn down and ink was increasingly scarce. The vignettes are not of high quality and, like the lettering, are sometimes faint. Hutton & Freligh published nearly one million Mississippi treasury notes. Yet this massive endeavor was not even mentioned in Freligh’s obituary, and it appears that this was unknown, overlooked, or forgotten by many at that time, as it almost has been up to now. Many details to this story remaining missing, such as how Hutton & Freligh found the enormous quantities of paper and ink necessary for production. Vignettes of Hutton & Freligh’s Paper Money The vignettes on these Mississippi notes and scrip help tell two stories. The first story comes from their subject matter. These images tell of a life familiar to Southerners: railroads, steamboats, sailors, slaves picking cotton, farmers, farming equipment, and produce. The vignettes also include classical images, not specific to Southerners but an important part of their culture: Justice, Freedom (according to Shull 2006, or Athena according to Kraus 2003), Industry, and Agriculture (through the goddess Ceres). They also include romanticized images of Indians. The vignettes also tell a second story: the professional life of printers and the impact of the war on them. At the time of the production of the Mississippi Treasury notes, Hutton & Freligh were regional printers, with most work in Memphis. With the publication of the Southern Monthly and William Hardee’s Rifle and Light Infantry Tactics, they had a somewhat broader sphere of influence. Nonetheless, most of their work was done quickly and cheaply, as evidenced by the use of electrotyping for printing paper money. Consequently, their product was not of high quality. This is true of the artwork on their money – the vignettes. Did Hutton & Freligh’s team include engravers who made their own artwork, or did Hutton & Freligh acquire reproductions of engravings from other printers? Answers to these questions are in comparing the images on Hutton & Freligh’s notes with notes of others using these same vignettes. Three examples are provided in Figure 14. In each row is a set of three images of the same vignette, with the identities of the notes listed in the figure legend. In each row, the left image is from Hutton & Freligh’s Mississippi Treasury notes; the center image is from a note of another printer produced during the war; and the right image is from a high-quality, pre-war note produced by one of the major national engraving companies. These three examples show that the left and center pair of vignettes are so similar, even when scrutinized in fine detail, that they were printed from plates taken from the same engraving. Their images are identical to other poor-quality reproductions, suggesting that Hutton and Freligh appreciated was was cheap and available. The poor quality of the scrip of Hutton & Freligh and their contemporaries is clear when theirs is compared to pre-war examples shown in the right column. Extending this analysis to the other vignettes in Hutton & Freligh’s work shows the same pattern. Thus, at least for most of their vignettes, Hutton & Freligh neither produced their own artwork nor made their own engravings, but rather used copies of others’ work. This is no discredit to Hutton & Freligh; it was typical of the time, as documented by Bowers (2006), Doty (2013), and others. Too, Hutton & Freligh saved money by using many of the same vignettes on the Mississippi Treasury notes and their private scrip, as demonstrated by comparing the scrip notes on Figure 8 with Mississippi Treasury notes on Figures 11 and 12 and Table 1. Vignettes used on both scrip and Mississippi Treasury notes include slaves picking cotton, steamboats, railroads, sailor boy with oar, Indian looking right, and the dog head. ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * Nov/Dec 2016 * Whole No. 306_____________________________________________________________ 408     Figure 14. Three examples of vignettes on Hutton & Freligh’s Mississippi notes and their origins. Top row: Left, Mississippi cotton-pledged, $5, May 1, 1862, Hutton & Freligh, MS-Cr18; Center, Hillsville Savings Bank, Hillsville, VA, 15 cents, April 26, 1862, St. Clair’s Powers Press, Wytheville, VA (Courtesy of Heritage Auctions); Right, Metropolitan Bank, Washington DC, $5, Feb. 3, 1854, Wellstood, Hanks, Hay & Whiting, NY (Courtesy of Heritage Auctions). Middle row: Left, Mississippi cotton- pledged, $2.50, May 1, 1862, Hutton & Freligh, MS-Cr20; Center, L. Merriman Dry Goods Dealer, Ohio, 25 cents, Nov. 1, 1862 (Courtesy of Heritage Auctions); Right, New England Commercial Bank, Newport RI, $10, 1850s, New England Bank Note Co., Boston (Courtesy of Heritage Auctions). Bottom row: Left, Mississippi cotton- pledged, $2.50, May 1, 1862, Hutton & Freligh, MS-Cr15; Center, G. W. Holt, New Orleans, LA, 50 cents, January 1, 1862 (Courtesy of Heritage Auctions); Right, Erie and Kalamazoo RailRoad Bank, Adrian, MI, $10, 1854, Toppan, Carpenter, Casilear & Co., New York & Phila. (Courtesy of Heritage Auctions). Finally, of all the vignettes from Hutton & Freligh’s Mississippi treasury notes and private scrip, two vignettes stand out, and are shown in Figure 15. The image to the left is on Mississippi cotton-pledged $50 notes, and the image to the right is on Mississippi cotton- pledged $10 notes and Mississippi faith-of-the-state-pledged $20 and $5 notes. These vignettes stand out because they are rarely seen on paper money or other printing of the time. ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * Nov/Dec 2016 * Whole No. 306_____________________________________________________________ 409 Figure 15. Two vignettes from Hutton & Freligh’s Mississippi Treasury notes that, unlike most of their vignettes, were rarely used by other printers of obsolete currency. Hutton & Freligh in 1863 and After At the end of 1862, Grant was moving south towards Grenada. Some evacuated the town, like John McClanahan and the Appeal, in November (Ellis, 2003). But in December, the Confederates attacked Grant and caused him to change paths and strategies, moving southwest towards Vicksburg. This spared Grenada, briefly, before it was sacked twice by Federal troops – once in August 1863, and again on January 1, 1865. In both cases, Federal raids led to the burning of railroad stock and equipment, supporting buildings and supplies, and other military targets. Undoubtedly, there was significant damage to private property and businesses. Between the end of 1862 and the end of the war, the record of professional activities of Hutton & Freligh is scarce. No documentation of business between Hutton & Freligh and the Confederates has been found, nor records of printing of books, journals, or other materials. It appears that Hutton & Freligh remained in Grenada until the end of the war. One of Freligh’s daughters died there in 1865. Presumably Hutton & Freligh remained in the printing business, although it was undoubtedly limited in Grenada. After the war, both Hutton and Freligh moved back to Memphis, but it appears that they pursued independent ventures. Articles in The Memphis Daily Appeal show both were involved in printing and both were well-respected citizens. Hutton was listed in Memphis directories and censuses over the decades after the war as a printer, as were several of his sons who lived with and worked for him. In 1867, Hutton sold advertising timetables for railroads. He was elected in 1885 as an emeritus member of the International Typographical Union, and he was active in the Episcopal Church. He died in Memphis in 1910. Freligh, in the partnership of Freligh & Hite, published Merchants’ Exchange Prices Current in 1866. He was secretary of the Chamber of Commerce till 1867. In 1869, he and his family embarked on a three-year adventure, living in Rio de Janeiro where he was owner and editor of Brazilian World, an English-language newspaper meant for export to the rest of the world. Upon his return, Freligh “settled down to a very quiet life. He had a strong literary taste and was a close student of natural philosophy and political economy, and he contributed frequently for the daily papers” (from his obituary). Among his activities as J. H. Freligh & Co., he was publisher’s agent and sold books such as American Cyclopædia and The Military Operation of Gen. Beauregard from 1861 to 1865. He was active in the Democratic Party. He died in 1885. ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * Nov/Dec 2016 * Whole No. 306_____________________________________________________________ 410 Freligh’s obituary encapsulates the influence that he and Hutton had on their world and the effects of the war on many: “[I]n his time [he] exercised a large influence in his sphere of life, and was highly esteemed and respected…At the break of the war he was a member of the firm of Hutton & Freligh, which was publishing the Southern Monthly. He espoused the Southern cause and sacrificed his property and interests…. He was one among the last of a former generation, and although he took an interest in public affairs and appeared on the streets almost daily…he was but little known to the new generation that has come upon the stage since the war.” References Bernath, Michael. 2010. Confederate Minds: The Struggle for Intellectual Independence in the Civil War South. University of North Carolina Press: Chapel Hill. Bowers, Q. David. 2006. Obsolete Paper Money: Issued by Banks in the United States 1782-1866: A Study and Appreciation for the Numismatist and Historian. Whitman Publishing, LLC: Atlanta, Ga. Cooper, Everett. 1969. Paper Money Issued by Railroads in The Confederate States of American (concluded). Paper Money Vol. VIII, No. 3 - Whole No. 31 - Summer 1969, pp. 82-86. Criswell, Grover C., Jr. 1992. Confederate and Southern States Currency: A Descriptive Listing, Including Rarity and Values. BNR Press: Port Clinton, Ohio. Doty, Richard. 2013. Pictures From a Distant Country. Seeing America Through Old Paper Money. Whitman Publishing, LLC: Atlanta, Georgia. Dubay, Robert W. 1975. John Jones Pettus. Mississippi Fire-Eater: His Life and Times 1813-1867. University Press of Mississippi: Jackson, Mississippi. Ellis, Barbara G. 2003. The Moving Appeal. Mr. McClanahan, Mrs. Dill, and the Civil War’s Great Newspaper Run. Mercer University Press: Macon, Georgia. Goodspeed’s History of Tennessee. County Histories. 1886-1887. The Goodspeed Publishing Co.: Nashville, TN. Gunther, Bill. 2013. The Many Design Changes of Johnson House Merchant Scrip, Huntsville, Alabama. Paper Money Vol. LII, No. 6 - Whole No. 288 - November - December 2013, pp. 418-423. Hughes, Earl. 1998. Kentucky Obsolete Notes and Scrip. SPMC. John J. Pettus Correspondence and Papers, 1859-1863. Letter of March 1, 1862, IUF #1218. Mississippi Department of Archives & History. Mississippi Department of Archives and History. Jackson, Mi. Journal of the House of Representatives of the State of Mississippi, at a Regular Session thereof, held in the city of Jackson, November and December 1861 and January 1862. Cooper & Kimball, State Printers: Jackson, Mississippi, 1862. Pp 430-431. Journal of the House of Representatives of the State of Mississippi, December Session of 1862, and November Session of 1863. Jackson, Mississippi. Publisher, Cooper & Kimball Steam Printers and Binders. 1864. Pp 96-98 Keating, John M. 1888. History of the City of Memphis and Shelby County Tennessee: With Illustrations and Biographical Sketches of Some of Its Prominent Citizens. 2 Volumes. D. Mason & Co., Publishers: Syracuse, New York. Kraus, Guy Carleton. 2003. Mississippi Obsolete Notes and Scrip. SPMC. Laws of the State of Mississippi Passed at Regular Session of the Mississippi Legislature Held in the City of Jackson, November & December 1861, & January, 1862. Jackson, MS. Cooper & Kimball, State Printers, 1862. Leggett, L. Candler. 1975. Mississippi Obsolete Paper Money and Scrip. Krause Publications: Iola, WI. Shull, Hugh. 2006. Guide Book of Southern States Currency. History, Rarity, and Values. Whitman Publishing, LLC: Atlanta, Georgia. Tremmel, George B. 2007. A Guide Book of Counterfeit Confederate Currency. History, Rarity, and Values. Whitman Publishing, LLC: Atlanta, Georgia Wakelyn, Jon L., editor. 1996. Southern Pamphlets on Secession November 1860 – April 1861. University of North Carolina Press: Chapel Hill. Acknowledgments. I thank Bill Gunther, Dennis Schafluetzel, and especially Barbara Ellis for comments on a draft of the manuscript, and Dennis for providing images of Tennessee scrip. ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * Nov/Dec 2016 * Whole No. 306_____________________________________________________________ 411 Central States Numismatic Society 78th Anniversary Convention April 26-29, 2017 (Bourse Hours – April 26 – 12 noon-6pm Early Birds: $125 Registration Fee) Schaumburg, IL Schaumburg Renaissance Hotel & Convention Center Visit our website: Bourse Information: Patricia Foley (414) 698-6498 • Hotel Reservations: Schaumburg Renaissance Hotel - 1551 North Thoreau Drive • Call (847) 303-4100 Ask for the “Central States Numismatic Society” Convention Rate. Problems booking? - Call Convention Chairman Kevin Foley at (414) 807-0116 Free Hotel Guest and Visitor Parking. • Numismatic Educational Forum • Educational Exhibits • 300 Booth Bourse Area • Heritage Coin Signature Sale • Heritage Currency Signature Sale • Educational Programs • Club and Society Meetings • Free Hotel Guest and Visitor Parking • Complimentary Public Admission: Thursday-Friday-Saturday No Pesky Sales Tax in Illinois The Paper Column Large Size Type Note Signature Changeover Protocols Created Collectable Varieties by Peter Huntoon When new Treasury officials were appointed there were protocols that governed what was to happen after their signatures were added to the printing plates used to print large size type notes. These protocols dictated how the notes with the new signatures and those with the old were to be processed at the Bureau of Engraving and Printing during the transition. The protocols evolved over time so processing changed. Fascinating but somewhat technical collectible varieties were associated with each protocol. The principal years when changes in protocol occurred were 1911 and 1919, respectively when the Napier-McClung and Elliott-Burke combinations became current. The Napier- McClung change was caused by a simple tweak in how the notes were numbered. The Elliott- Burke change was driven more fundamentally by the use of power presses to print currency faces. You will see that the way the notes were numbered between 1911 and 1919 was inconsistent, a fact that adds a bit of complexity and richness to this tale. The $1 Series of 1899 silver certificates will be profiled here because there were no breaks in their production so they were caught up in every change that will be discussed in this article. Consequently if you understand what occurred with the 1899 $1s, you will be able to recognize the same occurrence at the same time in the other type notes. Table 1 lists the Treasury combinations and serial number block letters for the 1899 $1s. Figure 1. E47748890 is a Lyons-Roberts serial number that landed on this Lyons-Treat note when some Lyons-Treat sheets were accidentally placed in the Lyons-Roberts production stream during the changeover between the signature combinations. This is the only reported example. Doug Murray photo. ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * Nov/Dec 2016 * Whole No. 306_____________________________________________________________ 414 Table 1. Treasury signature combinations, dates when current and serial number block letters used  for them during the issuance of $1 Series of 1899 Silver Certificates.  Register  Treasurer  Period when Current SC 1899 $1 Block Letters Judson W. Lyons  Ellis H. Roberts  Apr  7, 1898‐Jun 30, 1905 no letter  A  B  D  E  Judson W. Lyons  Charles H. Treat  Jul  1, 1905‐Jun 11, 1906 H  K William T. Vernon  Charles H. Treat  Jun 12, 1906‐Oct 31, 1909 M  N  R  T  William T. Vernon  Lee McClung  Nov  1, 1909‐May 17, 1911 V  X  Y James C. Napier  Lee McClung  May 18, 1911‐Nov 21, 1912 Y  Z  AA  BB  EE  HH  James C. Napier  Carmi A. Thompson Nov 22, 1912‐Mar 31, 1913 DD James C. Napier  John Burke  Apr  1, 1913‐Oct  1, 1913 none printed  Gabe E. Parker  John Burke  Oct  1, 1913‐Mar 23, 1915 KK  MM  NN  RR  Houston B. Teehee  John Burke  Mar 24, 1915‐Nov 20, 1919 RR  TT  UU  VV  XX  YY  ZZ  BA  DA William S. Elliott  John Burke  Nov 21, 1919‐May  1, 1921 DA  EA  HA  MA  NA  RA William S. Elliott  Frank White  May  2, 1921‐Jan 24, 1922 DA  EA  HA  KA  MA  NA Harley V. Speelman  Frank White  Jan 25, 1922‐Sep 30, 1927 HA  KA  MA  NA  RA  TA  VA  XA The term type note refers to Treasury currency for the purposes of this article, specifically to legal tender notes, silver certificates and gold certificates, all of which were current during the period of interest. Federal Reserve notes and Federal Reserve Bank notes are classified as bank currency along with national bank notes. The numbering of bank currency differed from type notes when there were changes in Treasury officials, so this discussion does not apply to them. The Treasury signatures were engraved on large size type note plates during the entire period under discussion. This was troublesome for the Bureau of Engraving and Printing because when one or both Treasury officials changed, the Bureau had on hand printing plates that suddenly became obsolete. Of course, they made new plates with the new officers, but that took time. They also had the option to change the signature(s) on the existing serviceable plates. The general pattern was that the higher the denomination, the more likely it was that signatures would be altered on still serviceable plates. In contrast it was unusual for them to alter signatures on high-demand low-value type note plates because they would be consumed in relatively short order. In fact there was only one instance when signatures were altered in the Series of 1899 $1 silver certificates. It occurred during December 1909 when ten Vernon-Treat plates were altered to Vernon-McClung. The updating of signatures ceased altogether in 1915 after some higher value Parker-Burke plates were altered to Teehee-Burke. The Bureau could not suddenly stop production when a signature change came along while everyone waited for new or altered plates to come on line. They had no option but to continue printing because the Treasury needed the notes to meet public demand. Obviously this meant that they had to continue using plates with obsolete signatures during a transition period that lasted variable lengths of time depending on the type note under consideration. Pre-1911 Protocols Usually new plates were made for most current type notes when a new Treasury official was appointed. The obsolete plates continued in production alongside the new in the heavily used types until they wore out. The production from the two was rigidly segregated. Printings from the obsolete plates continued to be numbered in sequence with their predecessors. In the case of on-going $1 1899 Lyons-Roberts production during 1905, serial numbering continued sequentially in the current E serial number block. However the production from new Lyons-Treat face plates was assigned to the entirely new H-block, so numbering of the Lyons-Treat notes commenced at H1. ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * Nov/Dec 2016 * Whole No. 306_____________________________________________________________ 415 This protocol eliminated waste. The duration of concurrent production depended on the size of the inventory of plates with obsolete signatures. The separation of the notes by signature combination during these transition periods resulted in a rare and unexpected variety that classifies as a significant but subtle error. Doug Murray found a $1 1899 Lyons-Treat note that bears serial E47748890, but the E-block was the last assigned to Lyons-Roberts production. Obviously some Lyons-Treat sheets were misplaced in the Lyons-Roberts stream during the transition period. It took an eagle eye to spot it. Change in 1911 A minor change occurred that had a significant impact when the Napier-McClung combination became current in May 1911. Production from the now obsolete Vernon-McClung plates was separated from that of Napier-McClung, but the difference was that the Napier- McClung notes were numbered in sequence with the Vernon-McClung notes that had been produced before Napier took office. This happened in the middle of the Y-block. The changeover serial numbers were Y51404000/Y51404001. This created a dilemma revealing that what happened might have been a mistake. The question was how were the Vernon-McClung notes that were printed after the changeover to be numbered? The solution devised was to accumulate the Vernon-McClung production until the last of the Vernon-McClung plates left the presses. It was then inserted as one large group into the on- going sequence of Y-block serial numbers, thus creating a sizable out-of-sequence group of notes with Y68------ serial numbers surrounded by current Napier-McClung’s. The transitions involving the next two 1899 $1 signature combinations, Napier- Thompson and Parker-Burke, were handled using the pre-1911 protocol. Specifically each was assigned a new serial number block so those notes began respectively at D1D and K1K. Alas, this throwback to the pre-1911protocol did not hold. When the Teehee-Burke plates came along in July 1915, serialing of the Parker-Burke notes was in the RR block. The new Teehee-Burke notes were appended in sequence to it, which yielded changeover serials at R4966000R/R49660001R. Figure 2. Simultaneous printings from obsolete Vernon-McClung plates were accumulated after Napier-McClung production began at Y51404001 until the last of the obsolete plates left the presses, then were inserted out-of-sequence as a batch into the Y block. These notes are distinguished by having serial numbers that begin Y68. Doug Murray photo. ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * Nov/Dec 2016 * Whole No. 306_____________________________________________________________ 416 Once again they were faced with the problem of on-going production, this time from obsolete Parker-Burke plates. But there was a lot more of it than had occurred previously in the Vernon-McClung case. Once again they resorted to the same solution. All the Parker-Burke production was accumulated until the last of those plates left the presses. Then it was inserted en mass into the RR block. This huge out-of-range group of 4,608,000 notes bearing serials R68736001R to R73344000R was carefully labeled Parker-Burke in the midst of the Teehee- Burke entries in the delivery ledger for the series. Things were about to change radically. Figure 4. The Vernon-Treat/Vernon-McClung changeover in 1906 occurred at about serial D82870000. Continued production from obsolete Vernon-Treat plates was accumulated following the changeover and numbered as an out-of- sequence batch in the E-block with serials beginning E25-------. Three specimens from this group are reported. Doug Murray photo. Figure 3. Continued production from obsolete Parker-Burke plates after the Teehee-Burke combination became current at R49660001R was accumulated and inserted as an out-of-sequence batch at R68736001R-R73344000R once the last of the Parker-Burke plates left service. Doug Murray photo. ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * Nov/Dec 2016 * Whole No. 306_____________________________________________________________ 417 The Elliott-Burke signature combination became current on November 21, 1919, a seminal date when it came to handling transitions between signature combinations. Big changes had been afoot at the Bureau of Engraving and Printing. Demands for ever increasing output had all but overwhelmed the Bureau thanks to Liberty Loan Bond production during World War I so there was tremendous pressure to streamline procedures. The long and short of it was that beginning with the Teehee-Burke/Elliott-Burke changeover the BEP employees no longer would concern themselves with the signatures that were in the production stream. Ongoing production from plates bearing the obsolete combination would be commingled with that from the new, and all of it would be numbered in sequence without regard to the signatures. This radical shift away from segregating production by signature combination was an efficiency measure driven by technology. Consequently it is necessary that we delve into how the faces were printed in order to understand the motivation behind the change. The next three paragraphs summarize information from the BEP 100th anniversary volume (BEP, 1952). All faces were printed on flatbed presses that utilized one 4-subject plate prior to 1919. By 1919 production also was coming from four-plate power presses. High demand type notes such as the $1 1899 silver certificates were being printed simultaneously on both types of presses. Four-plate power presses had been patented in 1876 and the BEP placed its first one in service during 1878. Some were used to print currency backs up through 1889. Labor was adamantly opposed to them and galvanized Congressional support to resist their use. Congressional meddling with royalties in 1889 caused their discontinuance; however, in 1898 some were again purchased for printing backs for silver certificates, legal tender notes and Treasury notes. Then their use for printing currency and bonds was outlawed by Congress in 1899. An act in 1912 lifted the restriction against printing currency backs on the presses. This was followed in 1917 and 1919 by further lifting of restrictions driven by the overwhelming demand for both Liberty Loan bonds and currency. Eight-subject power press currency plates came on line in 1918, which supplanted the 4-subject plates that had been used previously on the machines. $1 1899 faces were being printed on both the old flatbed presses and power presses by 1919. The 8-subject sheets coming off the power presses were cut in half and fed through 4- subject Harris numbering and sealing machines along with the 4-subject sheets from the old flatbed presses. Change in 1919 Table 2.  Recognized occurrences of pre‐1919 late‐numbered production of large size type notes from  plates with obsolete signatures.  High Serial  Fr.  Number at  Observed Serials from  Number  No.  Type  New Combination  Changeover  Late‐Numbered Group  Reported  229 & 229a  SC 1899 $1 Vernon‐McClung  Napier‐McClung  Y51404000  Y68426490‐Y68955387   7  232  SC 1899 $1 Parker‐Burke  Teehee‐Burke  R49660000R  R68736001R‐R73344000R1  37  273  SC 1899 $5 Vernon‐Treat  Vernon‐McClung  D82870000  E25116858‐E25207640  3  ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * Nov/Dec 2016 * Whole No. 306_____________________________________________________________ 418 The important development in 1919 was the decision to cease segregating production by signature combination in order to simplify processing. Consequently obsolete Teehee-Burke and current Elliott-Burke plates were in simultaneous use on both types of presses for as long as Teehee-Burke plates lasted. Furthermore plates with the different signature combinations routinely were mixed on the same power press. All of this commingled production flowed into the DA block after the first Elliott-Burke serial, which was D44712001A. Mixing of plates with different signature combinations on the same power press ushered in the phenomenon of signature changeover pairs. The production from the power presses left the presses as a single stack of sheets where the sheets in the stack cycled through the four plates that were on the press. If the plates were 8-subject, the stack was cut in half and the respective halves were fed separately through the 4-subject Harris numbering, sealing and separating machines. Serial numbers were applied sequentially down the half sheets. Either forward or backward changeover pairs were created as numbering passed between successive sheets bearing different signature combinations. Occasionally production from obsolete plates overwhelmed that from current plates. For example the Speelman-White combination in the $1 Series of 1899 silver certificates began to be numbered in the latter part of the HA block in 1922. However so many obsolete Elliott-White plates remained in the plate inventory, they preferentially were sent to press so most of the notes printed in the HA and succeeded KA block carry Elliott-White rather than Speelman-White signatures! Better yet is the fact that there were many dozens of even older still-serviceable and even new Elliott-Burke plates in the plate vault at the start of the Speelman-White era. They hadn’t been used up during the previous Elliott-White period. They too were fed into the mix of plates on the presses. The result was that Elliott-Burke, Elliott-White and Speelman-White notes were in simultaneous production for the next couple of years. Figure 5. Elliott-Burke/Teehee-Burke backward changeover pair created when plates with different signature combinations were mixed on 4-plate power presses after power presses began to be used to print currency faces in 1919. Heritage Auction Archives photo. ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * Nov/Dec 2016 * Whole No. 306_____________________________________________________________ 419 But there was an even better wrinkle associated with the old Elliott-Burke plates than their use well into the Speelman-White era. They were used continuously until December 17, 1921. Then none were sent to press again until August 2, 1922, a gap of eight months. In contrast Elliott-White and Speelman-White production was non-stop through that period. Half the Elliott-Burke plates sent to press when production resumed in August had seen some service but the others were brand new. The last of them made it to March 2, 1923, beyond the last of the younger Elliott-Whites! These usage patterns had to have interesting numismatic impacts and indeed they did. You will find from Table 1 that there was concurrent numbering of the three signature combinations from the HA block forward, but ironically the older Elliott-Burke production outlasted that of Elliott-White. Specifically, the last Elliott-White notes were numbered in the NA block in contrast to the Elliott-Burkes making it all the way into the RA block. The eight-month gap in Elliott-Burke production from December 1921 to August 1922 reveals itself in the fact that no Elliott-Burke notes were numbered in the KA block. The gap between the earlier and later groups of Elliott-Burke notes has been narrowed to H40797764A- M42098443A based on reported specimens. This range will narrow further but you can stop looking for KA Elliott-Burke notes because they just weren’t around to be numbered then. If you are a die-hard aficionado of Series of 1899 $1 blocks, you now have well-defined early and late groups of Elliott-Burke notes mixed in with unbroken runs of concurrent Elliott-White and Speelman-White notes! Napier-McClung/Napier Thompson Changeover The transition to the short-lived Napier-Thompson combination was the most unusual of the signature changes in the $1 1899 silvers. Napier and Thompson served together from November 22, 1912 to March 31, 1913. The Napier-Thompson combination was not used on most type notes. It appeared only on 1899 $1, $2 and $5 silver certificates; 1907 $5 legal tender notes; and 1882 $100, 1906 $20 and 1907 $10 gold certificates. Also it was used on Series of 1902 date and plain back national bank note plates for 132 banks. The Napier-Thompson era was followed by Napier-Burke, another short-lived combination that lasted from April 1 to October 1, 1913. The story of the Napier- Figure 6. Use of plates with obsolete Treasury signatures until they wore out resulted in production of Elliott-White notes well into the Speelman-White era. The last of the Elliott-White notes were numbered in the NA block. Doug Murray photo. ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * Nov/Dec 2016 * Whole No. 306_____________________________________________________________ 420 McClung/Napier-Thompson transition cannot be told without bringing in the Napier-Burke combination. No Series of 1899 plates were made with the Napier-Burke combination. Instead, it was used solely on Series of 1882 $100 and $10,000 gold certificates, Series of 1907 $1000 gold certificates, and Series of 1900 certificates of deposit, as well as Series of 1902 date and plain back national bank plates for 85 banks. For some reason Napier-McClung $1 1899 production shouldered aside all but token quantities of Napier-Thomson printings and totally supplanted Napier-Burke printings. Here is what happened. The $1 Series of 1899 Napier-McClung/Napier-Thompson changeover followed pre- 1911 protocols. Specifically there was concurrent production from the plates from both combinations and it was carefully segregated. The Napier-Thompson notes were numbered separately in the newly dedicated DD block so commenced with serial D1D. Napier-McClung notes continued to be numbered in their on-going BB block. All other similarities ended here. Forty-three Napier-Thompson $1 1899 plates were made. The first was certified December 4, 1912 and the last March 25, 1913, respectively bearing plate serial numbers 8594 and 9034. The plate numbers represent a range of 341 plates. The other 298 were new Napier- McClung plates among which the Napier-Thompsons were mixed. Where it really gets peculiar is that after they stopped making Napier-Thompson plates, they didn’t move on to making Napier-Burke plates, but instead continued making more Napier- McClung plates. Consequently Napier-McClung plates were made all the way until October 11, 1913 just a couple of days before the first Parker-Burke plates started coming on line. We are not talking about a few more Napier-McClung plates to fill the Napier-Burke void. The total number involved was another 845 plates ending with plate serial number 8979. Serial D6740000D was reached in the Napier-Thompson block, but that number was dwarfed by on-going Napier-McClung production that continued well after the Napier- Thompson printings ceased. Napier-McClung production was being numbered in the BB block when Napier- Thompson production commenced. It continued until the BB block was finished, then consumed the entire EE block, and finally ended after chewing through a fifth of the HH block. The last of the Napier-McClung plates wore out well into the Parker-Burke era! We have found no explanation for this very curious state of affairs. Figure 7. Obsolete Elliott-Burke plates survived into the Speelman-White era so the last notes from them were numbered in the RA block in 1923. Ironically the stock of obsolete Elliott-Burke plates had lasted longer than the younger stock of Elliott-White plates, which also were being used up. Three Elliott-Burke RA-block notes have been reported. Doug Murray photo. ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * Nov/Dec 2016 * Whole No. 306_____________________________________________________________ 421 Precedence Setting The practice of mixing plates with obsolete and current signature combinations on the same power press begun in 1919 set a precedent for how plates with obsolete signatures would be handled for the next 35 years. The change bridged the conversion to small notes so was employed throughout the 1928 and 1934 series because those plates also carried Treasury signatures. Mixing of plates lasted until 1953 when the last of the 1928 and 1934 plates went out of service. By then all denominations in all classes had been converted to overprinted signatures. The news in 1919 wasn’t that they used up plates with obsolete signatures following signature changes. There was nothing new in that. The new wrinkle was that they stopped dividing the sheets based on signatures and numbering the two streams separately. Instead they commingled the sheets with the different combinations and numbered them as they came. The change was an efficiency measure. A primary motivation for taking the step was the lifting of a Congressional ban on the use of four-plate power presses to print currency faces. Abandonment of the practice in 1953 also was technology driven. By then the phase-in of signature overprinting of Treasury signatures begun in 1935 on $1 silver certificates had been spread to all denominations and classes of currency. The use of plates with different signature combinations on the presses and numbering the sheets as one stream gave rise in 1919 to signature changeover pairs and multiple signature combinations from the same serial numbering blocks. At its best, three different Series of 1899 signature combinations were being printed simultaneously for a time during the first half of the Speelman-White era. They were obsolete Elliott-Burke and Elliott-White, and current Speelman-White. The three combinations were mixed within the HA, MA and NA serial number blocks. Any combination of forward or backward changeover pairs is possible between them. The phenomenon reached its zenith in the $1 silver certificates during 1934 when 1928A, 1928B, 1928C, 1928D and 1928E plates, each with different signature combinations, were on the presses at the same time. All five were being numbered together in the JB block. There were different mixes of those plates on the same press so collectors have found several varieties of the possible changeover pairs. The protocols and timing of events outlined here apply across all classes and denominations in the large note series. For example the $1 Series of 1917 legal tender issues spanning the Elliott-Burke, Elliott-White and Speelman-White era exhibit the same basic complexity found in the $1 1899 silver certificates. All three signature combinations appeared in the MA block. Just as has been well-documented in the small note series, variable usage patterns through time & tapering off of the usage of plates with obsolete signatures created rare blocks for various signature combinations among the affected type notes. These are slowly being mapped out. Reference Cited and Sources of Data Bureau of Engraving and Printing, 1863-1929, Certified proofs of type note face plates: National Numismatic Collection, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Bureau of Engraving and Printing, 1962, History of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing, 1862-1962: U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 199 p. Bureau of Engraving and Printing, Custodian of Dies, Rolls and Plates, 1869-1917, Record of miscellaneous plates in the United States and miscellaneous vault, several ledgers: Record Group 318, U. S. National Archives, College Park, MD., and Bureau of Engraving and Printing Historical Resource Center, Washington, DC. ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * Nov/Dec 2016 * Whole No. 306_____________________________________________________________ 422 Bureau of Engraving and Printing, Custodian of Dies, Rolls and Plates, 1917-1953, Ledger and historical record of stock in miscellaneous vault, 4-8-12 sub faces, silver certificate Series 1899-1935 all denominations: U. S. National Archives, College Park, MD. Bureau of Engraving and Printing, Numbering Division, 1910-1928, Final receipts for notes and certificates: Record Group 318, vols. NC01 & NC02, U. S. National Archives, College Park, MD.; vols. NC03-NC09, Bureau of Engraving and Printing Historical Resource Center, Washington, DC. 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Figure 2‐‐Promotional  stamp by Fernando  Fernández.  ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * Nov/Dec 2016 * Whole No. 306_____________________________________________________________ 424 Born  in 1886, Fernández  was  trained  as  engraver  in  the  US  and  established  in his  hometown of  Puebla,  where  he  got  married  in  1908.  He  worked  for  the  Ministry  of  Finance’s  Government  Printing  Office,  under  Carranza’s  Constitutionalist  movement  and  became  head  of  the  engraving  department. There, he designed the one  and  two  pesos  notes  that were  printed  in Mexico  complementing  the  so‐called  non‐counterfeitable  bills  (figure  3)  as  well  as  post  stamps2  (figure  4). He was  also  related  to  procurement  issues  purchasing  machinery  and  inputs,  and  was  commissioned  by  the  Finance  Ministry  in  early  1918  to  arrange  with  the  ABNC  the  technical  details  of  the  printing of the banknotes  for the Banco  de  la  República  Mexicana,  the  first  attempt of a  single emission bank after  the Mexican Revolution, which was never established. Later on he started an  import and export  company of printing equipment, paper, and  special  inks  for  banknotes,  while  he  also  made  some  steel  engraving  in  Mexico  City  and  in  New  York.  The  Great  Depression  eventually forced him to settle in Mexico permanently.   In  1929,  he  founded  the  company  Grabados  Fernando  Fernández with his  son, Rubén  Fernández, whose  signature, by the way, appears on the auctioned promotional  note.  The  company  still  exists  and  prints  stationery  and  business  cards,  but  apparently  no  relatives  work  there  anymore and no one there seems to have kept any track of  their history or archives.   As deeply  involved  in  the security printing world as he was,  he  would  have  been  able  to market  in  different  countries  some American and English  state of  the art printing presses  from Waite, W.H. Chapman & Co. and R. Hoe & Co.3 (figure 5),  and  security  printing machinery produced  by himself,  such  as  pantographs,  geometrical  lathes,  manual and hydraulic transfer machines, etc. He held a 1939 Mexican patent for a security tab for  cheques (figure 6), and two US patents for an intaglio printing apparatus he invented in 19414 and  an additional method of plate printing in 1944.5 With such an equipment in his company, he was  one of the best equipped security printers in Mexico.   Figure 3—Newspaper article at Pueblo’s front page with  Fernández’s portrait and reproduction of models for the    non‐counterfeitable bills he designed. HNDM  Figure 4—Stamps designed by  Fernando Fernández.  Images from  TIEV’s philatelic collection  ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * Nov/Dec 2016 * Whole No. 306_____________________________________________________________ 425 But  when  and  how  did he become  involved with  the  Bank  of  Mexico?  Apparently  that  happened  after  several  attempts,  in  different  moments  and  capacities  over  a  40‐year  period. As part of a  research  project  I’m  currently  undertaking,  I  was  able  to  find  at  the  Bank’s  historical  archives  a  translation  of  a  reference  letter  sent  in  1926  by  the  Reichsdrückerei  (German  National  Printing  Office)  to  the Mexican chargé  d’affaires  in  Berlin,  stating  that he was  proficient in steel  engraving,  and  that  he  had  trained their employees in the  use of geometrical  lathes and  transfer machines.6 I managed  to  find some records  from his  trip  to  Germany  earlier  that  year,  and  among  his  correspondence  there  were  some  letters  from  one  of  his  trainees,  describing  with  detail  the  kind  of  work  he  taught.  Nevertheless, there is no sign of any specific job resu lting from this letter.    Almost  a  decade  later, when Mexico  changed  from  large  to  small‐size  banknotes,  the  Bank  of  Mexico  approached  (and/or  was  approached  by)  different  security  printers,  including  Mr.  Fernández.  In  a  letter  addressed  to Mr.  Gonzalo  Robles,  General  Director  of  the  Bank,  dated  December 12, 1935 he sent a promotional note suggesting  that Mexican paper money could be  engraved and printed locally (figure 7).7 The description seems to point out that this might be from  the same printing or even the one auctioned, as the  letter has a second signature of Fernández,  with  a  handwritten  legend  saying  that  the  promotional  note  was  returned  to  him.  ABNCo.  remained  as  the  sole  printer  of  the  Bank  of Mexico’s  banknotes  and  to my  knowledge  all  the  engravings were made by this company’s employees, not by Fernández, thus this second approach  was also fruitless.   A  third attempt occurred  in  the  late  fifties. Since  the creation of  the Bank of Mexico,  in  order for a banknote to be  issued this  institution had to comply with a set of requirements. This  was certified by a Government comptroller or inspector and then the banknotes were sent to the  Ministry of Finance to be stamped with two seals, one from this Ministry and another one from  Figure 5—Printing simple using R. Hoe & Co. rotary steel plate press from Mr. Fernando Fernández’s files. Image courtes of Siddharta Sanchez‐Murillo.   Figure 6—Fernando Fernández’s Mexican security tab and  patent.  Image courtesy of Clemente Juárez.  ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * Nov/Dec 2016 * Whole No. 306_____________________________________________________________ 426 the Bank, alongside other features (series letters,  dates,  signatures,  etc.).  This work was  done  at  the  Ministry’s  security  printing  office  where  Fernández  worked  around  1915,  an  office  currently  known  as  Talleres  de  Impresión  de  Estampillas  y  Valores  (TIEV).  During  the  1950s,  with a growing GDP  in  the country,  the capacity  of  the  TIEV  was  rapidly  overloaded,  putting  pressure  on  the  Bank  of  Mexico  to  fulfill  the  demand  for  banknotes.  Thus,  the  Bank  considered purchasing its own printing presses to  print  those  seals,  of  course  with  strong  opposition from TIEV´s Union. At the end of that  decade,  Mr.  Fernández  presented  a  memo  recommending that the Bank purchase the up‐to‐ date machines, and offering his services to create  the  original  plates,  training  and  overseeing  the  personnel that could do the printing.8 This would  increase this process’ efficiency, productivity and  security.  Again,  it  is  not  clear  whether  he  succeeded,  as  these  seals  continued  to  be  printed at the TIEV until the bank established  its  printing  factory,  except  for  the  lower  denomination notes which were requested  to be  fully finished by the ABNCo. Nevertheless, it might  be  possible  that  the  Bank  could  have  purchased  some  printing  machines  to  print  the  other  features such as dates and countersigns, which were initially printed by the TIEV.  While I haven’t been able to determine whether Fernández was directly involved with the  Bank of Mexico in the fight against counterfeiting, he was certainly close to Mr. Quiroz Cuarón, in  charge of this task at the Bank.   Through the  intermediation of the  latter, he gave expert advice  authenticating  notes  and  identifying  forgeries  for  some  Central American  banks,  and  did  some  steel engravings for other clients in the region.   Finally,  in the early sixties when the Bank of Mexico decided to establish  its own printing  factory, one of the challenges was not only to design the banknotes & engrave the plates for them,  but also to train the Mexican personnel. The design of the first notes was made by Reyes Santana,  a Mexican designer who was trained a few years before at the Giori Engraving Institute  in Milan,  but the engravings were made by different engravers in Europe, including Mr. Mario Baiardi. The  the  first note to be printed at the Bank of Mexico’s Banknote Printing Factory was the 10 pesos  note  bearing  the  image  of  national  hero Miguel  Hidalgo  y  Costilla  and  other  symbols  of  the  independence,  and  the  person  in  charge  of  bringing  the  design  to  the Organization Giori was  precisely Mr. Fernando Fernández  in 1965, who was requested to “watch the techniques used to  make the original plates both intaglio and offset”9. I assume the invoices in his files dated between  February and August 1965 (figure 8) correspond precisely for these professional services rendered  to the Bank of Mexico.   Figure  7—Letter  of  Mr.  Fernando  Fernández presenting        a  promotional  note  to  the  Bank  of Mexico.  AHBanxico.   ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * Nov/Dec 2016 * Whole No. 306_____________________________________________________________ 427 Thus,  it  seems  that  after  several  attempts,  Mr.  Fernández  (who  was  convinced  his  true  calling  was  as  a  banknote engraver and printer) managed to work for the Bank  of  Mexico.  I  don’t  know  whether  he  performed  any  other  activity,  although  his  company  printed  the  50‐anniversary  commemorative book about  the headquarters of  the Bank of  Mexico in 1975 (figure 9).  Should  anyone  have  further  information  about  Mr.  Fernández activity in the security printing industry, particularly  related to Mexico, I would appreciate if you could share it with  me:    Sources:   Banco de México, El edificio del Banco de México 1925‐1975, México, Grabados Fernando Fernández, 1975.  203 pp.   Banco de Mexico’s Historical Archives   Fernando Fernandez’s personal archives (in private collections)  Mexico’s National Digital Newspaper Archives    Stamp and Security Printing Workshops’ Philatelic collection   1  I want  to  thank  (in  alphabetical  order)  Joe  Boling, Mark  Clark,  Clemente  Juárez, Mario Moncada, Gabriel  Saborío,  Siddharta Sánchez Murillo, Fred Schwann and Mark Tomasko for helping me putting together this puzzle.  2 Several stamps between 1915 and 1918 are attributed to him for the Great Men and Venues and Monuments stamp  series. Nevertheless, a newspaper article also mentions others bearing archeological sites, which were  issued until the  mid‐1920s. El Nacional, “El arte del grabado retrospectivo aplicado a  los valores mexicanos constituye una novedad y  honra  al  obrero  nacional”,  January  19th,  1917,  p. 1 [Online: Pagina=1, retrieved May 1st, 2016].   3  According to one of the promotional items by R. Hoe & Co. in these files, this company branded itself as “the largest  printing  machine  manufacturers  &  engineers  in  the  world  for  bank  notes,  postage  stamps, bonds. etc.”  See  Fred  Schwan’s section of “Uncoupled” in Paper Money #296, March‐April 2015.  4 US 2351030 A  5 US 2427556 A  6 AHBanxico, Box #3892, File #12.  7 Idem.  8 AHBanxico, Box #3916, File #10  9 AHBanxico, Box #3897, File #7  Figure 9—Engraving from the BoM 50th Anniversary Book Figure  8—Invoice  to  the  Bank  of Mexico.  Image  courtesy  of  Siddharta Sanchez‐Murillo  ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * Nov/Dec 2016 * Whole No. 306_____________________________________________________________ 428 COVER_Layout 1 2/1/15 7:32 PM Page 1 WE ARE NOW ACCEPTING CONSIGNMENTS FOR OUR U.S. & WORLDWIDE BANKNOTE, COIN & SCRIPOPHILY AUCTIONS We are constantly looking to purchase U.S. & Worldwide Banknotes, Stocks, Bonds, Stamps, Coins and Postal History from individual better items, to large estate collections We will also consider suitable consignments for our live, internet and mail-bid auctions held regularly throught the year A 131‐Year Old Mystery Solved! New Research Identifies The Official First Date of Issue For Type II Postal Notes by Kent Halland and Charles Surasky Collectors of U.S. Postal Notes, an early form U.S. Money Orders, know when the notes were first officially issued. And they know the series’ final day of issue. What has eluded researchers and collectors are the dates the other designs were first officially released for use. New research has uncovered and assimilated some key facts that support more than 40 years of research into this increasingly popular series. And we can now identify the mysterious “Official first date of issue” of the Type II design. However, there is one reported Postal Note seemingly in conflict of the “official” first date, a note that has not surfaced in years and has not been available for study. More on this note later in this article. The United States officially began issuing Postal Notes on September 3, 1883. The initial design, known as Type I, was printed on yellow banknote paper. The issuing clerk was required to hand write the note’s value (from $0.01 up to the series’ $4.99 statutory maximum), then confirm its value by punching holes through the corresponding numbers representing dollars, dimes and cents. Like their direct ancestors, Postage and Fractional Currency Notes, Postal Notes were produced by private banknote companies under contracts awarded by the U. S. government. Type I notes, as well as Types II, II‐A and III were engraved and printed by the Homer Lee Bank Note Company of New York. Its contract commenced in 1883 and concluded in 1887. Type IV notes were engraved and printed from 1887 to 1891 by the American Bank Note Company, also located in New York. Type V notes were printed by Philadelphia’s Dunlap & Clarke from 1891 to 1894 (see Chart One). All Postal Notes were printed on paper supplied by Crane and Company, the Dalton, Massachusetts firm that became the government’s prime contractor for security paper in the late 1870s. Chart One‐‐Production Contract Information Supply Private Dates of PN Types Contract Contractor Contract Produced__ First Homer Lee September 3, 1883 to I, II, II‐A, III Bank Note Co. September 2, 1887 Second American September 3, 1887 to IV Bank Note Co. September 2, 1891 Third Dunlap & September 3, 1891 to V Clarke June 30, 1894 ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * Nov/Dec 2016 * Whole No. 306_____________________________________________________________ 430 Widespread publicity and the increasing popularity of “collecting” led to the public’s acquisition of numerous first day and low serial number notes. As instruments of commerce, Postal Notes were also popular with the public because they were easier to obtain and less expensive than Money Orders, albeit with less security. During the 12‐year series, more than 70,824,000 Postal Notes were issued. The overwhelming majority were issued, delivered and redeemed, then returned to Washington, D.C., where they were accounted for and destroyed. Official government statistics pinpoint 475,891 Postal Notes still outstanding at the close of the 19th Century. However, only an estimated total of 2,000 examples have survived into the 21st century. Many of the survivors have face values of only one or two cents, suggesting they were acquired by collectors, souvenir‐hunters and postal employees. Homer Lee’s Second Design The first design’s shortcomings led the government, with the assistance of Homer Lee’s engraving and printing staff, to sharply alter the layout and to change the issuing process. It reduced the note’s size and switched to a creamy white paper. Like the Type I notes, Type II notes required the “punching” of the number of dimes and cents to indicate the note’s value. But the number of dollars – if any – were indicated by dollar coupons located at the note’s left, and the locations for both the issuing and redeeming (paying) Money Order Office date‐stamps were moved to the reverse (see Illustrations 1 and 2 ((below)) for examples of Type I and Type II Postal Notes, respectively). All Type I Postal Notes were printed on 6 3/8 by 3 ¼ inch yellow Crane & Co. banknote paper. The design required “punching” of the year and month of issue, as well as the dollars, dimes, and cents in the correct columns. The obverse had locations for both issuing (top circle) and paying (bottom circle) office hand‐ stamps. This serial number 1 note was issued for 50 cents at Chelsea Station in Boston, Massachusetts, and was redeemable only there and in Boston, Massachusetts. This note was never redeemed. (Image courtesy of Heritage Auctions.) ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * Nov/Dec 2016 * Whole No. 306_____________________________________________________________ 431 Type II Postal Notes were reduced in size to 5 5/16 by 3 3/8 inches (without the dollar coupons) and printed on a creamy white Crane & Co. banknote paper. Each note’s face value was indicated by “punched” holes for the dimes and cents, with coupons at the note’s left end cut to indicate the number of dollars. The locations of issuing and paying postmaster’s hand‐stamps were moved to the reverse. This serial number 2334 note was issued at Woburn, MA in the amount of three dollars, and was payable at South Dennis (MA). However, it was accidentally redeemed in South Yarmouth, Massachusetts. This note survived because it was rejected for reimbursement by the government’s auditor. The reason: it was redeemed by D.D. Kelley at the wrong location, and returned to Peleg P. Akin, postmaster at South Yarmouth, who suffered an expensive lesson regarding improper payment of Postal Notes! (Image courtesy of Heritage Auctions.) The changes that led to the creation of Type II Postal Notes were not the last in this series. Subsequent design changes are catalogued as Type III, Type IV and Type V. Collectors also recognize a transitional use of Type II notes issued after passage of the Law of 1887. These notes are catalogued as Type II‐A. When Were The “Middle” Designs First Issued? We know the first and last day of issue for the series because the government’s announcements were printed in newspapers throughout the nation well in advance of those events. That publicity stimulated the public’s collecting activities, leading to numerous extra “first day” (September 3, 1883) and “last day” (June 30, 1894) notes being saved. But what about the “first” and “last” dates for the “middle” types, known as Type II, III and IV? Our goal here is to determine the official “first date of issue” for the Type II design, so we will leave the other dates for future research. For now, collectors must continue to depend on the data assembled into Chart Two. ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * Nov/Dec 2016 * Whole No. 306_____________________________________________________________ 432 Unfortunately for 21st Century collectors and researchers, the government made no public announcements regarding the introduction of Type II notes. That led us to: 1) examine the known notes and/or available note data; 2) organize the data by design and dates of issue, and 3) locate documents related to Postal Notes that provide clues. Finally, following our previous three steps, we built and tested a theory about a possible initial introduction date for the design. During the last 40+ years, organized collectors have cataloged each Postal Note observed, reported, sold at auction, offered on eBay, etc. This coordinated effort, exhaustively maintained for decades by the late J. Noll, had located 1,460 Postal Notes, including 122 examples of the Type II design, by June of 2004. (Noll classified both Types II and II‐A by the Higgins & Gage number “HGOJ2,” but indicated the transitional Type II‐A notes by entering “Any M. O. Office” in lieu of a paying post office.) Noll’s 2004 compilation, his last, required more than 100,000 keystrokes – a herculean effort by any measure. Examination of the dates of issue of the notes from Noll’s original database, plus about 350 previously unreported notes through an ongoing effort by numerous individuals and contributors, has led to the development of the data in Chart Two. When studying Chart Two, be mindful that many of the notes were recorded long ago by researchers – often looking at mediocre quality black and white images faxed to them over 2.4k baud modems! (There were no affordable digital cameras, nor was there email access, nor was anyone able to attach an image to a text message because the Internet did not exist forty years ago!) Much of the data too, was likely collected and recorded on paper in cursive writing ‐‐ probably with Noll’s easily corrected #2 pencil. The number of observed and reported Postal Notes limited an in‐ depth study as well. With that in mind as more data surfaces, inconsistencies with the “old data” are to be expected, and when encountered, should be addressed and corrected if possible. We will do exactly that later in this article. Chart Two‐‐Observed Issuance Period of Postal Notes by Type Design Earliest & Latest Reported Notes Type I Sept. 3, 1883 to Feb. 26, 1885 Type II Feb. 16, 1884* to March 10, 1888 Type II‐A Jan 22, 1887** to Sept. 8, 1888 Type III Sept. 8, 1887 to June 11, 1894 Type IV Jan. 26, 1888 to May 9, 1894 Type V Feb 15, 1892 to June 30, 1894 *Earliest Type II date will be changing soon! **Earliest Type II‐A possible is January 3, 1887, the date the new law was passed. Note: Chart Two data is based on “Index of U.S. Postal Notes in Collectors Hands” Seventh Edition (2004), a census manually compiled by James E. Noll, plus subsequent input of numerous collectors and researchers through November 15, 2015. A new edition of a “census” is currently in preparation. An update of this chart will be published after the new census is completed. ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * Nov/Dec 2016 * Whole No. 306_____________________________________________________________ 433 An Unexpected Clue Last November, co‐author Kent Halland discovered a relevant piece of Postal Note data in an obscure location. While using the Google Books search engine, he found the following paragraph in “Appletons’ Annual Cyclopaedia and Register of Important Events of the Year 1887.” While the entire section on page 687 of that document is interesting to Postal Note collectors, we have highlighted the portion relevant to this article: “Postal Notes—One of the outgrowths of the money-order system, as well as a substitute for fractional currency produced by the exigencies of the civil war, is the postal note. Its aim is the utmost convenience in the payment of sums of less than $5 through the agency of the mails. The law by which the postal note was authorized was signed by the President March 3, 1883, and the issue was begun simultaneously at all money-order offices on Sept. 3, 1883. The postal note was not designed to take the place of the money- order. In the money-order the Government is responsible for the payment to the true payee, while in the case of the postal note it assumes no responsibility whatever, but pays the money to the holder, who by his possession of it is prima facia owner. A note is issued for any sum from one cent to $4.99 inclusive, and the uniform fee is three cents. The postmaster who is called upon to issue a postal note enters in the body of the note the name of the office drawn upon, and the amount. In every instance he is required to write out the full number of dollars, but may insert figures for the number of cents; and his signature must be written, not stamped. With a plyer-punch the requisite figures are canceled, and the note is ready for the sender. The postmaster must also enter in the stub of his book the amount in figures, the date of issue, and the name of the money-order office drawn upon. On April 25, 1884, a circular was sent out by the post-office department, giving notice of a new design known as the coupon order, which was issued to supersede the note of 1883. The popularity of the postal note is shown by the following statement of its growth up to the end of the fiscal year, June 30, 1886.” FISCAL YEAR. Number Issued. Value. 1884 3,689,237 (10 mos.) $ 7,411,992.48 1885 5,058,287 $ 9,996,274.37 1886 5,999,428 $11,718,010.05 Additional research found that Nicholas Bruyer had mentioned the same document in his award‐winning four‐part treatise published in the Society of Paper Money Collectors Paper Money magazine from the Fall of 1973 to May, 1974. As it turns out, a copy of the April 25, 1884 document Bruyer had mentioned was in his personal collection. It sold 37 years after publication of his articles at Heritage Auctions’ 2011 January Tampa FUN Signature Currency Auction #3512 (lot 15827.) Illustrations 3 and 4 are cropped images of the front cover and the pertinent paragraph from that document. Images of the full pages of the document can be viewed at the website. But be aware: there are two images shown for the auction lot (possibly a rear cover of a September, 1895 Official Postal Guide) that might not belong to the 1884 document! ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * Nov/Dec 2016 * Whole No. 306_____________________________________________________________ 434 Cropped image of front cover of Superintendent’s April 25, 1884 announcement. (Image courtesy of Heritage Auctions.) Cropped image from page three of Superintendent’s April 25, 1884 announcement. (Image courtesy of Heritage Auctions.) The April 25, 1884 pamphlet was distributed to postmasters at Money Order Offices to announce both the upcoming release of the “new design recently adopted,” and to provide detailed instructions to postmasters for properly remitting and paying the newly designed notes. As done with the announcement of the Type I Postal Notes in newspapers during 1883, the Post Office Department used simplified facsimile images of the new note rather than actual images in the instructional pages of the pamphlet. (We intentionally omitted the facsimile note images.) ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * Nov/Dec 2016 * Whole No. 306_____________________________________________________________ 435 There it is: Washington, D.C. officially alerted the nation’s postmasters that a new Postal Note design would be delivered “…when the present supply of each office shall have been sufficiently exhausted…” The first possible date of issue for the new design – the Type II notes ‐‐ was April 25, 1884. Although being superseded, the larger, yellow notes, known today as Type I, would continue to be valid for issuance, and the new design (Type II) would be distributed for issuance. So it is evident both Types would be in use simultaneously at different locations until existing supplies of Type I notes were exhausted. Not clearly stated in the notice: any new requisitions received for blank Postal Notes would be filled using books of Type I notes ‐‐ if such notes were held in reserve stock by the Postal Note Agency. The Money Order Offices for which there was no reserve stock would require newly printed notes to fulfill their orders. The latter offices then would be the first to receive the newly approved Type II design – the reduced size notes described in the Appletons paragraph as the “coupon order.” Referring again to Chart Two it is obvious the Postal Note Agency and some post offices had a very large quantity of the Type I notes on‐hand, or issued Type I notes at a very slow rate. We draw this conclusion because the latest known date of issuance for a Type I Postal Note extends for months AFTER the earliest known Type II survivor! So the new design, the Type II notes, were first shipped to many, but not all, of the requesting offices throughout the nation sometime around April 25th, 1884. We now have a key “official” clue to the initial introductory date of the new, smaller Postal Notes, but it is only one clue at this point. Does This Clue Confirm Recent Data? Does this new information confirm or refute previous research? And what does the current census of known Postal Notes suggest when compared with this new fact? Finally, what key piece of information is needed for all Postal Note enthusiasts to recognize April 25, 1884 as the Official first date of issue of the Type II notes? Does the newly‐located information arising from Appletons’ Cyclopaedia and the Instructions Concerning Issue and Payment of Postal Notes of the New Design confirm, or at least generally support, the data taken from the surviving notes? It does, but with ONE exception! Thousands of Type I and Type II Postal Notes were issued on a daily basis starting on the second design’s first date of public availability – which should be on or immediately after the April 25th, 1884 announcement date. Of the thousands of notes, only one reported Type II survivor seems to be dated before April 25th. It is the Pipe Stone, Minnesota, serial number 4056, dated February 16, 1884 in Jim Noll’s 2004 Index. For brevity, we will refer to this note as “#4056” hereafter. Before discussing #4056, some other significant early Type II notes need to be mentioned, all of which support our conclusion that April 25th, 1884 was the “official” first date of issue. The study of Jim Noll’s 2004 data, as well as actual notes that have surfaced since ‐‐ with particular emphasis on serial number 1 notes and change‐over dates or change‐over pairs ‐‐ yields absolute proof the new Type II notes were being issued by Money Order Offices less than one month after April 25, 1884. An important factor in our analysis of these notes is determining the average issue rate (per week) for each of the issuing post offices, then comparing them to the issuance data from Pipe Stone. This rate is shown in parenthesis below the information for each of the other early Type II notes. ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * Nov/Dec 2016 * Whole No. 306_____________________________________________________________ 436 Working in reverse chronological order, we found seven significant Type II Postal Notes: 1. The first and only serial #1 is: La Moure, Dakota Territory—Type II, #1, July 31, 1884. (Average issue rate cannot be calculated without additional data.) 2. The earliest (reported, but unconfirmed) change‐over pair is: Akron, OH—Type II #3501, June 20, 1884 Akron, OH—Type I #3500, June 19, 1884 (Average issue rate of 84 per week.) 3. The earliest known in 1974, per the second segment of Bruyer’s articles is: New York, NY —Type II #20368, June 3, 1884 (Average issue rate of 508 per week.) 4. The next earliest New York, NY is: New York, NY —Type II #20320, June 2, 1884 (Average issue rate of 508 per week.) 5. There are two locations with change‐over dates. They are: North Springfield, MO—TYPE II #501, May 23, 1884 North Springfield, MO—TYPE I #498, May 23, 1884 (Average issue rate of 13 per week.) 6. and Hartford, CT—Type II #3502, May 22, 1884 Hartford, CT—Type I #3500, May 22, 1884 (Average issue rate of 93 per week.) 7. The earliest note issued after the Superintendent’s announcement, is: Baltimore, MD—Type II #9502, May 16, 1884. (Average issue rate of 259 per week.) When Postal Notes were requisitioned by an issuing office, the time required for the Postal Note Agency to receive and fulfill the order (for Postal Notes not currently in Homer Lee’s reserve stock) is estimated to be as much as three weeks. That closely matches the lapse of time between the April 25, 1884 Superintendent’s announcement and the issue date of the Baltimore, Maryland Postal note #9502 issued May 16, 1884. (It may have survived because it was among the first of the Type II notes that Baltimore received. Has anyone seen #9501?) Why Large Money Order Offices May Not Have Received the “New” Type II Notes before Smaller Offices At the time of Bruyer’s articles, many Postal Note experts believed the first date of issue for the Type II design was on or about June 3, 1884. Most likely this theory was based on the date of issue of the earliest known Type II note: New York, NY, serial # 20368. Why? A long‐standing assumption has been the large city post offices consumed more Postal Notes and placed requisitions more often than smaller offices. Therefore these larger offices would likely receive any new types of notes before the smaller offices. We now believe that assumption was incorrect. The large post offices were actually less likely to obtain any new style notes earlier than the smaller post offices! Here’s the reason why: ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * Nov/Dec 2016 * Whole No. 306_____________________________________________________________ 437 On March 18, 1887, F. M. Cockrell, Chairman of the Select Committee of the Senate requested a report from Postmaster General William F. Vilas. The report, dated June 15, 1887, provides operations information for all departments and agencies within the Post Office Department ‐‐ including the Postal Note Agency. Although this document was produced three years after our 1884 focus time, it explains the operation of the Postal Note Agency in detail. From it we learn that at least 4,000 books of Postal Notes were kept in reserve stock to fulfill orders from the largest post offices. A table in the 1887 report shows for 1884, there were 4,865 Postal Note books ordered for reserve stock, used in part to fulfill 3,712 requisitions for 13,755 Postal Note books supplied to postmasters. We know that Postal Note books were being produced with 500 notes per book during the entire period of time prior to the 1887 report, and the data for change‐over Type II notes from North Springfield, MO and Hartford, CT does indeed confirm this. (Smaller books containing 300, 200, and 100 Postal Notes were not available until the American Bank Note Company’s contract commenced on September 3, 1887.) The following information is excerpted from the June 15, 1887 report, but with paragraph sequence changed or paragraphs and text omitted to facilitate reading. Bold text is the authors’ emphasis: THE POSTAL-NOTE AGENCY AT NEW YORK. “This agency was established in 1883 by authority of the act of March 3 of that year, and it serves as the representative of the Department, at the place where postal notes are manufactured, for the distribution thereof to postmasters. The agent is under bond for the faithful performance of his duties; is furnished, at the expense of the contractors, the Homer Lee Bank Note Company of New York, with office and desk room; and is required to see that all the stipulations of the contract are faithfully performed. To him is sent the daily order for postal notes from this office. He requires the contractors to print the necessary books, and when they are finished receives and examines them to see that they are correctly numbered and printed. He then prepares invoices and blank receipts to accompany them, and, under his direction, the books, invoices, and receipts are packed and sealed, and taken by the contractors to the post-office in New York City for transmission by registered mail. The postal-note agency acts as an intermediary between the Post-Office Department and the contractors for inspection and furnishing supplies of blank postal notes; has custody of the stock of distinctive postal-note paper; receives from the contractors' books of postal notes, and transmits the same to postmasters; and, in general, serves as the representative of the Postmaster-General at the place of business of the contractors. POSTAL NOTES. One clerk . . . is assigned to the duty of receiving requisitions from postmasters for postal notes and of making out the orders therefore upon the contractors, the Homer Lee Bank Note Company, of New York. All requisitions received each day from postmasters are arranged in alphabetical order by State, and then according to the names of the post- offices in each State, and the correctness of the consecutive numbers asked for by the postmasters is verified. The contractors are required by the terms of their contract to keep in stock, as a reserve, not less than 4,000 books of postal notes (which it has been customary to have printed for the larger offices—those that need the supplies most), and a further division of the requisition is therefore made for convenience into two parts, one containing those from offices books for which are not in reserve and must therefore ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * Nov/Dec 2016 * Whole No. 306_____________________________________________________________ 438 be printed, and the other those from offices having books in the reserve stock. The books which it is proposed to supply are charged to the respective postmasters by . . . in a set of registers containing an account with every money-order office and entries of all the consecutively-numbered postal notes ever supplied to them. The requisitions are then entered upon an "order" directing the postal-note agent at New York City to cause the books called for to be printed and mailed to the respective postmasters, and the said order furthermore contains entries of books of advance numbers to be printed and placed in the reserve stock to replace all the books ordered out of that stock. This order upon the postal-note agent is transmitted from this office daily after it is recorded by the book-keeper.” To further support our belief that the large city post offices did not receive the new notes the soonest ‐‐ because the notes came from books with pre‐assigned serial numbers in Homer Lee’s “reserve stock”, we can look to Chicago, Illinois. Quite by accident, the Chicago office issued a Type I note on the date of the Superintendent’s announcement, and another Type I almost a month later. By some quirk of fate, both notes survived: Chicago, IL ‐‐ Type I #14322, April 25, 1884. Chicago, IL ‐‐ Type I #15943, May 22, 1884. In fact, the earliest reported Chicago, IL Type II note known is #20979, dated August 16, 1884! (Chicago had an average issue rate of 420 notes per week.) Take another look at the serial numbers of the earliest known New York (#20320) and Chicago (#20979) Type II notes. They were issued from books with serial numbers beginning at “20001” and “20501” respectively. The New York note was issued from its 41st book (of 500 notes), while the Chicago note is from the 42nd book produced in New York by Homer Lee’s eponymous bank note company and delivered to it by the Postal Note Agency. The close proximity of the serial numbers made us wonder: Did these massive cities receive 20 books (10,000 notes) of Type I notes before the September 3, 1883 inaugural date? And did the Postal Note Agency dutifully place another 20 books of Type I notes for each into its reserve? Based on a brief article in the August 24, 1883 Daily Los Angeles Herald, we believe that’s exactly what happened. (The author cited an incorrect amount for a note’s maximum value and neglected to say the purchaser had to select the Money Order Office.) That article proves that nearly 20,000 Type I Postal Notes had to be issued by the New York office (and, by extension, the nation’s other major cities) before it could receive its first delivery of the new Type II design! (Authors Note: The quantity of Postal Notes held in reserve by the Postal Note Agency was proportional to the “size” of each Money Order office, so the reserve could range anywhere from 10,000 notes to as few as 500.) The New Postal Notes New York, Aug. 23. – The Evening Post says: The Postoffice (sic) here has received the new postal notes in books of 500 each, to the number of 10,000, and will be ready to issue them at the date fixed by the Department, September 3, 1883. None can be issued before this date. The largest sum for which any single certificate or note can be issued is four dollars and ninety cents, and are good on presentation to any money order office in the United States. They will be paid to bearer thereof without identification or questions asked, at any time within three months after the date of the issue. They will also be redeemed by the same office that issued them, thus making them negotiable as currency in same city where made. ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * Nov/Dec 2016 * Whole No. 306_____________________________________________________________ 439 The Key to Solving the Mystery: Pipe Stone, Minnesota #4056 Based on the evidence presented so far, and while expressing our deep respect for, and appreciation of Jim Noll’s efforts, the authors believe either some information he received was illegible or incorrect, or he erred when entering the Pipe Stone #4056 data into his database. (Other, similar errors in his database have previously been located and corrected based on study of notes that have re‐surfaced, or our study of notes with adjacent serial numbers.) In support of this belief, we offer the following arguments: 1) If #4056 is indeed a Type II note and is indeed dated Feb 16, 1884, why or how was it issued before the April 25, 1884 Superintendent’s announcement? Would Postmaster‐General Gresham or Superintendent MacDonald allow delivery of the all‐new Type II Postal Notes to a Money Order Office in rural Southwestern Minnesota (or anyplace else) more than two months before distributing instructions for their issue and payment? Doing so would invite confusion and mistakes in Pipe Stone and among the 6,000+ Money Order Offices in operation at the time! Clearly, the intention of the April 25th announcement was to make all postmasters aware of the upcoming design change to avoid as many mistakes as possible when issuing or paying the new notes. We believe it is highly unlikely any Type II Postal Notes were shipped by the Postal Note Agency in advance of the announcement. 2) Perhaps the #4056 serial number was typed incorrectly and it was really #405, #406 or #456? In each of those cases, the note’s serial number would be under 500, and therefore must be a Type I because the Post Office Department was only delivering Postal Notes in books containing 500 notes! (Pipe Stone was a Money Order office in operation on September 3, 1883, and therefore, would have received its book of 500 Type I Postal Notes before that date.) 3) The most plausible explanation is the date of issue for #4056 in Noll’s Index is in error because the serial number and date listed for this note result in a nearly impossible statistical aberration when calculating Pipe Stone’s “Average Weekly Issue Rate.” An analysis of #4056 data as it exists in Noll’s Index, yields an issue rate of an astounding 170 Postal Notes per week between September 3, 1883 and February 16, 1884! This is more than that of either Hartford, CT or Akron, OH – much larger cities! To put this data in perspective, we compare the town of Pipe Stone with a nearby town also issuing Postal Notes during the same period—namely, Sioux Falls, Dakota Territory, a town EIGHT TIMES the size of Pipe Stone, and less than fifty miles distant. Sioux Falls was also a Money Order office on September 3, 1883, so both towns began issuing Postal Notes on the inaugural date of the series. The U.S. Census records indicate Pipe Stone, Minnesota had a population of 222 in 1880 and 1,232 in 1890. By comparison, Sioux Falls, Dakota Territory’s population was 2,162 in 1880 and 10,177 in 1890 when known as Sioux Falls, South Dakota. (The Dakota Territory became North and South Dakota when entering the Union in 1889.) Both towns grew at roughly the same rate (five‐fold) during the 1880’s. A reported and recently confirmed Type II Postal Note #7834 was issued on February 23, 1887 at Sioux Falls, Dakota. This serial number and date combination provide an average issue rate of only 43 Postal Notes per week between September, 1883 and February, 1887. The highest serial number Postal Note known and verified from Pipe Stone, MN is #11378, issued December 30, 1893. Doing the math for this note yields a more realistic average issue rate of 21 Postal Notes per week between September 3, 1883 and December 30, 1893. ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * Nov/Dec 2016 * Whole No. 306_____________________________________________________________ 440 If we do the math “backwards” (using simple algebraic manipulation) for #4056 but substitute the average issue rate derived from Pipe Stone #11378, we can approximate the week number that #4056 was likely issued (using September 3, 1883 as week 1). The calculation predicts #4056 was issued sometime around the 192nd week, or May, 1887, more than a three year difference from the date in Noll’s Index! Allowing for a small amount of variation from the predicted date (perhaps three of four months in either direction), it is plausible the note could have been issued on February 16, 1887. This analysis supports the authors’ premise that #4056 was issued in 1887 rather than 1884, and Mr. Noll simply typed a “4” instead of a “7” when entering the date into his database ‐‐ a common ten‐key data entry error all of us have made at one time or another! 4) Finally (after this article had been through several drafts), we located records of postmasters for Pipe Stone, Minnesota. Postmaster D. E. Sweet served from November, 1877 until November 15, 1886, and postmaster John Stuart served from November 15, 1886 to January 23, 1890. The name of the postmaster who signed #4056 is listed as John Stuart in Noll’s Index, so this is irrefutable evidence that the date recorded for #4056, February 16, 1884 in Noll’s Index must be incorrect! The typographical error in Noll’s 2004 Index for the Pipe Stone #4056 date means the earliest Type II Postal Note for inclusion in Chart Two will become the note #9502, issued in Baltimore on May 16, 1884. This note is shown below. This Baltimore Type II note #9502, issued for one cent and payable at Towson, MD, is very likely the 2nd note from a new book based on its serial number. Perhaps the postmaster saved this note and its predecessor as souvenirs from the first booklet containing the “new type” of Postal Note issued in Baltimore. Has anyone seen Baltimore #9501? (Image courtesy of Heritage Auctions.) If you happen to have a copy of Jim Noll’s Index, you should place a notation adjacent to Pipe Stone, MN #4056 indicating the date is incorrect. Conclusion After 40 years of research, we believe the mystery of the “Official first date of issue” of the Type II Postal Note design has been solved! The date will be hereinafter be recognized as April 25, 1884, based on the documents in existence, the Postal Notes we have verified by inspection, and the evidence that shows the date for #4056 in Jim Noll’s Index is incorrect. Moreover, the Type II Postal Note #9502 from Baltimore, MD issued May 16, 1884 will replace Pipe Stone #4056 as the earliest known Type II note until it is replaced by a Type II Postal Note dated earlier. Unless Pipe Stone, Minnesota #4056 surfaces, we cannot be 100% certain of its date. We invite readers, collectors, researchers, and sleuths to help us locate the missing Postal Note so we can enter the correct date in the updated “census” currently in preparation. If you know the whereabouts of Pipe Stone #4056, please contact us. ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * Nov/Dec 2016 * Whole No. 306_____________________________________________________________ 441 About the Authors Kent Halland collects and researches unusual numismatic items including Postal Notes of 1883‐1894 and Money Orders of 1864‐1900. You can contact him at Charles Surasky is the author of numerous articles related to Postal Notes. You can contact him at Additional Reading “Index of U.S. Postal Notes in Collectors Hands” Seventh Edition (2004) compiled by James E. Noll “A Forgotten Chapter: The United States Postal Note”, by Nicholas Bruyer Paper Money, Vol. 12, No. 4, whole no. 48, pages 171‐178; Paper Money, Vol. 13, No.1, whole no. 49, pages 20‐29; Paper Money, Vol. 13, No. 2, whole no. 50, pages70‐76; Paper Money, Vol. 13, No. 3, whole no. 51, pages 109‐111; Coin World Almanac, Eighth Edition. Pages 239‐240. “The First and Last Postal Notes 1883‐1894”, by Charles Surasky Paper Money, Vol. 23, No. 5, whole no. 167, pages 154‐157 “Redeemed Postal Notes: Great Rarities" by Charles Surasky Paper Money, Vol. 47, No. 6, whole no. 258, pages 440‐451 “The U.S. Postal Notes of 1883‐1894: The Three Key Pieces of Federal Legislation”, Charles Surasky, 2011 “The Comprehensive Catalog of U.S. Paper Money,” fifth edition. Gene Hessler. Pages 387‐389. Postal Notes ‐ The First Issues 1883‐94, by Peter Martin, pp 306‐332 of book entitled Pacific 97 Handbook, World Philatelic Exhibition, The Congress Book 1997, Sixty‐Third American Philatelic Congress, June 7, 1997. “Priced Catalogue of Postal Stationery of the World” (popularly called the “Higgins & Gage Catalog.”) Section 18, pages 44‐45. Google Books: “Appletons’ Annual Cyclopaedia and Register of Important Events of the Year 1887.”, NEW SERIES, VOL. XII, WHOLE SERIES, VOL. XXVII., published by D. Appleton and Company, 1, 8, and 5 Bond Street, New York, 1888. Senate Report 507, Part 3, 50th Congress, 1st Session, March, 1888 entitled REPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE OF THE UNITED STATES SENATE. Published by the Government Printing Office, Washington D.C., 1888 “An illustrated history of the counties of Rock and Pipestone, MN”, Arthur P. Rose, NORTHERN HISTORY PUSLISHING COMPANY, LUVERNE, MINNESOTA, PUBLISHERS, 1911 (page 320) ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * Nov/Dec 2016 * Whole No. 306_____________________________________________________________ 442 Lyn Knight Currency Auct ions If you are buying notes... You’ll find a spectacular selection of rare and unusual currency offered for sale in each and every auction presented by Lyn Knight Currency Auctions. Our auctions are conducted throughout the year on a quarterly basis and each auction is supported by a beautiful “grand format” catalog, featuring lavish descriptions and high quality photography of the lots. Annual Catalog Subscription (4 catalogs) $50 Call today to order your subscription! 800-243-5211 If you are selling notes... Lyn Knight Currency Auctions has handled virtually every great United States currency rarity. We can sell all of your notes! Colonial Currency... Obsolete Currency... Fractional Currency... Encased Postage... Confederate Currency... United States Large and Small Size Currency... National Bank Notes... Error Notes... Military Payment Certificates (MPC)... as well as Canadian Bank Notes and scarce Foreign Bank Notes. We offer: Great Commission Rates Cash Advances Expert Cataloging Beautiful Catalogs Call or send your notes today! If your collection warrants, we will be happy to travel to your location and review your notes. 800-243-5211 Mail notes to: Lyn Knight Currency Auctions P.O. Box 7364, Overland Park, KS 66207-0364 We strongly recommend that you send your material via USPS Registered Mail insured for its full value. Prior to mailing material, please make a complete listing, including photocopies of the note(s), for your records. We will acknowledge receipt of your material upon its arrival. If you have a question about currency, call Lyn Knight. He looks forward to assisting you. 800-243-5211 - 913-338-3779 - Fax 913-338-4754 Email: - support@lynknight.c om Whether you’re buying or selling, visit our website: Fr. 379a $1,000 1890 T.N. Grand Watermelon Sold for $1,092,500 Fr. 183c $500 1863 L.T. Sold for $621,000 Fr. 328 $50 1880 S.C. Sold for $287,500 Lyn Knight Currency Auctions Deal with the Leading Auction Company in United States Currency A Great Note Finally Obtained: The Earliest Surviving Confederate Note A Somewhat Frequent Series on Wonderfully Historic Confederate Notes by Steve Feller In April 1982 I was the under bidder for a Type Three (T-3) $100 Confederate States “Montgomery” note. The lot went for $446.25 with juice in a NASCA auction. At the time I was a newly minted assistant professor of physics at Coe College in Cedar Rapids, Iowa and my salary then was not sufficient to allow me to get into a bidding war. The note was worn and damaged but it had a few extra special things going for it including serial number 6. It was dated April 5, 1861. Fast forward 34 years and I’m in the phased retirement portion of my career. Just recently on August 13, 2016 the same note sold for almost 20 times what it went for in my youth. This time it has joined my collection. T-3 with Serial Number 6 This T-3 is dated April 5, 1861, the first day the CSA signed notes. ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * Nov/Dec 2016 * Whole No. 306_____________________________________________________________ 443 The T-3 note has a wonderful vignette featuring a vintage train. Stack’s Bowers described the note as follows: T-3. Confederate Currency. 1861 $100. PCGS Fine 12 Apparent. Repaired Splits, Upper Left Corner Replaced. No. 6, Plate A. This is the lowest recorded serial number of any T-3 according to the census in "Collecting Confederate Paper Money" by Pierre Fricke. It is also the third lowest serial number of all recorded Montgomery’s. This example was issued from New Orleans on April 20th, 1861 by N.J. Delaplaine. The note was later redeemed at the Custom House in New Orleans where the sum of $100.55, being principal and interest, was paid to the holder as seen by the large stamp on the back. A large stamp cancellation is seen on the face reading "CANCELLED BY F.H. HATCHER, COLLECTOR N. ORLEANS." The green tint remains strong on this note despite the level of circulation and repairs mentioned by the grading service. Bold blue stamped serial number 6s are seen at left and right making this a noteworthy yet affordable key note for the Confederate type set. From the Old Virginia Collection. Certainly this is a fair description but it is by no means complete. Let us delve deeper. An invaluable resource to any collector of Confederate States notes is the small book Register of the Confederate Debt by Raphael P. Thian first published in 1880 under a longer title but reprinted with the shorter title by Quarterman Press in 1972. In it the author lists every serial combination with signers that were known to the author from the so-called Rebel Archives held in Washington, D.C. Included in this are the serials signed for the Montgomery’s as well as the dates that these notes were signed. Below is a scan of the relevant section of Thian’s book: ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * Nov/Dec 2016 * Whole No. 306_____________________________________________________________ 444 ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * Nov/Dec 2016 * Whole No. 306_____________________________________________________________ 445 We see that the very first signing of Confederate notes took place on April 5, 1861-the same date that is on my new note. On that date just nineteen T-3s and five T-4s were signed. This a modest start for the new nation and summed to just $2150 in face value. By the end of the war the total would be on the order of billions of dollars issued. It is easy to confirm that my newly obtained note squarely falls in the beginning part of that very first day’s signed lot of notes. Interestingly the Decorah Republican a weekly Iowa newspaper reported on the first issue of the Confederate Treasury Notes. On April 10, 1861 the paper had this small article: Montgomery, April 4, 1861 Treasury Notes of Confederate States were issued to-day. The first bonds of one thousand dollars sold at 20 percent premium. The reported date, curiously was given as one day before the actual one listed in Thian and confirmed in the image of my T-3 serial #6 $100 dollar note. Furthermore, according to Pierre Fricke’s census published in his recent book on Confederate Notes, Collecting Confederate Paper Money: Field Edition 2014 only three notes from the first day of signing have survived. These are serials 6, 12, and 16 of T-3. No T-4 notes are known to have survived from the first day of signing. Thus, my note illustrated above is the lowest surviving serial note from the first day the Confederacy signed and issued its currency notes! Wayne Hilton’s wonderful new book Collecting Confederate Currency: Hobby and Investment, Volume One: Criswell Types 1-4, “The Magnificent Montgomery’s” (2012) has a most interesting chapter on the intrigues involved in the printing of the Montgomery’s. Basically the first printing of 607 sheets of the T-1,T-2,T-3, andT-4 notes were legally obtained from the National Bank Note Company of New York City as it arrived in Montgomery on April 2, 1861 ten days before hostilities broke out at Fort Sumter. After the attack on Fort Sumter President Lincoln established a blockade on goods going from the North to the South. The second issue of 1000 sheets of T-3 and T-4 notes arrived in the Confederate capital on May 3, 1861 well after the civil war commenced and just barely made it out of New York at that. Bonds and stocks printed in the North were, in fact, confiscated around that time. We further learn that the early Montgomery’s were sent out in smallish batches to various Southern cities with $10,000 sent to New Orleans. The serial 6 note that is the focus of this discussion was likely one of these notes as interest commenced on this note when issued from New Orleans on April 20, 1861, at one cent per day. It was subsequently redeemed 55 days later on June 14, 1861 when the note was paid off for $100.55 as seen on the back of the note shown below. As can be seen below the principal and interest were paid at the New Orleans Custom House. ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * Nov/Dec 2016 * Whole No. 306_____________________________________________________________ 446 The Custom House in New Orleans circa 1892 (Wikipedia) What was happening in the run up to the civil war on the day the note was signed? The New York times is now running excerpts from the diary of George Templeton Strong (1820 – July 21, 1875). Wikipedia notes that he “was an American lawyer and diarist. His 2,250-page diary, discovered in the 1930s, provides a striking personal account of life in the 19th century, especially during the events of the American civil war…” From his entry of April 5, 1861 we read: No material change in public affairs, or if any, for the worse. Secession fever certainly gaining in Virginia. Rumors of a projected outbreak or revolutionary coup d’etat at Richmond. A dash at Washington is again talked of as likely to be tried. Then, of course, comes war, at once, and on what seems a tolerably plain case — bloodshed in an open rebellion against both state and federal authority. But would even this aggression stiffen up the spiritless, money-worshipping North? Strange the South can’t kick us into manliness and a little moderate wrath. Southerners rule us through our white slaves of Fifth Avenue and Wall Street. There are symptoms of a decisive move by the Administration. Great stir in army and navy. Governor’s Island, Fort Hamilton, and Brooklyn Navy Yard full of business. Troops moving, no one knows whither. Ships getting ready for sea in hot haste and sailing with sealed orders, some say for Fort Pickens (Pensacola), and others for Fort Sumter. Abandonment of Fort Sumter is not determined on, according to present reports; and Pensacola is to be reinforced anyhow. Bellicose rumors abound today. Colonel Keese and Colonel Henry Scott were off early this morning, I hear. Curtis tells me they were very doleful and despondent half an hour or so at Dr. Van Buren’s Thursday evening party. Forsyth, one of the “C.S.A.” Commissioners, was expected, but was summoned to Washington by his colleagues yesterday afternoon. All this looks as if things were coming to a crisis. Virginia will secede within three months. Amen! We cannot live together. Her dictatorial arrogance is unbearable. Let her go in peace, if that be possible. As it happened it was not possible and over 600,000 Americans lost their lives in the most tragic of American wars. The serial number 6 T-3 note was there at the beginning and as the earliest surviving Confederate note it is a most significant piece of American history. It was worth the wait. ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * Nov/Dec 2016 * Whole No. 306_____________________________________________________________ 447 | 877-PMG-5570 United States | Switzerland | Germany | Hong Kong | China | South Korea | Singapore | Taiwan | Japan THE CHOICE IS CLEAR Introducing the New PMG Holder PMG’s new holder provides museum-quality display, crystal-clear optics and long-term preservation. Enhance the eye appeal of your notes with the superior clarity of the PMG holder, and enjoy peace of mind knowing that your priceless rarities have the best protection. Learn more at 16-CCGPA-2889_PMG_Ad_NewHolder_PaperMoney_JulyAug2016.indd 1 5/27/16 8:12 AM B. Lask, Huntsville, Alabama, 1862  by David Hollander  The Huntsville, Alabama, B. Lask Store Scrip  issue  is different, very different, from any other Huntsville  scrip. Only a single survivor exists and  little  is known about  its history. The piece was Lot 18442 of the  Heritage Auctions Sale 3541, January 6‐12, 2016, and sold for $1,762.50 (including buyer’s fee) from the  estate of Robert Cochran to a Huntsville collector.  Figure  1:  The  front  of  the  ONLY  Known  Surviving  B.  Lask  Huntsville  Note  is  an  eye‐catcher.  The paper is finer, the printing has different fonts, the green color is unusual, and the fact that the back  is printed is scarce for Alabama scrip. Because Mr. Lask worked out of Cincinnati, Ohio, one may assume  that  it was printed  in that area. The barrel of “French Brandy” on the right  is  incompatible with a Dry  Goods Store and may have represented his subconscious aspirations.  Figure 2: The Back of the  B.  Lask  note  Is  Finely  Engraved.  Who was B. Lask? Did he have a dry goods business in Huntsville called “Market Square”?   Mr. Benno Lask was born  in Czempin, Prussia  (now Poland, between Berlin and Warsaw) on April 30,  1834. His father was Louis; his mother, Charlotte.  Records  indicate  that he arrived  in New York City aboard  the ship Hermann  (Ocean Steam Navigation  Co.) from Bremen, Germany, on August 30, 18551. Apparently, he returned home for a visit because he  left Hamburg, Germany, on November 14, 1860, and arrived again  in New York City via Southampton,  England, aboard the ship Saxonia (Hamburg‐American) on December 7, 18602. The 1860 United States  Census reports Mr. Lask as a resident of 744 Ludlow Avenue, Cincinnati, Ohio, and lists his occupation as  a merchant. (There is some inconsistency in the census data.)  ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * Nov/Dec 2016 * Whole No. 306_____________________________________________________________ 450 Mr. Lask may have learned of Huntsville opportunities from Solomon Schiffman, who lived in Cincinnati  for several years prior to going to Huntsville and opening a dry goods and clothing store on the north  side of the downtown square. He formed a partnership with his brother, Daniel, in 1860, “S. Schiffman  and Co.”3 However,  it  is not clear what the name of Mr. Schiffman’s store was because the 1859‐1860  Huntsville Directory does not contain his name. (Doris Kirschtein and Marsha Kass Marks note that Jews  moved  from Cincinnati  to Huntsville after  the Civil War.4) There  is no mention of “Disharoon’s Store”  (indicated on the scrip) although a number of Clothing and Dry Good’s stores are listed5   Huntsville succumbed  to the Union Forces on April 11, 1862.6 The citizens were very  likely devastated  that  it happened so early  in the war. (On the other hand, the current population  is pleased that there  was little destruction because today’s Huntsville has more antebellum houses than Alexandria, Virginia.)   Naturally, the situation set the stage for the entry of the Yankee Carpetbaggers, who hoped to capitalize  on the basic shortages, panic, and high prices caused by the northern interlopers. On July 3,1862, while  staying at the Huntsville Hotel, Mr. Lask petitioned (Figure 3) the Provost Marshal, Lt. Col. S. W. Burke,  of the Union Army in Huntsville to be allowed to open a dry goods store in Huntsville.7   It  is  unknown  if  the  petition  was  successful.  The  only  known  surviving  note  related  to Mr.  Lask’s  Huntsville business ideas [shown in Figures 1 (the front) and 2 (the back)] is dated August 25, 1862, not  two months after the petition. Maybe this note was a printer’s proof or a customer sample. Possibly it  was ordered while the petition was being considered. The rarity of the note and the high grade of this  specimen lead one to believe it was never produced in quantity and never used in trade.  Figure 3: Mr. Lask petitioned  the Union Provost  Marshal  to  open  a  dry  goods  and  ladies'  shoe  store in Huntsville.  ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * Nov/Dec 2016 * Whole No. 306_____________________________________________________________ 451 In any case, because of the withdrawal of the Union troops August 31, 18628, Mr. Lask’s plans may have  been thwarted, and he may have been forced to seek his fortunes elsewhere. Without protection none  of the Yankee Carpetbaggers would have enjoyed staring at the faces of unhospitable Southerners.  The 1865 and 1866 Directories of Nashville, Tennessee, list Mr. Lask’s business address as 8 South Union.  His merchandise included “Dry Goods, Boots, Notions, etc.”9   During  the same period  (October 1865 and October 1866)  there are  two  IRS Tax Assessments  for Mr.  Lask originating in Rome, GA. Most likely, these were for his Nashville inventory.10  On September 6, 1864, Mr. Lask was naturalized and became an American citizen and on June 4, 1867,  Mr.  Lask married  Ellen  Falk  (born  in  Pennsylvania  on  January  1,  1842,  and  died May  15,  1914)  in  Manhattan, New York.11 They lived at various addresses in New York City (including 322 East 67th Street)  with  their  seven  children  (Louis, Moses, Charles,  Lottie, Bertha, Albert, and Fredrick), other  relatives,  and a servant.12  Mr. Lask filed an application for a United States Passport on September 24, 1869 (Figure 4), in which it  was noted that he was 5’ 2” tall, had gray eyes, black hair and a dark complexion.13  When comparing  the signature on  the Application  (Figure 4) with  that on  the Petition  (Figure 3) with  that on  the Store  Scrip (Figure 1), it is apparent that the signature on the Store Scrip is very different from the other two.  Therefore, the Store Scrip was signed probably by someone other than Mr. Benno Lask.  There is one Tennessee Supreme Court Case involving Mr. Lask: 1881, A. & J. Trounstine et als vs B. Lask  et als, Debt Dispute.  Mr. Lask moved to Manhattan, New York, probably in the late 1860’s. He spent the last 25+ years of his  life in the liquor business, thereby achieving his possible subliminal dream indicated in the note’s barrel  of “French Brandy” (Figure 1).   There are a number of New York City directory listings for him:14  1. 1875, Liquors, 99 Liberty Street; home 874 Lexington Avenue 2. 1876, Liquors, 92 Liberty Street; home 160 E 66th Street 3. 1879, Wine, 92 Liberty Street; home 160 E 66th Street 4. 1883, Liquors, 92 Liberty Street; home 318 E 69th Street 5. 1886, Liquors, 92 Liberty Street; home 318 E 69th Street 6. 1888, Liquors, 92 Liberty Street; home 318 E 69th Street 7. 1890, Clerk, 318 E 69th Street and Berthold Lask, Clerk; home 327 E 68th Street 8. 1894, home 318 E 69th Street; living with Anna Lask and Pauline Lask 9. 1899,  home  318  E  69th Street;  Louis  Lask,  Jeweler,  home  114  E  107th Street  and Men’s Furnishings, 1934 3rd Avenue 10. 1900, Clerk; home 318 E 69th Street (listed as Bernhard Lask). Mr. Lask appears in the Report of Delinquent Jurors (Number 10631) for the Quarter ending March 31,  1901, showing that his $100.00 fine was “Remitted” on February 4, 1901.15  ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * Nov/Dec 2016 * Whole No. 306_____________________________________________________________ 452 Figure 4: Application for passport with description of Mr. Benno Lask stating he was short and had a  dark complexion.  ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * Nov/Dec 2016 * Whole No. 306_____________________________________________________________ 453 Mr. Benno Lask died in Manhattan on July 6, 1904 and was buried in Washington Cemetery, the largest  Jewish cemetery  in Brooklyn, New York.16  He was a  Jewish, Prussian,  immigrant  to  the United States,  who  lived  in  Cincinnati,  Ohio,  Nashville,  Tennessee,  and  New  York  City,  New  York.  He  became  a  naturalized American citizen, married, and had seven children. He operated a liquor store in Manhattan  and intended to open a Dry Goods store in Huntsville, Alabama, in 1862. Not only is it unknown if more  than a single note of the B. Lask Store Scrip was printed or used, but also there is no evidence that the  store ever existed.  1 "New York Passenger Lists, 1820‐1891," database with images, FamilySearch  (‐F36 : accessed 23 February 2016), B Lask, 1855; citing NARA  microfilm publication M237 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.); FHL microfilm.  2 "United States Germans to America Index, 1850‐1897," database, FamilySearch  (‐P32 : accessed 23 February 2016), B. Lask, 07 Dec 1860; citing  Germans to America Passenger Data file, 1850‐1897, Ship Saxonia, departed from Hamburg & Southampton,  arrived in New York, New York, New York, United States, NAID identifier 1746067, National Archives at College  Park, Maryland.  3 Hanaw, Margaret Ann Goldsmith, 5 GENERATIONS OF LIFE: “MY FAMILY AND THE HUNTSVILLE, ALABAMA JEWISH  COMMUNITY” 1852‐1982, The Huntsville Historical Review, Volume 12, July‐October 1982, Numbers 3 & 4, Page 9.  4 Kirschtein, Doris, and Marsha Kass Marks, IN RETROSPECT: ONE HUNDRED YEARS OF REFORM JUDAISM IN  HUNTSVILLE, The Huntsville Historical Review, Volume 5, October 1975, Number 4, Page 4.  5 Huntsville Directory, City Guide, and Business Mirror, Volume I.‐1859‐’60, Huntsville: Coltart & Son, No. 10  Commercial Row, 1859.  6 Betts, Edward Chambers, HISTORIC HUNTSVILLE FROM EARLY HISTORY OF HUNTSVILLE, ALABAMA 1804‐1870,  Southern University Press, Birmingham, Alabama, Reprinted 1966, page 96.  7 U.S., Union Provost Marshals’ Papers, 1861‐1867.  8 Rice, Charles, HARD TIMES, THE CIVIL WAR IN HUNTSVILLE AND NORTH ALABAMA, 1861‐1865, Boaz Printing, Inc.,  Boaz, Alabama, Copyright 1994, page 120.  9 U. S. City Directories, 1822‐1995 (database on‐line). Provo, UT, USA: Operations, Inc.,  2011.  10 U. S. IRS Tax Assessments Lists, 1862‐1918 (database on‐line). Provo, UT, USA:  Operations Inc., 2008.  11 "New York Marriages, 1686‐1980," database, FamilySearch (‐DGL :  accessed 23 February 2016), Benno Lask and Ellen Falk, 04 Jun 1867; citing reference; FHL microfilm 1,544,027.  12 "United States Census, 1880," database with images, FamilySearch  (‐NJ5 : accessed 23 February 2016), Benno Lask, New York, New  York, New York, United States; citing enumeration district ED 616, sheet 96B, NARA microfilm publication T9  (Washington D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.), roll 0897; FHL microfilm 1,254,897.  13 National Archives and Records Administration (NARA); Washington, DC; NARA Series: Passport Applications,  1795‐1905, Roll#: 163‐01Sep1869‐31Dec1969.  14 Op. Cit., U. S. City Directories.  15 Whalen, John, Corporation Counsel, The City of New York Law Department Report for Quarter Ending March 31,  1901, New York: Martin R. Brown Company, Printers and Stationers, Nos. 49 to 57 Park Place, 1901, page 515.  16 "New York, New York City Municipal Deaths, 1795‐1949," database, FamilySearch  (‐QCG : accessed 23 February 2016), Benno Lask, 06 Jul 1904; citing  Death, Manhattan, New York, New York, United States, New York Municipal Archives, New York; FHL microfilm  1,323,056.  ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * Nov/Dec 2016 * Whole No. 306_____________________________________________________________ 454 Whitman Encyclopedia of Obsolete Paper Money The eighth volume of Q. David Bowers’s multiple- book Whitman Encyclopedia of Obsolete Paper Money studies in great detail the bank notes of Delaware, District of Columbia, Maryland, and Virginia. Bowers gives historical narrative for every town, city, and bank involved in producing notes from 1792–1866; note-by-note values in multiple grades, current rarity levels, significant auction results, and other market data based on ongoing research; full-color images, and more. Volume 8 is the third and final book on the South Atlantic states. Earlier volumes studied New England in similar detail, and subsequent volumes will cover the Mid-Atlantic and Midwest states. To order, please call toll-free: 1-800-546-2995 Online: Email: Mention code V8 at checkout to receive FREE SHIPPING Offer valid through 12/31/16 672 pages • Hardcover $69.95 Available December 2016 Don’t Forget to Catch Up on Previous Volumes TODAY! Volume 8 South Atlantic, Part 3: Delaware, District of Columbia, Maryland, and Virginia Volume 1 $39.95 An Introduction for Collectors and Historians Volume 2 $49.95 New England, Part 1: Connecticut, Maine, and New Hampshire Volume 3 $69.95 New England, Part 2: Massachusetts, Book 1 – Abington to Greenfield Volume 4 $69.95 New England, Part 2: Massachusetts, Book 2 – Hallowell to Yarmouth Volume 5 $69.95 New England, Part 3: Rhode Island and Vermont Volume 7 $69.95 South Atlantic, Part 2: Alabama, Arkansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Tennessee and Texas Volume 6 $69.95 South Atlantic, Part 1: Florida, Georgia, North Carolina and South Carolina O BSO LET E PA PER M O N EY WHITMAN ENCYCLOPEDIA OF INTRODUCTION 1 The Whitman Encyclopedia of Obsolete Paper Money is a multiple-volume study of currency issued from 1782 to 1866, before the modern era of National Banks and the Federal Reserve. Over the course of these decades more than 3,000 state-chartered banks issued their own paper money. In this magisterial set of standard references, the “Dean of American Numismatics,” Q. David Bowers, has compiled decades of research from 18th- and 19th-century bank reports, contemporary newspapers, and other primary sources. He gives the history of every state, every town and city, and every bank that issued this uniquely American currency. Each note is studied, and thousands are pictured in full color, with information on grading, rarity, values, significant auction results, advice for collectors, and more. The Whitman Encyclopedia of Obsolete Paper Money is a project of grand scope, a gathering of stories about our nation—from small town to big city, from the early days following the Revolution to the tribulations of the Civil War. It paints a beautifully detailed landscape of America and its early money. Volume 1 is the beginning of the journey: an introduction to obsolete paper money and an overview of the hobby. “Bowers’s accomplishments in the field of numismatics are legendary. Every serious collector and dealer of obsolete paper money will find this vital reference the backbone to his or her collection or business.” --- C. John Ferreri, numismatic researcher and historian Inside volume 1: Collecting and enjoying obsolete bank notes • The anatomy of a bank note • Banks and notes, 1782–1866 • Bank-note engravers and printers • A study of vignettes and ornaments • Counterfeit, spurious, and altered notes • Glossary • Bibliography • Detailed index $39.95 / $43.80 Canada Volume 1: An Introduction for Collectors and Historians An Introduction for Collectors and Historians FOREWORD BY C. JOHN FERRERI O BSO LET E PA PER M O N EY WHITMAN ENCYCLOPEDIA OF New England, Part 1 Connecticut, Maine, and New Hampshire 2 The Whitman Encyclopedia of Obsolete Paper Money is a multiple-volume study of currency issued by American banks from 1782 to 1866, before the modern era of National Banks and the Federal Reserve. In volume 2, the “Dean of American Numismatics,” Q. David Bowers, has compiled decades of research from 18th- and 19th-century bank reports, contemporary newspapers, and other primary sources. He gives the history of every town and city, as well as of every bank that issued this uniquely American currency in the New England states of Connecticut, Maine, and New Hampshire. Each note is studied, and thousands are pictured in full color, with information on grading, rarity, values, significant auction results, advice for collectors, and more. The Whitman Encyclopedia of Obsolete Paper Money is a monumental work. Essential for collectors, it is equally valuable for American historians. Volume 2 is an immersion in the life of New England and our nation from the Revolution to the Civil War. More than 140 towns and cities, 300-plus banks, and nearly 6,000 individual notes Volume 2: New England, Part 1: Connecticut, Maine, and New Hampshire New England, Part 1: Connecticut, Maine, and New Hampshire FOREWORD BY FRED REED $39.95 / $43.80 Canada Inside volume 2: How to use this book • The obsolete bank notes of Connecticut, Maine, and New Hampshire, including Proofs, remainders, and uncut sheets, and counterfeit, spurious, and altered notes • Glossary • Bibliography • Detailed index “Destined to become a landmark event in the unfolding history of U.S. paper money collecting. These works should be on the shelves of our institutions of higher education and in historical societies of all the states covered.” --- Fred Reed, editor, Paper Money Magazine ZT40078-0314 FOREWORD BY ANNE E. BENTLEY New England, Part 2: Massachusetts, Book 2 Hallowell to Yarmouth 74 towns and cities from Hallowell to Yarmouth, 162 banks, and 4,500 individual notes Volume 4: New England, Part 2: Massachusetts, Book 2 Hallowell to Yarmouth $69.95 / $76.59 Canada Printed in China The Whitman Encyclopedia of Obsolete Paper Money is a multiple-volume study of currency issued by American banks from 1782 to 1866, before the modern era of National Banks and the Federal Reserve. In volume 4, the “Dean of American Numismatics,” Q. David Bowers, has compiled decades of research from 18th- and 19th-century bank reports, contemporary newspapers, and other primary sources. He gives the history of every bank that issued this uniquely American currency in the New England state of Massachusetts, from Hallowell to Yarmouth (volume 3 covers Abington to Greenfield). Each note is studied, and more than 800 are pictured in full color, with information on grading, rarity, values, significant auction results, advice for collectors, and more. The Whitman Encyclopedia of Obsolete Paper Money is a monumental work. Essential for collectors, it is equally valuable for American historians. Volume 4 is an immersion in the life of New England and our nation from the Revolution to the Civil War. “A new and eagerly awaited series, the Whitman Encyclopedia of Obsolete Paper Money is a treasure trove of information, vivid illustrations, and key data illuminating the wonderfully decorative and colorful currency issued by American banks from 1782 to 1866.” — Anne E. Bentley, curator, Massachusetts Historical Society Inside volume 4: How to use this book • The obsolete bank notes of Massachusetts, from Hallowell to Yarmouth, including Proofs, remainders, and uncut sheets, and counterfeit, spurious, and altered notes • Glossary • Bibliography • Detailed index O BSO LET E PA PER M O N EY New England, Part 2 Massachusetts, Book 2 Hallowell to Yarmouth 4 WHITMAN ENCYCLOPEDIA OF Cover_ObsoletePaper_V4.indd 1 10/13/14 9:30 AM FOREWORD BY MICHELE ORZANO New England, Part 3: Rhode Island and Vermont 104 towns and cities, 267 banks, and 5,044 individual notes Volume 5: New England, Part 3: Rhode Island and Vermont $69.95 / $87.81 Canada Printed in China The Whitman Encyclopedia of Obsolete Paper Money is a multiple-volume study of currency issued by American banks from 1782 to 1866, before the modern era of National Banks and the Federal Reserve. In volume 5, the “Dean of American Numismatics,” Q. David Bowers, has compiled decades of research from 18th- and 19th-century bank reports, contemporary newspapers, and other primary sources. He gives the history of every bank that issued this uniquely American currency in the New England states of Rhode Island and Vermont. Each note is studied, and more than 1,300 are pictured in full color, with information on grading, rarity, values, significant auction results, advice for collectors, and more. The Whitman Encyclopedia of Obsolete Paper Money is a monumental work. Essential for collectors, it is equally valuable for American historians. Volume 5 is an immersion in the life of New England and our nation from the Revolution to the Civil War. “ These volumes provide collectors, both seasoned and new, with vital information, as well as many adventures, whether by armchair, bourse floor, or auction catalog.” — Michele Orzano, Senior Editor, Coin World Inside volume 5: How to use this book • The obsolete bank notes of Rhode Island and Vermont, including Proofs, remainders, and uncut sheets, and counterfeit, spurious, and altered notes • Glossary • Bibliography • Detailed index O BSO LET E PAPER M O N EY New England, Part 3 Rhode Island and Vermont 5 WHITMAN ENCYCLOPEDIA OF Cover_ObsoletePaper_V5.indd 1 3/3/15 9:46 AM O BSO LET E PA PER M O N EY WHITMAN ENCYCLOPEDIA OF New England, Part 2 Massachusetts, Book 1 Abington to Greenfield 3 $69.95 / $76.59 Canada Printed in China The Whitman Encyclopedia of Obsolete Paper Money is a multiple-volume study of currency issued by American banks from 1782 to 1866, before the modern era of National Banks and the Federal Reserve. In volume 3, the “Dean of American Numismatics,” Q. David Bowers, has compiled decades of research from 18th- and 19th-century bank reports, contemporary newspapers, and other primary sources. He gives the history of every bank that issued this uniquely American currency in the New England state of Massachusetts, from Abington to Greenfield (volume 4 covers Hallowell to Yarmouth). Each note is studied, and more than 700 are pictured in full color, with information on grading, rarity, values, significant auction results, advice for collectors, and more. The Whitman Encyclopedia of Obsolete Paper Money is a monumental work. Essential for collectors, it is equally valuable for American historians. Volume 3 is an immersion in the life of New England and our nation from the Revolution to the Civil War. Inside volume 3: How to use this book • The obsolete bank notes of Massachusetts, from Abington to Greenfield, including Proofs, remainders, and uncut sheets, and counterfeit, spurious, and altered notes • Glossary • Bibliography • Detailed index “ . . . a host of interesting stories about the banks, their notes, and the era they represent. This encyclopedic series is designed not just for specialists and collectors of paper currency, but also for all who enjoy learning more about various aspects of our nation’s financial history. . . .” — Anne E. Bentley, curator, Massachusetts Historical Society 51 towns and cities from Abington to Greenfield, 169 banks, and 3,945 individual notes Volume 3: New England, Part 2: Massachusetts, Book 1 Abington to Greenfield New England, Part 2: Massachusetts, Book 1 Abington to Gr enfield FOREWORD BY ANNE E. BENTLEY Cover_ObsoletePaper_V3.indd 1 10/13/14 9:31 AM U n c o u p l e d : Paper Money’s Odd Couple North Africa/ Vichy France Joseph E. Boling Fred Schwan I thought I would show a couple of doctored pieces this issue, one acquired this summer and one a year before that. But first, a correction to last issue’s column. Of the five MPC counterfeits that I showed, the first was from series 471 (red and blue); I called it series 461. Please make the corrections in your issue number 305 (Sept-Oct 2016), page 319. Fred will tell you about the background of the French POW notes shown below, probably used in Algeria during WWII. I collect Morocco, and since the exact locale of use for these has not been confirmed, when I saw some well-used examples of the low denominations offered on eBay, I thought I would acquire them for my Moroccan collection—on spec, as it were. I managed to outbid my competition, and the notes arrived. The ten francs piece is very dirty (and faded), but something did not look right about it—there are shiny lines visible around the borders, which I could not quite figure out. But when I illuminated the note from behind, as if I were looking for a watermark, all became clear. The note had evidently had ragged edges, and to clean those up, someone had trimmed the note right down to the frame lines (it turns out to be very well aligned face to back). Then an open rectangle of paper was cut to exactly match the dimensions of the trimmed note, and that frame had been glued to the trimmed piece, thus making new margins for the note. The paper used for the new margins is brown, closely matching the dirty color of the original note. But, it is considerably thicker than the original paper, so when held to the light, the new frame is very apparent—it is darker and more dense Boling continued on page 459 It has been a very busy travel summer for me. I made it to the west coast from Ohio twice, and had some shorter trips too. It was altogether great—and hectic. Certainly I had plenty of collecting adventures because I not only find numismatic treasures everywhere, I can usually find World War II numismatic information. It is a gift that I have! Ultimately, I will certainly write about some of those adventures, but today, Joe has led us in a different direction. The above travels have already had an impact on our studies because while I was out of contact, Joe had to make the decision on the subject for this edition without consultation. He did great! It was his idea to consider the wonderful République Française prisoner of war issue for North Africa. I really like these notes. I was going to say that they are my favorites, but I am trying to discipline myself to not say that. It seems that just about every World War II issue is my favorite when I am addressing it. Here are some of the things that I particularly like about these notes. They have distinctive designs. This is particularly true of the two low denominations. The designs of the two high denominations are not nearly as attractive as the lower denominations. Indeed the differences in the styles might be telling us something. Perhaps the higher denominations were added after the lower denominations. See below and next page. ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * Nov/Dec 2016 * Whole No. 306_____________________________________________________________ 456 Adding to the difficulty of researching the overall issue is the fact that the high values are quite rare. While I have seen only a few of each, I can vividly remember the first time that I saw one. It was in the Ruth Hill collection. No, not when the notes were sold, but when she showed me her set of all four denominations at her home in the 1970s. From that moment I wanted to obtain one of the high values. In a unique twist, the serial number appears on the back of the low values while it appears in a more traditional position on the high values. What constitutes the face versus the back of a note? That question is not always easily answered. Usually, the major design elements (such as a portrait), major legends, and serial numbers appear on the face. To me it seems fairly easy to call the serial number side of the low values in this series the back because the portrait and scenic elements appear on the other side. Also, the printer’s imprint is on the side that I am calling the face, opposite the serial and signature. The high-value pieces also have the printer’s imprint opposite the serial and signature. Did the printer consider the side with his identification to be the face? Considering the designs, there is little to distinguish the two sides on the high-denomination pieces, except that colors of the unsigned side seem to be a little more dull for both of them. I like very much that the notes were printed locally by letterpress in several colors. There are many other things that we do not know about these notes. That is something that I like, because it means that we have research to do and research is fun! We do not know with precision when or where the notes were issued. Certainly, we do not know how many were issued. We have some information that I feel we have not adequately exploited. Based on the imprint on the small values, the notes were printed by E. Imbert in Algiers. Furthermore, they were designed by J. Pavrolles, based on the same imprint. We ought to be able to find out something about this printer, and maybe even about the artist. I really have only one new thing to report about these notes, but it is a rather large and multifaceted thing. A remarkable group of proofs of the 10 francs note has been found. Even though the group was found more than ten years ago, I do not believe that its discovery has been reported (figure 9 below). ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * Nov/Dec 2016 * Whole No. 306_____________________________________________________________ 457 The group consists of eight color trials! That is in itself quite remarkable and each sheet is beautiful to behold, but there is more. The format as you can see is quite interesting, with both sides printed uniface on a sheet but with the two sides oriented 180 degrees apart. It does not seem possible to me that this configuration was used for production, but neither does it seem likely to me that if the printer made special proofs for approval by the customer or a similar purpose that the sides would be oriented the way that they are. I love it. A wonderful rubber stamp was applied to each sheet. It gives the date “19 Juin 1943,” location “Alger,” and most interestingly the printer “A Imbert.” Did you notice that this is A. Imbert while the imprint on the notes is E. Imbert? The imprint is on both the issued notes and on the proofs. The A in the stamp is quite unambiguous. The E on the notes is a little less clear. Because of stray marks on the plates, some issued notes seem to have a B rather than an E for the leading initial, and the proof could be read as a G. What does it all mean? I do not have an answer. And it gets worse. The designer name Pavrolles on the low denomination issued pieces is quite clearly Favrolles on the proofs. Closing the upper right of the F to make a P would be an easy modification to the plate. Was that done after the proofs were examined by the issuer? I am sure we will never know. See figures 10 and 11 (below). And the high-denomination notes have yet another variation on this name—on the 50 francs note available to us, the designer is indicated as xxOC. P VRILLON (the x’s are for letters that are illegible). The 100 francs note’s designer name is completely illegible—poorly printed. I can report the colors of the 10 francs proofs. They are: red and black red and green blue and olive green and brown green and black green and blue red and green green and blue This leads to more questions. Did you notice the duplications in the color listing? I don’t have all eight pieces in hand any more, and cannot say whether the green/blue and red/green pairs were distinctly different shades that did not get adequately described (so as to differentiate them), or whether an error of transcription occurred (for instance, reporting a green/blue and blue/green pair with the same color order rather than being consistent in naming the central elements before the frame). Are there more colors? Do similar proofs exist for the other denominations? We don’t know. Notice one more curiosity. The red/black proof shown here is in only those two colors. The issued 10 francs note is in three colors—red, dark blue, and black. Only the beard and the words DIX FRANCS are in black on the face, and the same words, the serial, and the signature and signer’s title are in black on the back. All other “dark” elements of face and back are in dark blue. How in the world did these remarkable artifacts survive? Which do you like better, the adopted or unadopted colors? This is all that I have to offer at the moment. We would certainly be happy to have your answers to some of the questions, or, failing that, comments or even more questions. Some illustrations contributed by Dave Frank. ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * Nov/Dec 2016 * Whole No. 306_____________________________________________________________ 458 Boling continued: than the main body of the note. The shiny lines are the dried glue attaching the new borders to the body of the note. Figures 1 and 2 show the note as received Figure 3 (below) shows the note on a light box, so that the added paper is visible as a dark border all the way around. If the magazine’s image quality is good enough, you will see three horizontal watermark lines on each end, where the paper that was added has a watermark that is missing from the original paper. Figure 4 is a 20x photo of the lower right corner of the face, showing the glue buildup where the new frame is attached to the original paper, and figure 5 shows glue lines extending along the top and bottom of one side of the note, a quarter-inch in from the edges, reflecting light back into the camera lens. If you look back at figures 1 and 2, you may see a somewhat milky vertical region in the center of the note face and back. Apparently the original note had some tears there, that have also been repaired with the same glue. As a result of the original margins having been cut away, the designer’s and printer’s names have been removed from the note. Figure 6 (below) is the face of an intact piece that shows those names. See Fred’s side of the column for a discussion of what those names are. The five francs note that came with the repaired ten francs piece shows no signs of such treatment. Figure 1(above –face) and figure 2 (below—back) Figure 5 Figure 4 ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * Nov/Dec 2016 * Whole No. 306_____________________________________________________________ 459 Figure 7 Moving on. Four years ago a dealer offered me an Egyptian note with partial serial numbers. He knew it was a counterfeit of “unidentified printing method,” and said he had another identical if I wanted two of them. I wrote back that if they were vintage, I was interested, but that if they were modern digital copies, my interest did not extend beyond $10 each. His response was “My first transaction in WPM was in 1959.... Would I be knowingly wasting my time and yours with a ‘modern digital copy?’” He sent one of the notes. After examination, I determined that it was indeed an inkjet copy of an original note. Before printing the copy, the image had been doctored to remove the final three digits of each serial number. I sent him several 20x photographs to support my finding. He asked for the note back and I have not heard from him since. Last year I ran across another such piece in a dealer’s stock, offered as an original note (I believe he had not noticed the truncated serials). After showing him what he had, I was able to buy the piece as a modern digital fake (figure 7). Figure 8 is a PMG-VF25 example of a genuine piece. Note the rounded corners of figure 7 (simulating considerable circulation). Those corners have been cut with scissors, not worn down naturally. Figures 9-10 are the upper right corners of the replica and genuine notes. Notice the sharp angles around the corner of the replica—cut with scissors. Note also the screen of dots over the entire margin. Compare that with figure 10, which shows no dots and a black border along the edges—circulation dirt, missing from the replica. All those blue, red, and yellow dots (the yellow will not be visible in the magazine) are put there by the image processing software used to create the replica note. Those colors represent the off-white (pale tan) color of the borders of the note that was being copied. They are invisible to the naked eye, or even with 4x magnification, but they are clearly visible at 20x. Figures 11-12 are the lower left corners of the same notes. In figure 11 you see the same screen of dots, except at the far left edge, where the copy is wider than the original note and the faker has not trimmed off the unprinted part of the note—shown as a sliver of white along the Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * Nov/Dec 2016 * Whole No. 306_____________________________________________________________ 460 left edge. Again, the genuine note shows black edges from circulation dirt, and a fairly well- developed cluster of fuzz right on the corner, from circulation damage (figure 12). Figure 13 shows a portion of the left edge of the replica, again not trimmed to match the actual extent of the note that was being copied, so that there is another sliver of white along the edge that did not receive the screen of “toning” dots. You can see that the original note had a small margin tear, which has not been replicated on the copy. Figures 14-17 show the date and three digits of the serial number on both the replica and the genuine notes. These elements are printed by letterpress on the genuine note. You can see how ugly the inkjet product is in figures 14 and 16. Watch for more examples of this fake serial number error. You don’t want to be paying genuine money for one. Watch also for more digital copies that do not have doctored serials; the treatment of the corners is a good place to start. Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 11 Plan now to join us! MPCFest XVIII March 31-April 2, 2017 Holiday Inn Express Port Clinton, OH Reservations-call Kim (419) 732-7322 (mention Fest) For info call Fred (419) 349-1842 ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * Nov/Dec 2016 * Whole No. 306_____________________________________________________________ 461 Secretary Barr Gets His Notes By Jamie Yakes Joseph Walker Barr served as United States Treasury Secretary for 29 days from December 21, 1968 to January 20, 1969 at the tail end of Lyndon Johnson’s presidency. Johnson appointed him to replace Henry Fowler who resigned that December. As secretary, Barr would get his signature on U.S. currency, which presented a predicament for Treasury officials. His term would end when president-elect Richard Nixon took office in late January and appointed his own secretary. As such, Treasury officials and those within the Federal Reserve System debated whether it was practical to make plates with Barr’s signature only to use them for a short time before switching to plates with the new secretary’s signature. Since 1914, every sitting treasury secretary had his signature on U.S. currency and Treasury officials wanted to continue that streak. We know how this story ended: Barr’s signature appeared on Series 1963B $1 Federal Reserve Notes printed during 1969. A concurrent change in printing technology sealed the Treasury's decision to produce Barr notes, in spite of the impending end to his appointment. Barr’s Political Career Joseph Barr’s life centered on economics and finance. He was born January 17, 1918 in Bicknell, Indiana, into a family that traced its roots to Ireland at least as far back as the 1760s. Banking, farming and politics developed as central facets of Barr family life. He studied economics at DePauw and Harvard universities, where he earned an undergraduate degree in economics in 1939 and masters degree in theoretical economics in 1941. After graduating, he served in World War II as a submariner, and received a Bronze Star for his part in sinking a German submarine near Anzio, Italy. He was discharged in 1945 with the rank of lieutenant commander. After the war, he returned to Indiana to help manage many of his family’s businesses. He became active in local politics, and in 1958 was elected to Congress as a Democrat to represent Indiana’s 11th District in the House of Representatives. Because of his educational background, Barr gravitated to positions in numerous finance and economic congressional committees, including a position on the influential House Banking and Currency Committee. His Congressional tenure ended when he lost his House seat in the November 1960 election. Barr remained in government circles, however, and in 1961 was appointed Assistant Treasury Undersecretary to Treasury Undersecretary Henry Fowler and tasked with handling correspondence between the Treasury and Congress. He served three years in that position until becoming Chairman of the Federal Deposit Insurance Committee (FDIC) in January 1964 (see Figure 1), where he spent four years improving the conditions of commercial banks. When Lyndon Johnson appointed Fowler Treasury Secretary in January 1968, he tapped Barr as his undersecretary in recognition of his extensive experience in finance. When Fowler resigned that December, Barr was appointed to complete the term as secretary on December 21 (see Figure 2). Barr’s tenure ended a month later on January 20, 1969, when President Richard Nixon took office and appointed David M. Kennedy treasury secretary. Kennedy had previously served as chairman and president of the Continental Illinois Bank and Trust Company in Chicago. His signature would appear on Series 1969 notes issued later that year. Figure 1. Joseph W. Barr as FDIC chairman in 1964. (Courtesy ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * Nov/Dec 2016 * Whole No. 306_____________________________________________________________ 462 After leaving the Treasury Barr worked for numerous private financial companies. He served as vice chairman, president and chairman of the American Security and Trust Company in Washington, D.C. until 1974. After American, he worked briefly as president of the Franklin National Bank of New York. From 1977-81, Barr served as chairman of the Federal Home Loan Bank of Atlanta. Afterwards, he bided his time tending his farm in Hume, Virginia, and served as a director for organizations such as Sallie Mae, Conrail and Georgetown University. On February 23, 1996, while vacationing in Mexico, Joseph Barr succumbed to heart failure and died at age 78. Officials Debate Protocol dictated the BEP design and produce new currency plates for each treasury secretary. Since 1914, no secretary had served less than nine months in office, which provided ample time to produce new intaglio dies, make production plates and print notes while that person still reigned. Barr’s short term presented a challenge because there was a good chance he would be out before the BEP even started printing notes with his signature! The decision facing Treasury officials about putting his signature on currency centered on following precedent rather than abiding to law. When Congress passed the Federal Reserve Act in December 1913, section 16 required the design of Federal Reserve notes to be in the “form and tenor as directed by the Secretary of the Treasury.” No signatures were required, but Treasury officials applied the same precedent followed for all currency since the 1870s.1 A majority of the Federal Reserve Board of Governors disapproved putting Barr’s signature on currency. “The Board had not approved the Treasury plan and...the Chairman of the Board was strongly opposed to the entire undertaking,” wrote John R. Farrell, Director of Operations for the Federal Reserve System.2 They considered the Treasury’s plan a perverse handling of currency because Barr was a lame- duck secretary waiting out the end of the term. Fiscal Assistant Treasury Secretary John K. Carlock promptly dismissed the Board’s objection: Here, section 16 ruled and Treasury didn’t require the Federal Reserve Board’s approval for anything in this matter. However, Treasury officials knew that soon after the BEP began making Barr plates they would have to focus their efforts on preparing Series 1969 plates with Treasurer Dorothy Elston-Secretary Kennedy signatures. Time wasn’t enough to prepare Barr plates for all denominations and districts, and it would be unwise to print low quantities of notes bearing his signature and create an instant collector item. Treasury officials wanted to avoid creating any disruption with a short run of Barr notes.3 They decided to use Barr’s signature along with Treasurer Kathryn O’Hay Granahan’s on $1 notes designated Series 1963B and not prepare similar plates for $5 and higher denominations. They also planned to order the BEP to print a substantial amount of the notes to avoid artificially creating a rarity.4 Serial numbering would continue from Series 1963A. Intaglio Signatures A significant change of how the BEP applied signatures made it more palatable to print Barr notes in the short time frame Treasury officials faced. In 1968, the BEP reverted to adding treasury officers’ signatures directly to intaglio printing plates and ceased printing them using typographic overprinting presses. This change reduced the amount of materials and most importantly time they would need to prepare plates with Barr’s signature. Figure 2. Barr’s official portrait as Secretary of the Treasury. (Courtesy ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * Nov/Dec 2016 * Whole No. 306_____________________________________________________________ 463 Adding signatures to intaglio face plates was standard practice in plate production since the 1870s. But it was abandoned in 1935 for $1s and by 1953 for all other notes because it resulted in costly waste when plates became obsolete on account of old signatures. Small-size plates were never altered to have current signatures, and although it was the practice to continue using obsolete plates, large quantities often were destroyed simply because of the obsolete signatures. Starting with the $1s the BEP began printing signatures using typographic overprinting presses following the intaglio face and back printings. In separate steps, typographic presses were used to apply the bank seals, signatures and series dates in black ink, and then the treasury seals and serial numbers in green ink. Adding signatures to intaglio plates again became economical after all currency production was converted to dry-intaglio printing of 32-subject sheets. Dry-intaglio printing yielded numerous economies over the wet-intaglio method previously used for 12- and 18-subject sheets. Because sheets remained dry, wetting and drying steps were eliminated. And dry sheets didn’t shrink, which made it possible to increase the sheet size and boost yield. The BEP began testing two sheet-fed rotary presses capable of handling 32-subject sheets in 1955.5 At the time they were printing currency from 18-subject sheets. Using 32-subject sheets proved so successful they procured eight additional presses in 1957, and in July began printing Series 1957 $1 Silver Certificates with the new presses.6 They purchased more presses in 1965 and expanded production to other denominations by 1968. The BEP resumed adding signatures to master plates starting that autumn with Granahan-Fowler signatures on Series 1966 $100 United States Notes.7 Series of 1963B $1 Federal Reserve Notes were the second type to have intaglio signatures. Figure 3 nicely contrasts the distinction between notes printed with overprinted and engraved signatures. The last $1 series with typographically overprinted signatures were Series 1963A Granahan- Fowler notes. Barr Notes A Treasury department press statement on January 8 announced “that an issuance of $1 Federal Reserve Notes, Series 1963B, will bear the signature of Joseph W. Barr.... The issuance means that every Secretary of the Treasury since 1914, when the signature requirement was initiated, will have signed a currency series.”8 The first 1963B $1 plate was serial 1003 completed on January 10, 1969 (see Figure 4). Printing of notes began on January 11 and the first shipment of finished notes was sent to the Richmond Federal Reserve Bank January 16.9 Deliveries continued until November 1969.10 Figure 3. Treasury signatures are immovable when they are part of the intaglio plate (right). (Courtesy Heritage Auction Archives.) ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * Nov/Dec 2016 * Whole No. 306_____________________________________________________________ 464 The BEP printed 459 million notes for New York, Richmond, Chicago, Kansas City and San Francisco in the ten months Barr plates were actively used. They also printed 12 million star notes for those districts except Kansas City. To date, Barr notes have the lowest printage of any series of $1 Federal Reserve Notes. But that doesn’t mean they are scarce. The public knew that Barr’s appointment would be brief and the Treasury would be producing 1963B $1s, and they anticipated the circulation of the notes and saved them. Barr was a flash in the pan as Secretary of the Treasury--his tenure is the shortest ever--but his legacy endures on paper! Acknowledgments This research was supported by the Professional Currency Dealers Association. Peter Huntoon and Derek Moffitt provided information critical to this article. Sources Cited 1. Yakes, Jamie. “Treasury Signatures on United States Currency.” Paper Money 52, no. 5 (2013, Sep/Oct): 346. 2. Federal Reserve Board Correspondence, John. R. Farrell, Federal Reserve Board Operations Director, to Federal Reserve Records Division, January 9, 1969. Https:// Accessed August 28, 2016. 3. Ibid. 4. Federal Reserve Board Correspondence, P. D. Ring, Federal Reserve Board Operations Assistant Director, to Federal Reserve Records Division, January 9, 1969. Accessed August 28, 2016. 5. Annual Report of the Secretary of the Treasury on the State of the Finances, Fiscal Year 1957, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. (1958): 82. 6. ___, Fiscal Year 1958, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. (1959): 95. 7. ___, Fiscal Year 1969, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. (1970): 84. 8. Treasury Department Press Statement, January 8, 1969. Accessed August 28, 2016. 9. Goldstein, Nathan. “The Thirty Day Series.” Paper Money 8, no. 2 (1969, Mar/Apr): 42. 10. Accessed August 28, 2016. Sources of Data Bureau of Engraving and Printing. Certified proofs lifted from Federal currency plates, 1863-1985: National Numismatic Collection, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Fig. 4. Series 1963B $1 face 1003, the first Barr plate. (Courtesy National Numismatic Collection.) ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * Nov/Dec 2016 * Whole No. 306_____________________________________________________________ 465 The Obsolete Corner The National Lincoln Monument Association by Robert Gill In this issue of Paper Money I'm going to share with you a very interesting Obsolete sheet in my collection, which also holds a very important place in our nation's history. And that is on the National Lincoln Monument Association. Abraham Lincoln was assassinated on April 14, 1865. Less than two years after his death, on March 30 of 1867, the National Lincoln Monument Association was incorporated by the U.S. Congress to a build a memorial to honor the 16th President. The Association’s duty was “it should be a proper organization, with rules and regulations, to proceed to collect funds, and make all necessary plans and arrangements to erect a suitable monument to that Great and Good Man, somewhere within the public grounds in the City of Washington”. The Association commissioned sculptor Clark Mills to create, for the northeast corner of the Capitol grounds, a monument "commemorative of the great charter of emancipation and universal liberty in America." Mills proposed a multi-tiered, 36-figure, bronze sculpted monument that would have, at its peak, a seated Lincoln signing the Emancipation Proclamation. Although a national fund-raising effort was started, for political and practical reasons, the Association and Mills never completed this idea. The project languished until 1901, when a site in a swamp next to the Potomac River was chosen as the location for the monument. A decade later, in February of 1911, Congress formally authorized the design, as we know it today, of the Lincoln Memorial. Three years after that, in 1914, actual construction began when the first stone was put into place on February 12th, Lincoln’s birthday. It then took more than six additional years of work until the building of the memorial was finished in 1922. So, fifty five years after it initially began, the memorial to President Lincoln was finally completed and dedicated by President Warren G. Harding. Accordingly, in addition to the iconic landmark being a fitting tribute to President Lincoln, it is also symbolic of the pace at which our government gets things done! When the building of the Lincoln Memorial was finally completed, two of President Lincoln’s most important speeches would be found on the inner walls of the memorial; the Gettysburg’s Address on the north wall, and his Second Inaugural Address on the south wall. The National Lincoln Monument Association should not be confused with a citizens association of the same name, which successfully, and in a considerably shorter period of time, oversaw the construction of Lincoln's tomb in Springfield, Illinois. These notes were actually a means of donating to the National project of funding a monument to honor President Lincoln. They were engraved and printed by the Treasury Department. Very seldom do we have the opportunity to see one of these notes as a single, let alone a sheet of them. This piece definitely holds a very important place in my collection of Washington D.C. notes. As I always do, I invite any comments to my cell phone (580) 221-0898 or my personal email address Until next time... HAPPY COLLECTING. ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * Nov/Dec 2016 * Whole No. 306_____________________________________________________________ 466 ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * Nov/Dec 2016 * Whole No. 306_____________________________________________________________ 467 INTERESTING MINING NOTES by David E. Schenkman Another Rare Iowa Coal Mining Note  My last column discussed a rare mining note issued by the Hiteman Supply Company of Burlington, Iowa. This time we will take a look at another rare coal related note from the same state. My interest in mining notes from that state stems, in part, from the fact that there are so few of them. Until the illustrated note surfaced in a Heritage sale earlier this year, I had only recorded notes from four Iowa companies. I feel sure there are others out there awaiting discovery. The Kirkville Supply Company was a typical company store. It stocked items such as boots and shoes, clothing, dry goods, furniture, groceries, hardware, toiletries, etc., and was the main business in a small Iowa town by the same name that prospered during the 1880s due to the many coal mines in operation during that time. The town was named for John Kirkpatrick, a farmer who had moved to Iowa in 1844. Four years later he laid out the town on land that he had purchased. Kirkpatrick never engaged in mining; he was part owner of a grist mill and a creamery. An Internet history of the county relates an amusing story concerning the early days of Kirkville. A man from a nearby town rented a two story building, opened a saloon on the first floor, and lived above it. The citizens of Kirkville didn’t approve of the clientele attracted by the new enterprise, and one night while the owner was away, they placed a keg of powder under the foundation and lit the fuse. Problem solved. In 1879 Oliver Mayhew Ladd opened coal mines in nearby Laddville. Two years later the Ottumwa and Kirkville Railway Company was incorporated to access the Kirkville coal mines, with Ladd serving as secretary and John Cleveland Osgood (who later was one of the founders of the Colorado Fuel and Iron Company) as vice president. During the mid-1880s the railway company owned $10,000 worth of stock in the Wapello Coal Company, and more than $44,000 worth of Kirkville Supply Company stock. The population of Kirkville in 1870 was less than three hundred. By the mid-1880s that number had increased to over seven hundred, primarily due to the influx of miners. An 1887 Portrait and Biological Album of Wapello County, Iowa described the town as “surrounded by a rich agricultural region, with an inexhaustible supply of coal. Here are located the mines of the Wapello Coal Company, in which are employed 450 men, and who mine an average of 900 tons of coal per day.” It added that the miners’ pay averaged $2.50 per day. Despite the 1887 “inexhaustible supply of coal” prediction, by 1890 the mines were worked out. Without the coal mine there was no need for the railroad, so in 1890 the track was taken up and by the end of the year the corporation was dissolved. Of course after that the population started to dwindle, and by 1910 Kirkville once again was a farming community of about three hundred. Dated July 1st, 1884, the illustrated note was signed by Oliver Mayhew Ladd. The imprint, as close as I can make it out, is “The J. M. W. Jones Staty & Prtg Co. Chicago.” The Kirkville Supply Company’s office was undoubtedly in nearby Ottumwa, the town named on the note. Comments, questions, suggestions (even criticisms) concerning this column may be emailed to or mailed to P.O. Box 2866, La Plata, MD 20646. ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * Nov/Dec 2016 * Whole No. 306_____________________________________________________________ 468 WW2 USA POW Chits Wanted Excursion Island, AK Camp Perry, OH Camp Cooke, CA Camp Madill, OK Fort Ord, CA Fort Reno, OK Trinidad, CO Fort Sill, OK Farragut, ID McAlester, OK Fort Benjamin Harrison, IN Indiantown Gap, PA Camp Phillips, KS Tyson, TN Concordia, KS Camp Howze, TX Fort Warren, MN Camp Wallace Fort Leonard Wood, MO Fort Sam Houston, TX Weingarten, MO Hill Field, UT Clinton, MS Ogden, UT Fort Crook, NE Rupert Ogden, UT Scottsbluff, NE Toole, UT Mitchell Field, NY Ettinger, VA Pine Camp, NY Fort Eustis, VA Sampson, NY Peary, VA Shanks, NY Ashford General Hospital, WV Any POW chit from; Alaska, Connecticut, Hawaii, Maine, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Montana, New Hampshire, North Dakota, Rhode Island, South Dakota, West Virginia. If you have any of these available for purchase, a trade may be possible also, please contact me. David E. Seelye ANA LM IBNS P.O. Box 13117 NI LM PCDA Prescott, AZ 86304-3117 SPMC 585-305-4848 cell ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * Nov/Dec 2016 * Whole No. 306_____________________________________________________________ 469 Chump Change by Loren Gatch Taking Serial Numbers Seriously  The launch, in late September, of Britain’s new £5 note bearing Winston Churchill’s portrait featured the usual scramble by collectors seeking low serial number specimens, and the usual squawking by the mainstream media about how much those crazy collectors will pay for them. By coincidence, a few days later I received the latest edition of Frederick J. Bart’s Executive Currency catalog, packed with nearly fifty pages’ worth of “fancy” serial numbered notes—low numbers, “solids”, “repeaters”, “ladders”, “radars”, and permutations thereof—and the prices asked did make me sit up and notice. Of course, low numbers are by definition unique. Writing in 2011, Dave Undis highlighted how rare other fancy notes are by calculating the odds of their appearance. The eight-digit serial number on modern American currency yields 99,999,999 possible serial numbers; I’ve reproduced Undis’s results below: Fancy Serial Number Type Number of Occurrences in a 99,999,999 Note Run Odds that a Random Note Will Be this Type Solid 9 1 in 11,111,111 Ladder 6 1 in 16.666.667 Radar 9,990 1 in 10,010 Repeater 9,990 1 in 10,010 Super Radar 90 1 in 1,111,111 Super Repeater 90 1 in 1,111,111 Radar Repeater 90 1 in 1,111,111 Double Quad 90 1 in 1,111,111 Seven-in-a-Row 180 1 in 555,556 Seven-of-a-Kind 720 1 in 138,889 Binary 11,430 1 in 8,749 Source: David Undis, “How Rare Are Fancy Serial Numbers?” Paper Money (July/August 2011), p. 297. A reasonable rule of thumb is that, the more serious the collector, the more significant become small differences between specimens, be they by grade, mint mark, variety or some other attribute. While I’ve never collected by serial numbers myself, I can understand why other collectors might. Undis has even established a website,, that caters to this collecting interest. Late last year Stephen Colbert did a slightly-mean sendup of this niche of the currency market (“I had no idea you could get rich collecting money”), but any publicity is good publicity. The very idea of the serial number is intriguing, since it defines the uniqueness of otherwise- interchangeable currency units, making them versatile in unexpected ways. Tearing a note in two, with the serial number printed on each half, creates proof of identification that allows two strangers to recognize each other (the American mafia used to do something similar as a way of upholding bargains). For law enforcement, the ability to track serial numbers helps fight money laundering and other criminal uses of cash. The largely fruitless attempts to discover hijacker D.B. Cooper’s whereabouts involved tracking his ransom money by serial numbers. During the Gulf War of 1990-1991, thanks to knowing their serial number range, the Kuwaiti government was able to invalidate banknotes seized by the invading Iraqis. Economists have proposed ways of shrinking or expanding the money supply by cancelling notes by serial number or by paying out extra notes as if certain numbers were winning lottery tickets. In China and elsewhere in Asia, serial numbers bearing strings of 8s are said to augur good luck ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * Nov/Dec 2016 * Whole No. 306_____________________________________________________________ 470 (conversely, 4s bring bad juju). Above all, serious research into currency of the sort published in Paper Money can hardly avoid treating serial numbers as important variables for understanding the history and production of banknotes. Back in the mid-1980s when I lived in New York City, one of my roommates was a chain- smoking recluse (I figured the cancer risk was outweighed by the blessings of rent control on the Upper East Side) who was convinced that banknote serial numbers contained cryptographic secrets that would be revealed if she could only break the code. As her many workbooks filled up with abstruse calculations, she next fixated on the meanings hidden in car license plates. Eventually, her steganographic obsessions drove her mind in darker directions, and after we parted ways she ended up convalescing at the Institute for Living. To this day, focusing on serial numbers, even just as a collector, has for me a faint whiff of the obsessive-compulsive about it; at the very least they would seem to be the province of math nerds. Indeed, why stop at Undis’s list of fancy numbers? Mathematically-inclined collectors might be on the lookout for transcendental numbers like Pi (only out to eight places), Euler’s Number, or the Golden Mean (Phi). Other number series out to eight places on American currency might include the first six prime numbers (13571113) or the first seven Fibonacci numbers (11235813). Collecting all the prime serial numbers up to eight places would be massively impractical, but for the record the largest one possible is 99999989. As for the new Churchill Fiver, the very first serial number, ending in 00001, went as a gift to Queen Elizabeth. Number 17 fetched £4,150 at a charity auction hosted by the Bank of England. Now that is some serious money. Track  &  Price  Announces  World  Paper  Money  Software  Upgrade Track & Price, a one‐of‐a‐kind collection of software tools, has released an updated software version of its  World  Paper Money.  Track &  Price  is used by  paper money  collectors, dealers  and  auction houses  globally  to  assess the value of paper money.  This easy to use, and highly accurate, software will help even the most amateur  collector seamlessly maneuver through thousands of auction results. Giving you complete control, Track & Price  conveniently lets you search using your local language & currency; along with sorting by grade, note type, auction  date, price, individual catalog number and more!  Track & Price makes  sense of huge price  swings, with  actual  auction  results, by using  its  sophisticated  prorating algorithm. This  software  is  the ONLY  constantly updated World Paper Money auction  report! 500  to  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used by all the major auction companies and has been providing U.S. auction results and census data for auction  houses, dealers and collectors since 2001. World Paper Money is used by Spink&Son, Heritage, Stacks‐Bowers, Lyn  Knight, Bank, Archives International, BankNote Reporter.  We  invite you to try a Free Trial of Track & Price. Simply go to and select the  software you would like to use for the next 30 days!  ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * Nov/Dec 2016 * Whole No. 306_____________________________________________________________ 471 President’s Column November/December 2016 The summer and a  lot of the autumn will  have flown by as you read this in November.  It’s  been  a  few  hectic  months  since  the  Memphis  show.    We’ve  been  rolling  through  the  late  summer and autumn shows and we’ve seen some  good shows with a lot going on in paper money.  I  did not go to ANA this year as it was in effectively  the  same  location  as  the  three  times  per  year  Long  Beach  show  which  I  did  attend  in  September. SPMC does not maintain a presence  at  Long  Beach,  but  dealers  and  members  do  attend and we did have some good discussions at  my table.  I also passed out a bunch of SPMC new  member  applications which  is  something we  all  should encourage!   Backing  up  into  August,  the  Blue  Ridge  show was held and it was very active including an  SPMC meeting led by Dennis Schafluetzel and his  talk  on  Tennessee  bank  notes  of  the  Civil War.   We had good attendance, told some great stories  and Dennis did an outstanding presentation. This  is  what  SPMC  is  about  –  education,  fun  and  friends!  I  attend  the  Virginia  Numismatic  Association  show  and  met  a  long  time  Confederate  paper  money  collector  and  SPMC  member  and  others  as  well.   We  had  a  great  discussion  about  the  old  time  collectors  and  researchers  as  well  as  about  interesting  tidbits  about  paper  money  as  well.  There  also  was  interest  in  the SPMC and hopefully we will have  some new members!  There  is  news  developing  with  the  two  Chicago paper money shows as well – CPMX and  PCDA.  Governor  Robert  Vandevender  clarified  what is happening with the Rosemont shows. The  2016  PCDA  show  will  take  place  this  coming  November  as  scheduled,  but  as  CPMX  show  is  being discontinued. The 2017 PCDA show will be  moved  to March 2nd  thru 4th, 2017. While  it will  be  held  at  the  Crowne  Plaza  in  2018,  the  organization  is  looking  at  alternative  venues  starting in 2018.  VP  Shawn  Hewitt  reports  that  we  are  making good progress on  the obsolete database  project.  State  experts  are  entering  southeastern  state data to the database.  Bill Gunther has done  a  great  job  with  Alabama,  and  this  week  we  anticipate that DC note data will go live.  With the  DC  data,  our  developer  is  completing  code  that  will  allow  spreadsheet  data  to  be  imported  (an  alternative  to  manual  entry  via  the  Gallery),  which will make  it  easier  for  our  state  experts.   The Ohio folks are presently working on their own  spreadsheet of note data which can be  imported  with  the  same mechanism when  they are  ready.  As  we  transition  from  development  to  production, we will want  to  do more marketing  and  are  looking  for  people  to  help  spread  the  word – articles, Facebook, etc. Please contact me  or Shawn.   Editor Benny Bolin also reported on Paper  Money  Journal  at  the  SPMC  September  board  conference call. The bill September/October issue  is  higher,  due  to  mailing  and  dues  envelopes.  Three  submitted  and  suitable  articles  are  on  hand, each exceeding 30 pages  in  length and will  be  featured  in  upcoming  Journals.  No  special  issues contemplated at present; effort will be  to  include  “something  for  everyone”  in  each  issue.  Benny repeated his continuing need for articles of  3‐ 5 pages  in  length, and  suggested  that articles  based  on  exhibits  seen  in  Memphis,  even  if  partially based on coins might prove of interest to  SPMC members.  I want to encourage members to use our  web  site  –  .  This  is  a wonderful  resource for all of us as well as promotion for our  hobby and Society.   Please use your membership  points  to  advertise,  contribute  to  the  blogs  and  forums,  and  update  and  use  the  calendar  of  events.  The more  of  us  that  contribute  and use  our web site the better it gets for all!  Have a great numismatic holiday season!  Pierre Fricke ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * Nov/Dec 2016 * Whole No. 306_____________________________________________________________ 472 Editor Sez 17-60 Those two numbers maybe should be reversed as I will talk about them in reverse order. 60—is this really the defining age to become a senior citizen? I am writing this column on my 60th birthday and certainly feel like a senior citizen, but I know I cannot get government assistance for 5+ more years. Ahhh—but there will now be no questions as to when I can get the senior discount at buffets, movies and the like. I used to think 60 was ancient, but now it is the new 59! 17—this is my 17th issue of PM that I have done totally. The Jan/Feb 2014 issue was done by Fred and I just edited the blue line proofs. It only seems like yesterday that I volunteered to do this job and over the ensuing 34 months and 17 issues, I feel I have learned a lot. Thanks to all those who have taught me how to do this, Peter Huntoon and Joe Boling just to name a couple. It has been very rewarding and frustrating at the same time. So, I wanted to put out there some of what I have learned that I need for authors in the hopes that you will write an article for us. First and foremost, I apologize for not being very good at acknowledging receipt of your articles. I seem to be busier than I should be with my day job (school Nurse) and so I let this lapse at times. Please feel free to email again if I don’t answer you back. The only thing I probably won’t be able to answer is when your article will be printed. My goal is to make each issue of interest to all our members so I try to include as much diversity as I can. While an issue may have a focus (like last month’s MPC focus), I don’t think it is fair to all to just do one type (although I loved Fred’s fractional focus issues). I hope to solve some of this uncertainty by publishing in each column some of the highlights of the next issue (see end of column). I do read and respond to constructive criticism, so send it if you have some—but keep it constructive. I will admit I did not respond well to ones like “the article by ___ was the worst written and edited article I have ever read!” Sorry but not only am I not a professional editor, but also try my best to protect my authors as they are the true lifeblood of this tome. Hopefully, this will be the last issue where I split an article. It is with extreme consternation that not only did I split Mr. Derby’s Hutton & Freligh article into two parts, but I totally forgot to include the second part in the next issue! But, one thing I won’t do for sure is to split an article with ads. Totally uninterrupted reading. How do you submit to me? I can now take most any format, but it is easiest for me if you submit it in WORD and put placeholders in for where images should go (just a fig.1 here in red or some such) and then submit the pictures at the end or in a separate submission, clearly labeled of course. I also need the captions at the end or separately (not on the image). Speaking of images, I really need these as JPEGS as they are smaller and easier to work with than TIFFs or other formats. If you cannot submit JPEGS, I have found how to convert these. Also, if anyone knows how to get rid of that **#%$ and the extra space by the image/caption, I would greatly appreciate the passing of that info. You can also submit to me a version of your article with the images and captions to show me how you envision you want it to look, but due to margins, need to keep white-space at a minimum and those blasted anchors, I really need it as outlined above. I always try to send authors a proof of the final version so look these over and let me know of changes needed. In the upcoming issues, I have four large articles that will comprise the majority of the next four issues, so I still am in need of shorter articles (especially 3-5 or 6 pages long). The next issue I hope to have an in-depth article on Confederate paper money with possibly Paper Money’s first ever fold-out! The next issue will have a multi-year work by Peter Huntoon that I think you will find even more amazing than his normal amazing articles. I then have long articles on Star notes and obsoletes. 2017 is almost here--I bid all a Happy New Year! Benny Texting and Driving—It can wait! ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * Nov/Dec 2016 * Whole No. 306_____________________________________________________________ 473 Paper Money will accept classified advertising on a basis of 15¢ per word(minimum charge of $3.75). Commercial word ads are now allowed. Word count: Name and address count as five words. All other words and abbreviations, figure combinations and initials count as separate words. Editor does NOT check copy. 10% discount for four or more insertions of the same copy. Authors are also offered a free three-line classified ad in recognition of their contribution to the Society. These adsare run on a space available basis. WANTED: 1778 NORTH CAROLINA COLONIAL $40. (Free Speech Motto). Kenneth Casebeer, (828) 277- 1779; WORLD PAPER MONEY. 2 stamps for new arrival price list. I actively buy and sell. Mention PM receive $3 credit. 661-298-3149. Gary Snover, PO Box 1932, Canyon Country, CA 91386 TRADE MY DUPLICATE, circulated FRN $1 star notes for yours I need. Have many in the low printings. Free list. Ken Kooistra, PO Box 71, Perkiomenville, PA 18074. WANTED: Notes from the State Bank of Indiana, Bank of the State of Indiana, and related documents, reports, and other items. Write with description (include photocopy if possible) first. Wendell Wolka, PO Box 1211, Greenwood, IN 46142 WANTED: Any type Nationals containing the name “LAWRENCE” (i.e. bank of LAWRENCE). Send photo/price/description to BUYING ONLY $1 HAWAII OVERPRINTS. White, no stains, ink, rust or rubber stamping, only EF or AU. Pay Ask. Craig Watanabe. 808-531- 2702. Vermont National Bank Notes for sale. For list contact. WANTED: Any type Nationals from Charter #10444 Forestville, NY. Contact with price. Leo Duliba, 469 Willard St., Jamestown, NY 14701-4129. "Collecting Paper Money with Confidence". All 27 grading factors explained clearly and in detail. Now available . Stamford CT Nationals For Sale or Trade. Have some duplicate notes, prefer trade for other Stamford notes, will consider cash. WANTED: Republic of Texas “Star” (1st issue) notes. Also “Medallion” (3rd issue) notes. VF+. Serious Collector. Wanted Railroad scrip Wills Valley; Western & Atlantic 1840s; East Tennessee & Georgia; Memphis and Charleston. Dennis Schafluetzel 1900 Red Fox Lane; Hixson, TN 37343. Call 423-842-5527 or email dennis@schafluetzel WANT ADS WORK FOR YOU  We could all use a few extra bucks. Money Mart ads can help you sell duplicates,  advertise wants,  increase your collection, and have more fun with your hobby.  Up to 20 words plus your address in SIX BIG ISSUES only $20.50/year!!!! *  Take it from those who have found the key to “Money Mart success” Put out your want list in “Money Mart” and see what great notes become part of your collecting future, too. ONLY$20.50 / YEAR ! ! ! (wow)  $ MoneyMart $  ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * Nov/Dec 2016 * Whole No. 306_____________________________________________________________ 474 Florida Paper Money Ron Benice “I collect all kinds of Florida paper money” 4452 Deer Trail Blvd. Sarasota, FL 34238 941 927 8765 Books available,,, MYLAR D® CURRENCY HOLDERS PRICED AS FOLLOWS BANK NOTE AND CHECK HOLDERS SIZE INCHES 50 100 500 1000 Fractional Colonial Small Currency Large Currency Auction Foreign Currency Checks 4-3/4" x 2-1/4" $21.60 $38.70 $171.00 $302.00 5-1/2" x 3-1/16" $22.60 $41.00 $190.00 $342.00 6-5/8" x 2-7/8" $22.75 $42.50 $190.00 $360.00 7-7/8" x 3-1/2" $26.75 $48.00 $226.00 $410.00 9 x 3-3/4" $26.75 $48.00 $226.00 $410.00 8 x 5 $32.00 $58.00 $265.00 $465.00 9-5/8 x 4-1/4" $32.00 $58.00 $265.00 $465.00 SHEET HOLDERS SIZE INCHES 10 50 100 250 Obsolete Sheet End Open 8-3/4" x 14-1/2" $20.00 $88.00 $154.00 $358.00 National Sheet Side Open 8-1/2" x 17-1/2" $21.00 $93.00 $165.00 $380.00 Stock Certificate End Open 9-1/2" x 12-1/2" $19.00 $83.00 $150.00 $345.00 Map & Bond Size End Open 18" x 24" $82.00 $365.00 $665.00 $1530.00 You may assort note holders for best price (min. 50 pcs. one size). You may assort sheet holders for best price (min. 10 pcs. one size). SHIPPING IN THE U.S. (PARCEL POST) FREE OF CHARGE Out of Country sent Registered Mail at Your Cost Mylar D® is a Registered Trademark of the Dupont Corporation. This also applies to uncoated archival quality Mylar® Type D by the Dupont Corp. or the equivalent material by ICI Industries Corp. Melinex Type 516. DENLY’S OF BOSTON P.O. Box 29, Dedham, MA 02027 • 781-326-9481 ORDERS: 800-HI-DENLY • FAX 781-326-9484 DBR Currency We Pay top dollar for *National Bank notes *Large size notes *Large size FRNs and FBNs P.O. Box 28339 San Diego, CA 92198 Phone: 858-679-3350 Fax: 858-679-7505 See out eBay auctions under user ID DBRcurrency HIGGINS MUSEUM 1507 Sanborn Ave. • Box 258 Okoboji, IA 51355 (712) 332-5859 email: Open: Tuesday-Sunday 11 to 5:30 Open from Memorial Day thru Labor Day History of National Banking & Bank Notes Turn of the Century Iowa Postcards Maryland Paper Money: An Illustrated History, 1864-1935 This 348-page hardcover book documents Maryland’s national currency era of banking from 1864 to 1935. Almost 300 photos of surviving notes are shown, including many rarities from the landmark Marc Watts Collection of National Currnecy. “This is a wonderful specialized work on Maryland nation bank and their notes that is destined to be the guidebook for generations to come.” Mark Hotz. Available for purchase online at and Foreign Oversize Foreign Jumbo 10" x 6" $23.00 $89.00 $150.00 $320.00 10" x 8" $30.00 $118.00 $199.00 $425.00 ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * Nov/Dec 2016 * Whole No. 306_____________________________________________________________ 475 You are invited to visit our web page For the past 13 years we have offered a ,good selection of conservatively graded. reasonably priced currency for the collector. All notes are imaged for your review Fractional Currency Collectors Join the Fractional Currency Collectors Board (FCCB) today and join with other collectors who study, collect and commiserate about these fascinating notes. LARGE SIZE TYPE NOTES SMALL SIZE TYPE NOTES SMALLSIZESTARNOTES OBSOLETES New members get a copy of Milt Friedberg’s updated version of the Encyclopedia of United States Postage and Fractional Currency as well as a copy of the Simplified copy of the same which is aimed at new collectors. Nst ew members will also get a copy of Rob CONFEDERATES Kravitz’s 1 edition “A Collector’s Guide to Postage ERROR NOTES TIM kYZIVAT (708) 784-0974 P.O. BOX 401 WESTERN SPRINGS, IL 60558 e-MAIL: TKYZIVAT@KYZIVATCURRENCY.COM and Fractional Currency” while supplies last. New Membership is $30 or $22 for the Simplified edition only To join, contact William Brandimore, membership chairman at 1009 Nina, Wausau, WI 54403. Buying & Selling • Obsolete • Confederate • Colonial & Continental • Fractional • Large & Small U.S. Type Notes Vern Potter Currency & Collectibles Please visit our Website at Hundreds of Quality Notes Scanned, Attributed & Priced P.O. Box 10040 Torrance, CA 90505-0740 Phone: 310-326-0406 Email: Member •PCDA •SPMC •FUN •ANA United States Paper Money specialselectionsfordiscriminatingcollectors Buying and Selling the finest in U.S. paper money Individual Rarities: Large, Small National Serial Number One Notes Large Size Type Error Notes Small Size Type National Currency StarorReplacementNotes Specimens, Proofs, Experimentals Frederick J. Bart Bart,Inc. website: (586) 979-3400 POBox2• Roseville,MI 48066 e-mail: ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * Nov/Dec 2016 * Whole No. 306_____________________________________________________________ 476 Central States Numismatic Society 78th Anniversary Convention April 26-29, 2017 (Bourse Hours – April 26 – 12 noon-6pm Early Birds: $125 Registration Fee) Schaumburg, IL Schaumburg Renaissance Hotel & Convention Center Visit our website: Bourse Information: Patricia Foley (414) 698-6498 • Hotel Reservations: Schaumburg Renaissance Hotel - 1551 North Thoreau Drive • Call (847) 303-4100 Ask for the “Central States Numismatic Society” Convention Rate. Problems booking? - Call Convention Chairman Kevin Foley at (414) 807-0116 Free Hotel Guest and Visitor Parking. • Numismatic Educational Forum • Educational Exhibits • 300 Booth Bourse Area • Heritage Coin Signature Sale • Heritage Currency Signature Sale • Educational Programs • Club and Society Meetings • Free Hotel Guest and Visitor Parking • Complimentary Public Admission: Thursday-Friday-Saturday No Pesky Sales Tax in Illinois PLATINUM NIGHT® & SIGNATURE® AUCTIONS January 4-10, 2017 | Fort Lauderdale | Live & Online Select Highlights From Our Official FUN 2017 Auctions Paul R. Minshull #AU4563; Heritage #AB665 & AB2218. BP 17.5%; see 40574 DALLAS | NEW YORK | BEVERLY HILLS | SAN FRANCISCO | CHICAGO | PALM BEACH PARIS | GENEVA | AMSTERDAM | HONG KONG Always Accepting Quality Consignments in 40 Categories Immediate Cash Advances Available 1 Million+ Online Bidder-Members Consignment Deadline: November 14 Contact a Heritage Consignment Director today. 800-872-6467 Ext. 1001 or Visit to view the catalog and place bids beginning early December. Fr. 2231-G $10,000 1934 Federal Reserve Note PMG About Uncirculated 50 Fr. 210 1861 $1000 Interest Bearing Note Face Proof Hessler HX-115D Hastings, MN - $5 Original Fr. 397a The Merchants NB Ch. # 1538 PMG Very Fine 20 From the Gilmore Sem Collection Part I Clearfield, PA - $50 1875 Fr. 446 The County NB Ch. # 855 1862 $10,000 Temporary Loan Certificate Face Proof Hessler HX-143E Fr. 151 $50 1869 Legal Tender PMG Very Fine 25 From A Private New York Collection, Part II