Paper Money - Vol. XXIII, No. 1 - Whole No. 109 - January - February 1984

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JAN. / FEB. 1984 VOL. XXIII No. 1 WHOLE No. 109 11 111111 11 111 1 111 1 1 .1 1 11 1111 1 1 KAGIN'S AUCTION SCHEDULE 1984 METROPOLITAN NEW YORK — New York, New York March 30-31, 1984 Consignment Deadline: January 1, 1984. See a Kagin's representative at these events: ► Grand Central — November 3-6, 1983 ► Silver Dollar Convention — November 10-13, 1983 LONG BEACH NUMISMATIC & PHILATELIC EXPOSITION — Long Beach, California May 31-June 3, 1984 Consignment Deadline: March 1, 1984. See a Kagin's representative at the above mentioned events. INTERNATIONAL PAPER MONEY SHOW— Memphis, Tennessee June 14-17, 1984 Consignment Deadline: March 15, 1984. See a Kagin's representative at these events: ► Florida United Numismatists — January 4-7, 1984 ► ANA Mid Winter — February 23-26, 1984 LONG BEACH NUMISMATIC & PHILATELIC EXPOSITION — Long Beach, California October 4-7, 1984 Consignment Deadline: July 4, 1984. See a Kagin's representative at the above mentioned events. Traditionally, the best prices for rare coins and currency have been obtained at auction. With over 325 sales in fifty years of successful numismatics, Kagin's has the experience and knowledge to obtain maximum results. For consignments over $50,000, we will pay all expenses for airfare, hotel accommodations, and meals when you accompany your material to our nearest office—San Francisco, Des Moines, New York, or London. Your material will be personally evaluated by our expert numismatic staff. All paperwork, pre-grading, and promotional arrangements will be made immediately, in your presence. You will return home confidently, knowing your material will be receiving Kagin's professional handling. For those who wish, Kagin's will be happy to make alternate travel arrangements. Take advantage of Kagin's 50 years of experience. Call today TOLL FREE to discuss your consignment with a Kagin's professional. SAN FRANCISCO Donald H. Kagin, Ph.D. George J. Fuld, Sc.D. Ron Howard TOLL FREE 800 227-5676 IN CA 800 652-1250 DES MOINES A.M. (Art) Kagin David T. Alexander Kurt L. Langland TOLL FREE 800 247-5335 IN IOWA 800 622-8289 NUMISMATIC AUCTIONS 1000 INSURANCE EXCHANGE BUILDING DES MOINES, IOWA 50309 Official Bimonthly Publication of The Society of Paper Money Collectors, Inc. Vol. XXIII No. 1 Whole No. 109 JAN./FEB. 1984 ISSN 0031-1162 BARBARA R. MUELLER, Editor 225 S. Fischer Ave. Jefferson, WI 53549 414-674-5239 Manuscripts and publications for review should be addressed to the Editor. Opinions expressed by the authors are their own and do not necessarily reflect those of SPMC or its staff. PAPER MONEY reserves the right to edit or reject any copy. Deadline for editorial copy is the 1st of the month preceding the month of publication (e.g., Feb. 1 for March issue, etc.). IN THIS ISSUE THE ILLINOIS COUNTRY CURRENCY Harry G. Wigington 3 LITERATURE REVIEW Barbara R. Mueller 11 THE BEGINNING AND ENDING OF THE BUZZARDS BAY NATIONAL BANK E. Burnell Overlock 12 ALTERED KITTANNING BANK NOTE Joseph F. Gregory 14 THE PAPER COLUMN—TERRITORIAL CENSUS— STATUS REPORT Peter Huntoon 15 MISMATCHED SERIAL NUMBERS Jim Greene 18 CANADIAN LEGAL TENDER NOTE SPECIMENS ON MARKET 20 1929-1935 NATIONAL BANK NOTE VARIETIES M. Owen Warns 21 AMERICAN BANK NOTE ENGRAVERS OF THE STATE BANK NOTE ERA C. John Ferreri 22 THE AFRICAN OSTRICH FARM AND FEATHER COMPANY Edward Schuman 27 THE FIRST SMALL "ONES" David Klein 31 THE GREEN GOODS GAME—NEW JERSEY NOTES PASSED IN NORTH DAKOTA Forrest Daniel 33 RAILROAD NOTES AND SCRIP OF THE UNITED STATES, THE CONFEDERATE STATES AND CANADA R.T. Hoober 37 SOCIETY FEATURES INTEREST BEARING NOTES 41 SECRETARY'S REPORT 42 Paper Money Whole No. 109 Page 1 SOCIETY *1° PAPER MONEY COLLECTORS INC. . rin PAPER MONEY is published every other month beginning in January by The Society of Paper Money Collectors, 1211 N. DuPont Hwy., Dover, DE. Se- cond class postage paid at Dover, DE 19901. Postmaster; send address changes to: Paper Money, 1211 N. DuPont Hwy. Dover, DE 19901. © Society of Paper Money Collectors, Inc., 1984. All rights reserved. Repro- duction of any article, in whole or in part, without express written permis- sion, is prohibited. Annual Membership dues in SPMC are $12. Individual copies of current issues, $2.00. ADVERTISING RATES SPACE Outside 1 TIME 3 TIMES 6 TIMES Back Cover $72.00 $195.00 $367.50 Inside Front & Back Cover $67.50 $181.50 $345.00 Full Page $59.00 $158.00 $299.00 Half-page $36.00 $ 98.00 $185.00 Quarter-page $15.00 $ 40.00 $ 77.00 Eighth-page $10.00 $ 26.00 $ 49.00 To keep administrative costs at a minimum and advertising rates low, advertising orders must be prepaid in advance according to the above schedule. In the exceptional cases where special artwork or extra typing are re- quired, the advertiser will be notified and billed extra for them accordingly. Rates are not commissionable. Proofs are not supplied. 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Page 2 Paper Money Whole No. 109 ( EDITOR Barbara R. Mueller, 225 S. Fischer Ave., Jefferson, WI 53549 NEW MEMBERSHIP COORDINATOR Ron Horstman, P.O. Box 6011, St. Louis, MO 63139 BOOK SALES COORDINATOR Richard Balbaton, 116 Fisher Street, North Attleboro, MA 02760. WISMER BOOK PROJECT Richard T. Hoober, P.O. Box 196, Newfoundland, PA 18445 LEGAL COUNSEL Robert G. Galiette, 10 Wilcox Lane, Avon, CT 06001 PAST PRESIDENT AND LIBRARIAN Wendell Wolka, P.O. Box 366, Hinsdale, IL 60521 PUBLICITY CHAIRMAN C. John Ferreri, P.O. Box 33, Storrs, CT 06268 NEW MEMBERSHIP COORDINATOR Ron Horstman, P.O. Box 6011, St. Louis, MO 63139 PRESIDENT Larry Adams, P.O. Box 1, Boone, Iowa 50036 VICE-PRESIDENT Roger H. Durand, P.O. Box 186, Rehoboth, MA 02769 SECRETARY Robert Azpiazu, Jr., P.O. Box 1433, Hialeah, FL 33011 TREASURER James F. Stone, P.O. Box 89, Milford, N.H. 03055 BOARD OF GOVERNORS Larry Adams, Walter Allan, Charles Colver, Michael Crabb, Mar- tin Delger, Roger H. Durand, C. John Ferreri, William Horton, Jr., Peter Huntoon, Roman L. Latimer, Dean Oakes, Bernard Schaaf, M.D., Stephen Taylor, Steven Whitfield, John Wilson. Society of Paper Money Collectors APPOINTEES OFFICERS The Society of Paper Money Collectors was organized in 1961 and incorporated in 1964 as a non-profit organ- ization under the laws of the District of Columbia. It is af- filiated with the American Numismatic Association and holds its annual meeting at the ANA Convention in August of each year. MEMBERSHIP—REGULAR. Applicants must be at least 18 years of age and of good moral character. JUNIOR. Applicants must be from 12 to 18 years of age and of good moral character. Their application must be signed by a parent or a guardian. They will be preceded by the letter "j". This letter will be removed upon notifi- cation to the secretary that the member has reached 18 years of age. Junior members are not eligible to hold of- fice or to vote. Members of the A.N.A. or other recognized numis- matic organizations are eligible for membership. Other applicants should be sponsored by an S.P.M.C. member, or the secretary will sponsor persons if they provide suitable references such as well known numismatic firms with whom they have done business, or bank references, etc. DUES—The Society dues are on a calendar year basis. Annual dues are $12. Members who join the Society prior to October 1st receive the magazines already issued in the year in which they join. Members who join after October 1st will have their dues paid through December of the following year. They will also receive, as a bonus, a copy of the magazine issued in November of the year in which they joined. PUBLICATIONS FOR SALE TO MEMBERS BOOKS FOR SALE: All cloth bound books are 8'h x 11" INDIANA OBSOLETE NOTES & SCRIP $12.00 NEW JERSEY'S MONEY, Wait $12.00 Non-Member $15.00 Non-Member $15.00 MINNESOTA OBSOLETE NOTES & SCRIP. TERRITORIALS—A GUIDE TO U.S. TERRITORIAL Rockholt $12.00 BANK NOTES, Huntoon $12.00 Non-Member $15.00 Non-Member $15.00 MAINE OBSOLETE NOTES & SCRIP. Wait $12.00 INDIAN TERRITORY / OKLAHOMA / KANSAS Non-Member $15.00 OBSOLETE NOTES & SCRIP, Burgett & OBSOLETE NOTES & SCRIP OF RHODE ISLAND Whitefield $12.00 AND THE PROVIDENCE PLANTATIONS, Non-Member $15.00 Durand $20.00 IOWA OBSOLETE NOTES & SCRIP, Oakes $12.00 Non-Member $25.00 Non-Member $15.00 ORDERING INSTRUCTIONS Write for Quantity Prices on the above books. I. Give complete description for all items ordered. 2. Total the cost of all publications ordered. 3. ALL publications are postpaid except orders for less than 5 copies of Paper Money. 4. Enclose payment (U.S. funds only) with all orders. Make your check or money order payable to: Society of Paper Money Collectors. 5. Remember to include your ZIP CODE. 6. Allow up to six weeks for delivery. We have no control of your package after we place it in the mails. Order from: R.J. Balbaton, SPMC Book Sales Dept. 116 Fisher St., North Attleboro, MA 02760. Library Services The Society maintains a lending library for the use of44......_ Librarian—Wendell Wolka, P.O. Box 366, Hinsdale, Ill. the members only. For further in formation, write the 60521. —... HE term "Illinois Country" was a common ref- erence made during the 18th century to identify the broad expanse of area between the Wabash River in the east to the western side of the Mississippi River, and an area from the north of present-day Peoria to the junction of the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers near Cairo, Illinois. This area saw many famous early explorers and frontiersmen mark their place in American history. The Illinois Country was generally divided into two distinct areas. The southern region was governed by New Orleans and directly influenced by its commerce, trade and civil and military authority. The northern region, while still under military and civil rule of New Orleans, by its mere distance from that city, came under some influence from the Canadian French authority, by means of trade and some customs. Still, New Orleans was the seat of power and govern- ment for the remote region along the Mississippi River, in that area which takes in the present-day state of Illinois and the eastern part of Missouri. This area was governed by a military commander stationed at Ft. Chartres (see map). In addition to the military commander at this post, there was a civil authority who served in the capacity of judge. He was Guardian of the King's Warehouse (like today's Post Exchange) and held the second highest position at the Fort. It was during the 17th and 18th centuries in North America, in many areas, that hard specie was the ex- ception rather than the rule. In some areas barter and business transactions were conducted with furs, slaves, crops, and other staples of life. However, governments with remote outposts away from their main points of operation often had to resort to other means for finan- cial transactions. The British never resorted to any official substitu- tion for hard specie; in fact, it was forbidden by the King's Law. However, the French, having experiment- ed with substitute forms of exchange in place of hard specie, placed no restrictions on their Nouvelle France officials. (g. the -fei rne/ \ ill a ges 1." tbi' ILLINOIS COUNTRY. wed,Pair'rv7i/e River Milsithippi s.:e. Gr /e„ 171e.J4/1i 3 3 .1 3 io Scale uf Miles. Paper Money Whole No. 109 Page 3 The Illinois Country Currency by HARRY G. WIGINGTON T HE economic system employed in Canadian and Lou- isiana Provinces of Nouvelle France was only slightly felt in the Illinois Country, but, was still there. Refer- ences are found in manuscripts and correspondences which indicate that out of necessity and primarily due to remoteness in the wilderness, it did exist. Several mediums of exchange were experimented with and placed in use. Information relat- ing to those remote uses of currency are limited to obscure documents and essays, many written at the time or shortly thereafter. However, as stated, enough evidence has surfaced to piece together the manner in which these mediums of ex- change were used on the colonial frontier of the Mississippi. Originally built in 1718, and remodeled in 1732, Fort Chartres, which was the seat of military government on the Mississippi River, was an important outpost to the French in the vast Illinois Country of Nouvelle France. The Kaskaskia Papers (located in Chester, Illinois in the Randolph County Court House) show that "hand notes" were a frequent means of exchange among merchants, traders, trappers, and local citizens. These hand notes were often no more than written promissory notes for the promise to pay in pelts or some commodity. They did exchange from party to party as a medium of payment of debt. The only hard currency or money in the Country was that brought in by settlers; but it was quickly returned to civilization or hoarded by the local inhabitants. As a result, in the period of the 1740s to 1760s, "card money" made its way Page 4 Paper Money Whole No. 109 into this remote region; it had already been in use in Canada and New Orleans for some 60 years. The most likely reason it was introduced was that the officials who governed at Fort Chartres during the period had previously been stationed in Canada or New Orleans. These officials were knowledgeable about the card money system and its mechanics. Thus, at those times when troops were becoming deeply indebted to merchants and to the King's Warehouse, some means had to be devised to relieve this continual burden on the troops' morale. The situation was aggravated when payment chests were not received from the motherland. The French were no- torious in their low payment to their troops also. The English, by comparison, paid their troops a higher scale and, by Royal Decree, in hard money. The garrison at Fort Chartres was never very large. In 1763, the largest number of troops is reported as having been some 196 men. Life for French soldiers at an outpost such as Fort Chartres was meager to say the least. Poorly clothed and equipped, they were often scorned by the inhabitants. Only those officers from the gentry families had any means by which to live in an existence above pure poverty. The soldiers were supplied to the colonial outpost in Nouvelle France from the slums and dungeons of Paris. So left with a choice, these soldiers probably accepted their fate in the wilderness over their previous environment in the motherland. But their needs still had to be filled, as far as basic essen- tials no matter how meager, and as a result the wilderness government had to resort to substitute payment for her troops. This payment came as periodic card money or SOLDE DE TROOPE* notes. While no direct evidence has been found, such payments probably were used at numerous posts on the frontier, being a local emergency issue rather than the more official card money issues of Canada or New Orleans. It was becoming apparent that the combination of low wages, seldom received pay dests from the motherland, and generally deplorable conditions (both physical and morale) of the troops forced action on the part of the military authority at Fort Chartres. This authority was composed of the commanding offi- cer, who was in effect Governor over the vast territory which the fort controlled. Also, the Guardian of the King's Ware- house, who held the position of notary and judge, was the second most important person in authority. The commanding officer handled all military matters, and the guardian of the warehouse handled all civil, administrative, and financial af- fairs. The former received annual wages of 1200 livres and generally 1000 livres gratification for upkeep of the fort and other expenses. The principal civil officer or guardian of the warehouse was paid 1000 livres. The authority for any temporary or emergency issue of SOLDE notes or card money was under the commanding officer, but its implemen- tation and application fell under the control of the guardian of the warehouse. It was the guardian who signed and issued such notes to be used for payment to the troops. SOLDE DE TROOPE notes used by the French to pay their troops in the Illinois Country and described herein are attributed to Fort Chartres. It is suggested that these notes were in use during the 1760s and probably earlier. However, with the change of authority from the French to the British after the end of the French and Indian Wars, and the signing of a treaty in 1763, the motherland cut off any payment funds to the Illinois Country, and the need for an emergency issue became urgent. Joseph Lefebvre, being a judge, guard- ian of the warehouse and civil authority, had the power to issue SOLDE notes. There are two known denominations. These notes appear to be a month's pay for a private and probably a sergeant's rank. Research for background on these notes shows the large extent of this type of currency in Canada and Louisiana under the French rule; however, only a few specimens are known of the Canadian issues, while millions of notes were placed into circulation. Louisiana also issued thousands of these card notes, and to date none are known to have survived. Joseph Lefebvre d'Inglebert Desbruisseau was a native of France who came to the Illinois Country from New Orleans in 1744, with full authority from Governor M. de Vaudreuil, holding an exclusive right to trade with the Indians in the Illinois Country. Upon arriving at Fort Chartres in 1744, he began his operations in trading with the Indians, as well as holding the civil position of judge for the district. He originally came to New Orleans with or about the time Governor Marquis de Vaudreuil arrived in 1743. He was married to Frances Marie Ursule Diacre. His wife traveled with him to Fort Chartres. Joseph Lefebvre (who was also known and signed his name as Joseph Lefevre) was the King's Commissary, Garde-magasin and Commissaire-ordonnateur. The latter position had full authority over financial affairs pertaining to Nouvelle France (New France) in the Illinois Country. His authority was equal to that of the military com- mander or governor of the region. During the period prior to the end of the French and Indian Wars, Nouvelle France was broken into two regions, the northern and the southern dis- tricts. The Illinois Country fell into the northern district. The records of this position are traced back to 1734, when Louis Auguste de la Loere Flancour held the title. Flancour died in 1746 and was succeeded by Joseph Buchet, who had previously been the Garde-magasin (guardian of the warehouse). He is traced in this position until January 1757, after which Jean Arnold Valentine Bobe Descloseaux held the position for several years. It is unclear exactly when Des- closeaux left office; in any event, he was succeeded by Joseph Lefevre. Lefevre held this position until the British occupied Fort Chartres in October 1765. When the French turned over the Territory to the British in 1765, Lefevre traveled across the Mississippi to the newly founded village of St. Louis with Louis St. Ange, who was established as military governor for the Spanish, until Captain Pedro Piernas took command on May 20, 1770. Little more is known of Lefevre; however, he held a similar civil authority position at St. Louis with Captain Louis St. Ange, who was commanding the post for the Spanish. Apparently failing health limited his activities, as few documents are found with his name and seal. He died in St. Louis on April 31, 1767. There appears to be some con- fusion regarding the name Joseph Lefebvre d'Inglebert Des- bruisseau. On official documents and civil papers, his name appears as Lefebvre; however, on short documents and the SOLDE DE TROOPE notes, it appears as Lefevre. This is also the version used by the British in letters found in the Kaskaskia Papers; in the General Thomas Gage papers; and in the papers and letters of George Morgan, British merchant in the firm of Baynton, Wharton and Morgan, which was located in Philadelphia. There are also several references to Joseph Lefebvre with the spelling of Lefeve. It appears the Paper Money Whole No. 109 Page 5 Illinois "bon" of St. Ange. The text in French reads: ILLINOIS Je soussigne Garde Magazin du Roy an Poste des illinois Certiffie qu'il est du au Sr. Louis Dehetre La Somme de Quatre Cent Quarante Pour avoir Nourri & loge onze Sauvages sauteux pendant vingt Jours suivant les ordres de Mr le Commendant a raison de quarante sols par Jour Chaque de laquelle S0171111e Je prie Monsieur Foucault 18406 Commissaire ordonnateur de la province de la Louisianne Intendant de la Marine De vouloir Bien En ordonner 440# le payment. Aux Illinois le 15 Juillet 1769 J. St. Ange Lefebvre Desruissau The English translation reads: I the undersigned, Royal Storehouse Keeper at the post of the Illinois, certify that Louis Dehetre is owed the sum of 440 (Byres) for having fed and lodged eleven Sauteux Indians for twenty days, by order of the Commandant, at forty soh the day for each, which sum I beg Mr. Foucault, chief commissioner of the province of Louisiana, Intendant of the Navy, graciously to order to be paid. At the Illinois 15 July 1769 (Note that writer has confused Foucalt's titles here.) L.D. British preferred the shorter version. In signing a number of SOLDE DE TROOPE notes, it is logical that he would use the shorter signature because of the time and energy expended in hand writing each note. Joseph Lefevre and Frances Marie Ursule Diacre had one son, born in 1743, and named Pierre Francois Branot Joseph d'Inglebert Lefebvre Desbruisseau. He became a lieutenant in the French service and traveled with St. Ange and his father to St.. Louis in 1765. After the death of his father in 1767, he assumed the position of Garde-magasin, which had been held by the father. The son, who signed his name as Lefebvre Desbruisseau, shared this authority with Joseph Labusciere, who also had been at Fort Chartres, serving in the capacity of a judge, and took over Joseph Lefebvre's (Lefevre) civil administrative post upon his death. Lefebvre Desbruisseau, while living at St. Louis, married a Miss Margaret, daughter of Bardet de Laferne, who was a surgeon in the King's service. They were married on November 10, 1768. Des- bruisseau apparently traveled with his wife to New Orleans in 1770, after the Spanish took possession of St. Louis, as it is recorded that he died in New Orleans in 1770. The exact date is not known nor the manner in which he died; however, a document is known which shows Desbruisseau's signature on February 5, 1770. It is presumed that the document was exe- cuted either in St. Louis or Kaskaskia. It is possible he traveled to New Orleans in late spring, as weather conditions would have broken to make the river free to navigate south to New Orleans. r •srmr-.7117--v Oac 12----d;;; Page 6 Paper Money Whole No. 109 441 Atte 1ZG .0.-e-Ra • -7-2. 7 ) -49/_457 / c_rc. 69, Another Illinois "bon" of St. Ange. The text in French reads: 2J ". Or' 2 /o9.2-,/, ILLINOIS Je pries Monsieur Foucault colnissaire ordonateur de La Marine Intendant De La province De la Louis- siane de vouloir faire payer au Nome La Deroute La Some De neuf Livres Sept Sols quatre Deniers pour pareillies Som quil ma rem is Se jour En Un Certificat De La gession De feu Sieur Lefebvre cy Delimit garde No. 8 magazin Des Illinois Le Dr. Certificat au nom de Dejardin pour avoir fournies trente sept livre et demie de farine 947s4d a 25L Le % . . . 776 Dimes De 1766 De la qu'elle Soul Je rendray Compte En Envoyant Le Borderaux Aux Illinois le 24 avril 1769 J. St. ange Lefebvre Desruissau The English translation reads: I beg Mr. Foucault, chief commissioner of the navy, Intendant of the province of Louisiana to order that one LaDeroute be paid the sum of nine livres, 7 sols, 7 deniers, for a like sum which he gave to me today in the form of a certificate upon the administration (estate) of the late Lefebvre, formerly keeper of the storehouse in the Illinois, the said certificate in the name of Dejardin for having supplied thirty-seven and a half livres of flour at 25 livres the hundredweight dated 1766, for which S11171 I will be accountable in sending a statement. In the Illinois on April 24, 1769 Captain Louis St. Ange de Bellerive was born in Canada and served at a number of French posts in the northern dis- trict of Nouvelle France. His assignment to Fort Chartres left him with the task of surrendering the Illinois Country to the British. It would take the British two years before they could occupy the Illinois Country, after signing the Treaty of Paris in 1763. St. Ange, with one captain and company, in the name of the King of France, formally delivered the Illinois Country to Captain Thomas Sterling. Captain Sterling's company left Fort Pitt on August 24, 1765, for Fort Chartres. It took them the better part of two months before they reached Fort Chartres on October 9, 1765. When the formal surrender took place on October 10, 1765, the local French population was unhappy with the pres- ent state of affairs, due in part to the fact that on September 24, 1763, the French government ordered all Jesuit priests expelled from the French-held territories. In the Illinois, the Jesuits sold their lands and buildings at Kaskaskia and left for New Orleans. Seminary priests at Cahokia, seeing the turn of events, were convinced that a Catholic mission would be re- stricted under the control of the English and sold their property and left the country. The remaining French settlers found themselves without the benefits of the rites and con- solations of their religion, along with their unwillingness to take the oath of allegiance to the British Crown, so most of them moved to the Spanish Territory west of the Mississippi. j'd1h / / 400008197r-/ 9-1 /if Paper Money Whole No. 109 Page 7 47,x/-e ar.J2c-19"44 ztiw /49.207-.4e-r-1-0—Q 41t--°%7120--,) >011:1 .;-440,st ka-4.-7 r ca r Desbruisseau's May 20, 1770 order note. Example of a "hand note" in French, 1770. The text in French reads: Je promette a paye a Monsieur Marie ou a son ordre La Somme de Quatre Cent Livres en Pelleterie, dans La Courante du mois de Juien prochain, pour une Barique de Taffia receu a St. St. Louis, Au Caho 17# 1770 paid by G.W. Datchurut J11. B Han . . . . Messr. Baynton The English translation reads: I promise to pay to Mr. Marie or at his order the sum of four hundred Livres in pelts, during the month of next June, for one barrel of rum, received at St. Louis. Done at Cahokia, 17th 1770. 2.4‘ 77 ‘..r..." La ee-z-2 al rt...-"..P.k a . e.1,1:df".eir; L / 44-1 Page 8 Paper Money Whole No. 109 Example of a "hand note" in English, 1776. Photograph by Boutrelle. The power of government resided in the hands of the British Commandant, who served duty in the Illinois for periods of two to three years. Because several British com- manders were corrupt and cruel in their actions to the local inhabitants and the American settlers were forbidden to settle beyond the crest of the Allegheny mountains by an ill-advised Proclamation of October 7, 1763, English trading firms from the eastern colonies met with ultimate failure. The notes shown with this background on early Illinois currency were all located together. Companion pieces give date lines and locations in the Village of St. Louis, Kaskaskia, and Cahokia (also spelled Coskie), as well as Fort Chartres during the period of 1763 to 1770. In the Illinois Historical Collection, Chapter VII, "The trade and colonial plans progress- 7-30-1766 to 10-11-1766," there appears a notation listed as: "An agreement of the creditors at Lagrange." This instrument is dated 7-30-1766 with both French text and English translation. Also, a number of promissory notes and receipts are given in this agreement. Included is one by Lefebvre (Lefevre) in the same style as the SOLDE DE TROOPE notes. "Pour la somme de dix neuf cent quatre vingt onze livre en argent . . . ." This translates as: "For the sum of nineteen hundred and ninety- one livres in money . . ." These promissory notes, often referred to in that time as hand notes, and the receipts were dated July 30, 1766 at Kaskaskia. Several conflicting areas of information arose during my research, notably, the date of death of Joseph Lefebvre (Lefevre). F.L. Billion in his "Annals of St. Louis," pub- lished in 1886, gave his date of death as April 31, 1767 in the Village of St. Louis. However, other references, such as J.T. Schaaf in the 1883 publication of "History of St. Louis, City and County," Volume #1, gave the date as August 15, 1766, in St. Louis. Several other sources each make reference to the two above listed dates of death. Both Billion and Schaaf relied on old records and personal interviews with residents of St. Louis for background data. Much of the early informa- tion regarding St. Louis and events of that time are vague and clouded. The interrelationships of the French, English, and Spanish created three views of everything, each nationality giving versions reflecting its own best interest. Earlier, reference was made to Lefebvre (Lefevre) travel- ing to St. Louis with his son, Desbruisseau, and Captain St. Ange. Several references are found that for a short period of time, in 1766, St. Ange again commanded at Fort Chartres for the British. He had a sound military reputation from his own countrymen, as well as the English and Spanish. In October 1765, when he relinquished Fort Chartres to the British, he was acting on a Provincial Executive Order from New Orleans. At that time he was admitted into the Spanish Regiment of Louisiana, with the rank of Captain, equal to the rank he held under the French, but received only half the pay. As stated, the English selected St. Ange because he knew the area, the inhabitants respected him, and he did not have to establish himself. He could easily control any situation that arose on a short-term basis, even overseeing the best interests of the British. Correspondences of the time list Captain Sterling at Fort Chartres from October 10, 1765, being officially succeeded on December 4, 1766 by Major Robert Frazer (NOTE: Major Frazer's name was frequently misspelled and misquoted in early histories of the Illinois Country; however, the correct spelling of his name is Frazer, and not Farmer, Farmar, or Farber). Major Frazer came up the Mississippi from Mobile with the 34th British Infantry (the famous Black Watch). If St. Ange did in fact command Fort Chartres, as suggested by several historians, it was for a period in late 1766. While no concrete evidence has been found to place St. Ange there at that time, someone was commanding Fort Chartres, since references to Captain Sterling's removal are found in a number of letters by the British high command. It is possible that no official notice was made of placing St. Ange in command, as the colonial commanders may have had to answer to England for such an action. Also, his acting as commander would only be for a short period, and the action would perhaps strengthen the British feelings with the French settlers in the area. If St. Ange did in fact go to Fort Chartres, did Lefevre also travel with him? Correspondence Paper Money Whole No. 109 Page 9 Remainder of known SOLDE notes, top to bottom, nos. 537, 862, 893, 927, 929, 931. Photographs by Boutrelle. in October 1765 from Captain Sterling to Major General Thomas Gage reported that the French took all civil officials with them to St. Louis at the time of the British occupation. Therefore, if St. Ange returned, would he not want his civil authority with him as well? Subsequently, proof of existence at Fort Chartres of Lefevre is as substantial as that of St. Ange. This is, of course, taking the late date of Lefevre's death as April 31, 1767 and not August 15, 1766. Both of these points have a direct bearing on the time- frame of issuance for the SOLDE DE TROOPE notes. While the English were in occupational control of the Illinois Country by virtue of the Paris Treaty of 1763, the area was still definitely under the influence of the French from a social and economic standpoint. Trade with English merchants was handled in livres in most business transactions. The ties between the west and east sides of the Missis- sippi were strongly French even beyond 1770 and the actual Spanish occupation of St. Louis. As a result, the entire area was often referred to in the broad expanse known as the Illinois Country. Even the British eventually realized that their colonial program had failed, as in June 1774 the British Parliament passed the Quebec Act, enlarging the boundaries of Quebec to include the Illinois Country, thereby reestablish- ing French civil law to the area. The major remaining question is, were the SOLDE DE TROOPE notes issued prior to October 10, 1765, or during that short period of time in late 1766? If the latter is the case, such action would have been on St. Ange's authority, since the British by law paid their troops in hard specie. Plus, St. Ange's unofficial status at Fort Chartres could have circum- vented the hard specie statute. However, place and circum- stances must be considered, taking into account that no pay chest had been received from British headquarters in Phila- delphia via Fort Pitt. The troops had to be paid in some fashion to enable them to have sundry items from the ware- house and local English merchants trading in the area. If the English merchants, local traders and trappers were willing to accept these SOLDE DE TROOPE substitutes, then the means for their issuance existed. Historically, when card notes were issued by the French in other locations of Nouvelle France (Quebec and New Orleans), merchants and businessmen accumulated them, re- deeming them through the Intendant for letters of credit against the King. These were sent to France once a year for payment. However, with the circumstances that existed at Fort Chartres, their acceptance by the merchants on the sur- face might be questioned, especially at this point in time. But, firms such as Baynton, Wharton and Morgan were fighting for survival on the Mississippi. Competition was fierce and each used tactics to win favorable concessions to their own in- terests. As a result, George Morgan may have accepted the SOLDE DE TROOPE notes, even though he may have har- bored the feeling he would never be able to redeem them by means of a letter of credit against the King of France (although a commission was established later to settle the debts against France after the British had secured control of the area). By so doing, he may well have thought the loss on the SOLDE notes minor compared to the potential revenues he might be able to generate in additional pelts brought into the firm. In addition, larger inventories of supplies might be sold to the inhabitants, thereby increasing the firm's gross sales to the delight of his Philadelphia partners. Such an emission would have been most unusual, as it would have been issued under St. Ange's authority, by Lefevre as temporary guardian of the warehouse, under British occupation. This economic necessity issue would cer- tainly be a case of "Strange Bed Fellows." In the Morgan Papers there are references of payments to troops being redeemed by the firm. However, dates or details cannot be established, as the correspondence is a general summation of their several years of operation in the area. Baynton, Wharton, and Morgan first established their Illinois venture in 1763, as a result of the privileges accorded by the Treaty of Paris to the British. Captain Louis St. Ange de Bellerive, French soldier, had a most diverse career, serving France, Spain and England at a time when each was at odds with the other. When he traveled to St. Louis in 1765, he was 64 years old. There he lived his Page 10 Paper Money Whole No. 109 SOLDE DE TROOP notes, with English translations. Photographs by Boutrelle. (Top) This background of the notes shown and attributed to Fort Chartres and surrounding area is by no means complete ; however, it is a start, and it is hoped that further study and research will broaden our knowledge of a form of paper money used in the wilderness frontier in our early American history. I wish to thank many people who helped me on this re- search, as well as institutions and their staffs who offered many leads and constructive advice. Acknowledgements My most special thanks to Lawrie C. Dean, Archivist, Randolph County, Chester, Ill. It was through her many hours of assistance and research that this article was pieced together; also, thanks for her translation of the French documents. To C.V. Kemp, Wyan- dotte, Mich., who offered needed data and assistance at times of need, a special thanks. Thanks to: Margaret K. Brown, State Arch- aeologist, Dept. of Conservation, Springfield, Ill., and Fort Chartres State Park ; Diane Wilhelm, Reference Librarian, Illinois State Historical Library, Springfield, Ill.; Caroline B. Stottlar, Acting Li- brarian, University of Illinois at Urbana, Champaign, Ill.; John Sholly, Reference Librarian, Pennsylvania State Archives, Harris- burg, Pa.; Western Reserve Historical Society, Cleveland, Ohio; Western Pennsylvania Historical Society, Pittsburgh, Pa.; Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pa.; Pennsylvania State Library, Harrisburg, Pa.; U.S. Army Military History Institute, Carlisle War College, Carlisle Barracks, Pa. Also, a special thanks to Ron Horst- man, St. Louis, Mo. and to a personal friend who offered help when it was needed but never was able to see the results, Maurice Burgett. And a last special thanks to my wife, Martha, who waited patiently, and offered invaluable help in editing and arranging the data used in this article. 15 14 8 Solde de troupe References No. 918 Bon pour la Somme de quinze livres quatorze sots huit denier Lefevre 15 14 8 troop pay No. 918 Good for the sum of fifteen livres fourteen sots eight deniers L. (Bottom) 6 17 4 Solde de troupe No. 928 Bon pour la somme de six livres dix Sept sots qua tre deniers Lefevre 6 17 4 troop pay No. 928 Good for the sum of six livres seventeen sots four deniers L. remaining years, where he died on December 27, 1774, at the home of Mrs. Therese Chouteau, and was laid to rest in a small nearby court. 1. ANNALS OF ST. LOUIS, Vol. #1, F.L. Billion, St. Louis, 1886. 2. HISTORY OF ST. LOUIS, CITY AND COUNTY, Vol. #1, J. Thomas Schaaf, 1883. 3. COLLECTIONS OF THE ILLINOIS STATE HISTORICAL LIBRARY, Edited by C.W. Alvord. Vol. XI. 4. THE HISTORY OF ILLINOIS & LOUISIANA UNDER THE FRENCH RULE. Joseph Wallace — 1893. 5. THE NEW-REGIME 1765 - 1767 (British Series), Vol. II., Edited by C.W. Alvord and C.E. Carter-1916. 6. THE CENTENNIAL HISTORY OF ILLINOIS, Vol. #1, C.W. Alvord. 7. MONETARY SYSTEM OF NOUVELLE FRANCE, by Charles M. Thompson, Fairfield, Ill., 1911. 8. GREAT BRITAIN AND THE ILLINOIS COUNTRY, C.E. Carter. 9. TRANSACTION OF THE ILLINOIS STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY FOR THE YEAR 1907, No. XXII-1908. 10. THE ILLINOIS COUNTRY-1673 - 1818, C.W. Alvord, 1920. 11. LORD LOUDOUN IN NORTH AMERICA, Stanley McCrory, 1968 reprint (Pages 281 to 289). 12. CANADIAN CURRENCY EXCHANGE AND FINANCE DURING THE FRENCH PERIOD, Adam Shortt, Ottawa- 1925, Vol. I & II. 13. ILLINOIS HISTORICAL COLLECTION — Vol. XVL (Trade & Politics 1767 - 1769), Edited by C.W. Alvord & C.E. Carter— 1921. 14. THE CONSPIRACY OF PONTIAC, Vol. #1 & II (Parkman's Works). Francis Parkman-1879. 15. CRUSADERS OF NEW FRANCE, William B. Munro-1918. 16. THE VILLAGE OF CHARTRES IN COLONIAL ILLI- NOIS-1720 to 1765, Edited by Margaret K. Brown and Lawrie C. Dean.-1977. Paper Money Whole No. 109 Page 11 17. COLLECTION DE DOCUMENTS OF NOUVELLE FRANCE, No date or editor. 18. SEQUESTERED BAYNTON, WHARTON & MORGAN PAPERS—Pennsylvania State Archives, Harrisburg, Pa. a. Ledger-journals of their Illinois Country operation (micro- film). b. Journals of their Philadelphia operation (on microfilm). c. Correspondence of George Morgan, 1765-1785 (on microfilm). d. Correspondence of Baynton, Wharton, & Morgan — 1763-1783 (microfilm). e. Correspondence of Baynton, Wharton-1759-1763 (microfilm). f. Correspondence of James Rumsey & Windsor Brown- 1769-1770 (microfilm). g. Miscellaneous correspondence-1759-1783 (microfilm). h. General file correspondence-1759-1799 (microfilm). 19. KASKASKIA PAPERS/MANUSCRIPTS—Chester, Ill., Randolph County Court House. (On microfilm & photocopies). a. Kaskaskia manuscripts and record books. b. Kaskaskia misc. manuscript papers. c. Kaskaskia manuscripts (Private papers—#5, 1747 to 1769). d. Kaskaskia manuscripts (Private papers—#6, 1727 to 1781). e. Kaskaskia manuscripts (Commercial papers—#10, 1760 to 1764). f. Kaskaskia manuscripts (Commercial papers—#I1, 1765 to 1778). g. Kaskaskia manuscripts (Commercial papers—#12, 1741 to 1786). h. French Records Vol. #1, 1722 to 1774. i. French Records Vol. #2, 1725 to 1810. j. Kaskaskia manuscripts (Private papers—#3, 1739 to 1741). k. Kaskaskia manuscripts (Private papers—#4, 1741 to 1746). 1. Kaskaskia manuscripts (Judgment book—record of Joseph Lefebvre d'Inglebert-1765). 20. HISTORY OF LOUISIANA (From its First Discovery and Set- tlement to the Present Time) E. Bunner— 1861. * Translates as Troop Pay or Troop Payment. Literature Review by Barbara R. Mueller, NLG Murray Bloom's Book is Here at Last ! The Brotherhood of Money/The Secret World of Bank Note Printers, by Murray Teigh Bloom. 365 pages. $17.50 from the publisher, BNR Press, 132 E. Second St., Port Clinton, OH 43452. If ever a book can be termed "long-awaited," this is it. Ever since Murray Bloom spoke at our SPMC banquet in Memphis in 1979, we have been waiting, and now it is here. Individual perceptions of its contents will depend to a large extent on individual expectations. For instance, if you were expecting a formal reference work on the world's security printers, you will be disappointed. This is not a reference work ; there are no footnotes, no index, no bibliography. Instead, you will find a collection of anecdotal accounts of individual personalities, cast largely in the form of direct quotations, which leaves one to marvel at the author's ability to interview these normally elusive people so intimately. Taken as a whole, these accounts are greater than the sum of their parts. There will be tidbits of information about any one person or organization scattered throughout many chapters. If you are studying the work of Security-Columbian Bank Note Company, for instance, you will find references in such disparate chapters as "Outside Enemies" dealing with fraudulent stock certificates, "The Man Who Found Himself in China" about bank note salesman W. P. Hunt, and "The Wedding." The last mentioned is the first chapter in the book, and it sets the anecdotal tone. Bloom uses the device of a descrip- tion of a wedding in Lausanne, Switzerland in which the groom was the son of Albert Amon, maker of bank note printing inks. The guests at the elaborate but secretive affair comprised a "who's who" of the bank note world. From this jumping-off point Bloom plunges into a detailed biography of Rino Giori, perhaps the most fascinating and significant of all the personalities profiled. (Giori, of course, is best known for his multicolor intaglio printing presses.) Other chapter subjects are Jim Conlon, Seymour Berry and Harry Clements of our own Bureau of Engraving and Printing; Siegfried Otto of Giesecke & Devrient; the Bul- garian Albert Avramow, agent of both American Bank Note and De La Rue; other and various employees of those con- cerns and the Bank of England; Crane of Crane Paper; Eric Gibbs of Bradbury, Wilkinson; officials of the Bank of France; Gosnak, the USSR bank note printing agency; and various counterfeiters and scoundrels, including those in the employ of the printers. There are no illustrations; certainly photos of such char- acters as Giori would have added spice. There are too many typos, fragmented sentences, and other examples of less than careful editing. James Conlon's name, for example, is spelled in two different ways. The U.S. Bureau of Engraving and Printing is consistently referred to as the Bureau of Engrav- ing, which is not accepted practice in syngraphic/numismatic publishing. It is unfortunate that an otherwise fascinating book should be marred thus. But don't let these shortcomings deter you from buying it. This book will furnish good recreational reading as well as flesh out the people and faces behind the staid facade of the bank note companies. It will make the notes in your albums come alive, and such human interest is all too rare in our hobby. Murray Bloom now has a trilogy of bank note books— including the earlier Money of Their Own and The Man Who Stole Portugal—and still he is not a collector despite contacts with such stalwarts as Amon Carter, Roy Pennell, and Yasha Beresiner, all profiled in his quaintly titled chapter on collec- ting, "Regnant Ragpickers," which also includes a descrip- tion of a Memphis paper money show. It's about time he converted ! BRM MIGSMIIMICPALIOG CNIMI IttiMatilVS£ THE BUZZARDS DAY NATIONAL HANK BLIZZARDS BAY MASSACHUSETTS WILL PAY TOTHE SPARER ON nE.AND MT.,erti DOLMAS A000001A • • IWENTYBOILLAUS ' Page 12 Paper Money Whole No. 109 The Beginning and Ending of The Buzzards Bay National Bank by E. BURNELL OVERLOOK, SPMC 78 Number 1 note. T HE Buzzards Bay National Bank of Massachusetts was organized and chartered with a capital of $50,000 by the federal government, July 1928, because of the need of a more conveniently located commercial banking facility to meet the banking needs of residents and business establishments in the towns of Bourne and Sandwich. The charter number assigned to this new bank was 13222. Prior to 1928 there were no banking facilities in the town of Bourne and only a cooperative bank in the town of Sandwich. People and businesses in these two towns had to travel to Wareham, Falmouth, Hyannis, or Plymouth to obtain the services of a commercial bank. If the National Bank of Wareham, which was the com- mercial bank nearest Buzzards Bay, had been located in the same county as Buzzards Bay, it could have established a branch office there. However, Wareham is in Plymouth County and Buzzards Bay is in Barnstable County, and it is illegal for a bank to cross a county line to establish a branch office; therefore the bank itself could not do anything to alleviate the situation. The problem was solved by the major shareholders of the National Bank of Wareham and interested people in the towns of Bourne and Sandwich joining together to organize a new national bank. Since the holders of the majority of the shares of the National Bank of Wareham also held the majority of the shares of the newly established Buzzards Bay National Bank, the new bank was considered an affiliate of the Wareham Bank, and it was therefore permissible for directors and officers of the Wareham Bank to also serve as directors and/or officers of the affiliate bank in Buzzards Bay. Directors of the bank during its early years of operation included John Makepeace, cranberry grower, who was also a director and president of the National Bank of Wareham; Captain Harold Colbeth, Superintendent of the Corps of En- gineers unit which operated and maintained the Cape Cod Canal; Colonel Henry Dunbar, who succeeded Captain Col- beth as Superintendent of the canal engineers unit; Robert Handy, cranberry grower in the town of Bourne; Joseph Whitcomb, director and cashier of the National Bank of Wareham; Howard Eldridge, lumber and hardware merchant in Bourne; and William Perry, cashier and chief operating officer of the Buzzards Bay National Bank, who was em- ployed by the National Bank of Wareham prior to the organ- ization of the Buzzards Bay Bank. It should be noted that the Cape Cod Canal, a national waterway, divides the town of Bourne, which is located in an important cranberry area con- tributing much to the economics of the town. The first president of the bank was John Ramsey, who stayed in the office only a short time. He was succeeded by Joseph Whitcomb, who held the position until his death in 1952. Captain Harold Colbeth was the first vice-president of the bank, and he held that position until 1953 when he was elected president. Subsequent presidents of the bank were Colonel Henry Dunbar, William Perry, Allison Cook, and Mace Harrison. The first banking quarters of the Buzzards Bay National Bank were located on Main Street in Buzzards Bay and are now occupied by the Buzzards Bay News Company. The quar- ters were very small, consisting of a lobby and two teller windows in the front part of the bank, and two small rooms in the rear of the tellers' area in which the cashier's office and the bookkeeping department were located. The bank was equipped with a used Burroughs bookkeeping machine, an adding machine, a typewriter, a check protectograph machine, and two small safes. In 1937, a new banking office was built a few hundred feet east of the original rented banking quarters. It had a walk-in vault containing safe deposit boxes for rent to cus- tomers, four teller windows, a small bookkeeping room, a small note department area, a cashier's office, employees' rest rooms, and a small stock room. As the need arose over the years, additions were made to the building for expansion of the bookkeeping department, additional quarters for bank officers, and for a drive-up window. A small lunch room was also added for the benefit of employees. Since the merger in 1974, this building has been completely remodeled, both inside and out, and the front of the building no longer looks as it did in 1937. (See page 13.) In the late 1950's, a branch office of the Buzzards Bay National Bank was established in Sandwich. Six or seven yo 22720 53-651 In 113 PHINNEY & FULLER GROCERIES POCASSET, MASS rs, TO TIIEOR DER OF DOLLARS PHINNEY & FULLER BUZZARDS BAY NATIONAL BANK BUZZARDS BAY. MASS. Paper Money Whole No. 109 Page 13 Site of original Buzzards Bay National Bank (center); now Buzzards Bay News Co. Check on the Buzzards Bay National Bank. years later, because of the increased volume of business, this branch was remodeled to add more teller windows, a drive-up window, and to enlarge the walk-in vault to accommodate more safety deposit boxes. A few years later a grocery store in Pocasset, a village in Bourne, formerly owned and operated by Phinney & Fuller, was purchased by the bank and remodeled to establish a second branch office. It was equipped with four teller win- dows, a drive-up window, a walk-in vault with safe deposit boxes, a night depository, and an office for the manager. In 1974, the Directors of the Buzzards Bay National Bank decided to merge with the Cape Cod Bank and Trust Company. The reader will undoubtedly register surprise that a growing and healthy institution would relinquish its free- dom and independence after 46 years of growth and pros- perity. However, the director of the Buzzards Bay Bank holding the largest number of shares desired to retire from bank management. A cousin of said director, who was a director of the Cape Cod Bank and Trust, had indicated that the Cape Cod Bank and Trust Company would be interested in having the Buzzards Bay Bank merge with it. The Cape Cod Bank and Trust Company had total assets of approx- imately four times those of the Buzzards Bay Bank and also had the benefits of a highly educated and skilled management team. Since the small country banks on Cape Cod had al- ready begun to be taken over by larger banks either by merger or holding company means, it is not surprising that the direc- tors voted to merge. This merger would result in an ad- vantage of having more management and operating specialists and the availability of expensive operating equipment to help meet the increasing demands of competition. The directors of the Buzzards Bay National Bank im- mediately prior to the merger were: William Bryden, George Denmark, Arthur Handy, Mace Harrison, Maurice Make- peace, and George Sutton. The officers of the bank at the time of the merger were: Mace Harrison, president; Maurice Makepeace, vice-president; Charles Anderson, cashier ; and assistant cashiers—Stuart Adams, Maurice Fuller, and James VanBuskirk. Thus ended 46 years of service by the Buzzards Bay National Bank to the citizens of Bourne, Sandwich, and surrounding environs. Between the years 1929 and 1935, the bank issued a total of 12,448 National Bank Notes in three denominations: $5, $10, and $20. Two types of notes were issued: Type I with black serial numbers, and Type II with brown serial numbers. 1110.36:4511.1211,,, , 111 ,0V K +1■1 a r.raiiWOrl , , T.7.71-promn MERIVI2MA 'ff)M ( 41,(,47,42.0). (rwyr/ ',5 .7,/,' 4,4,1 W • Page 14 Paper Money Whole No. 109 There were 1,092 Type I twenty-dollar notes printed. Total amount of circulation issued was $100,000. In July 1935, the value of the outstanding notes was $23,950. There is no way of determining in 1983 the value of the notes now held by col- lectors, former employees, and others. Standard Catalog of National Bank Notes, Hickman and Oakes, 1982 Edition. John Bockover, currency specialist, Hauser's Stamps and Coins, Lakeland, Florida. Sources of Information : Mace Harrison, retired president of the Buzzards Bay National Bank. Altered Kittanning Bank Note by JOSEPH F. GREGORY Original Columbia Bank Note. Kittanning note altered from Columbia Bank note. In reference to the article "Notes of the Kittanning Bank of Kittanning, Pennsylvania" by Raymond C. Rennick that appeared on pages 176-8 of the July/August 1983 issue of Paper Money: I have discussed the following information with Mr. Rennick and we both thought it may be of interest to SPMC members. The obsolete $5 note of the Kittanning Bank dated Jan. 4, 1862 that is pictured on page 177 is not genuine but has been altered from a note issued by the Columbia Bank of Washington D.C. Examination of the two notes will reveal details of the alteration, the most obvious of which is the swirl of the letter "W" in Washington that was left intact on the altered note (area marked in a circle). Other bits and pieces of letters remaining from the original note can be seen upon closer inspection. Furthermore, this altered note was known to the famous D.C. Wismer almost 45 years ago. He observed that Kittan- ning was spelled with only one "N" to allow insertion of the longer city name. Note also that the date on the note was changed from 185- to 186- to coincide with the proper charter date. The altered note is fairly common as I have seen several specimens. The Columbia Bank note is even more common. Prior to my discovery, I sent the altered note to the American Numismatic Association Authentication Service (ANACS) and it was declared genuine. I still have the certifi- cate of authentication. I notified ANACS of my findings and they embarrassedly agreed with me! Paper Money Whole No. 109 Page 15 THE PAPER COLUMN 1■11' , by Peter Huntoon TERRITORIAL CENSUS- STATUS REPORT I N 1980, when I wrote the SPMC book TERRITO- RIALS, I had data on some 400 territorial notes. Many of these sightings were gleaned from John Hickman's extensive files on known Nationals. Between 1980 and 1982, the total number of reported territorials grew by about 200 notes to 600 as reported in the September-October, 1982 issue of PAPER MONEY. Today the total stands at 677 pieces. The majority of the new additions were previously unrecorded notes from the First National Bank of Honolulu, Territory of Hawaii. Both Hickman and I are convinced that there are a lot more territorials yet to be discovered, but it is my opinion that the statistics that we now have provide a valid indicator of the distribution of these rare notes, and very accurately reveal the relative rarity by bank and territory. CURRENT STATISTICS Notes have been reported from 211 of the 605 large size issuing territorial banks, which means that only 35 percent of the issuing banks are currently represented. At this time, one note is known for each 8700 issued. Both the number of banks known and rate of survival are well below national averages for Nationals as a whole, which reflects the generally older age of the territorial issues and the fact that they were issued in locations which proved to be poor environments for their survival. DISTRIBUTION Table 1 summarizes the various statistics now available on the territorial issues. In most cases the ratios of known notes versus totals issued closely follows the 1 per 8700 ratio for each of the territories. However, there are some startling exceptions. Territories that are heavily over-represented by known notes are the Island of Porto Rico (1 per 1300 issued), District of Alaska (1 per 1000 issued), and Alaska undesig- nated (1 per 700 issued). Rumor has it that more $5 1902 Red Seal sheets are still in the woods, which would further tilt the survival statistics for District of Alaska notes. Territories that are far under-represented include Idaho (1 per 19,000 issued), and Washington and Nebraska each with 1 per 30,000 issued. The rarity of the Nebraskas can be attributed to the antiquity of its territorial issues. The last Nebraska territorials were printed in 1881 (notice this was 14 years after statehood), but still very long ago for good sur- vival. Washington and Idaho seem to me to be under-repre- sented, and I predict that a number of territorials will even- tually be discovered from both locations as collectors in those locations ferret out some virgin material. DOZEN MOST REPORTED BANKS Table 2 shows the most common territorial banks in terms of recorded specimens. The 12 banks listed on Table 2 combined account for slightly less than half the known terri- torial notes. This startling statistic has important ramifi- cations. The remaining 593 territorial banks share only 370 known notes, or an average of less than one specimen each ! Once you get away from the big 12 on Table 2, great scarcity is virtually assured. If you study Table 1, you will find that only 15 percent of the Dakota banks that issued are represented by known notes. The same statistic for the territories of Idaho, Wyo- ming, Oklahoma, Indian, and Utah stands in the 30 percent range. Clearly there are a lot of great territorial banks waiting to be discovered. Notes from 80 percent of the Hawaii banks have been discovered. This leaves only the First National Bank of Paia. Just watch blood pressures rise if one of those comes to light ! TYPE NOTES Presently I believe that First Charter aces from Pueblo, Territory of Colorado (1833) and Yankton, Dakota Territory (2068) are severely under-represented, even though these banks made the big 12 list on Table 2. Similarly, the First Charter black charter $5's from Central City, Territory of Colorado (2129), are under-represented. The reason in each case is that the notes come from old, high-grade hoards that hit the market long before Nationals became popular. The result was that most of the contents of the hoards were sold—believe it or not—as type notes for their respective series. They ended up scattered about the country in early type collections. Many of these old type collections are now buried, awaiting rediscovery. Realize that there are more black charter Central City's than there are surviving specimens from all the other black charter banks combined! At least when they were discovered there was something going for them that helped move them in an otherwise slow market ! TWO-TOWN BANK Seven of the territorial banks issued territorial notes bearing two different town names. They either moved or the town name changed. As I compiled data on the known notes, I was delighted to discover that one of these banks is rep- resented by notes from both towns. The bank is charter 5733 of Oklahoma Territory, originally the First National Bank of Fort Sill, later the City National bank of Lawton. Unfor- tunately, the pair does not reside in one collection! NUMBER ONE SURVIVORS I presently count 45 bank serial number 1 notes in the known list. This represents 7 percent of the total and reveals that many of these notes were saved originally as keepsakes by the proud bankers who issued them. ONE ONE 1, ONE , -;;;;;7,,;,. A64tev, oars , osEf:NATItiNAL CITIIRENCY Page 16 Paper Money Whole No. 109 This great New Mexico territorial was discovered recently in Montreal, Canada. GREAT NEW FINDS The greatest finds in the past year or so include one stellar attraction, a $5 Brown Back on the First National Bank of Wailuku, Territory of Hawaii. The note grades about vf, has serial number 4, and was handled by Allen Mincho of Cedar Park, Texas. The best 1902 Red Seal to turn up lately is a nice vg-f $10 from the First National Bank of Texico, Territory of New Mexico. This discovery piece sports strong penned signatures and is serial 251 from 420 sheets of 10-10-10-20 Red Seals issued. For condition and romance, you can't beat two AU $1 First Charter Original Series notes from the First National Bank of Santa Fe, Territory of New Mexico. These were dis- covered in Montreal, Canada. The story goes that these two pieces, consecutively numbered from the 239th sheet, were carried back to Canada by an adventurous Canadian traveler who visited Santa Fe when the notes were issued in 1871 or 1872. When you think of the logistics of that trip—a signifi- cant part of it was by stage coach—you have to appreciate these handsome notes even more. I marvel that they survived, let alone survived in virtually uncirculated condition. HONOLULU NOTES Since I began my territorial census, I have worried that notes from the giant First National Bank of Honolulu were under-represented in my totals. That situation has finally been corrected through the considerate efforts of a number of dealers and collectors. At this time, 117 of the known terri- torials, or 17 percent of the known total, consist of Honolulu notes. The First National Bank of Honolulu issued 978,912 large size territorials, which represents 17 percent of the large size territorial issue. How is that for a statistical comparison ! I do expect the Honolulu total to increase significantly, prob- ably at a rate faster than the other territories. UNREPORTED VARIETIES There are but a few great territorial types left to be dis- covered. Tops among these are an 1882 Brown Back from Juneau, Territory of Alaska, and a 1902 Red Seal from Hawaii. Only 3080 Brown Backs were issued in Juneau. The Hawaii Red Seal total amounts to 4356 notes sparsely dis- tributed between Lahaina (8101) and Kahului (8207). Miracles do happen. A couple of years ago we had no idea that there was such a thing as a Territory of Alaska note until an 1882 Date Back from Juneau turned up in St. Louis. At that same time a 1902 Date Back from Porto Rico was also high on the unknown list. One of those—a $10—sub- sequently appeared. Both survived from miniscule issuances, thus giving me hope that a Brown Back Alaska or Red Seal Hawaii may eventually show. THE J. L. IRISH ACHIEVEMENT Only one complete territorial collection is presently pos- sible because the Territory of Alaska is represented by only a single note. The probability of forming such a set is virtually insurmountable because all the key notes are scattered far and wide, and very tightly held. As improbable as it may seem, one collector with foresight and terrific determination attempted this set—astonishingly he succeeded! J. L. Irish was that person. He began his collection as a relative late- comer to the hobby in 1968. Many territorial collections were in advanced stages when he arrived on the scene. Battling tre- mendous odds and extremely stiff competition, he completed his territorial collection in 1981. His last requirement was an Idaho territorial. The one he got is the highest grade Idaho territorial known, an xf $10 Brown Back on the First National Bank of Lewiston, charter 2972. Appropriately, the note bears serial number 1. J. L. Irish died this past fall. His achievement serves as a great monument which will forever commemorate him as an extraordinary numismatist who did not understand the word impossible. STRANGE OKLAHOMA TERRITORIAL One surprise has revealed itself in the Oklahoma terri- torial Brown Back issues from the State National Bank of Oklahoma City. The bank was chartered with this title in 1893. Apparently the words state and territory did not seem consistent to the engraver, so "territory" was omitted from the plate. The result was 5920 sheets of 10-10-10-20 Brown Backs dated February 11, 1893 which carry the Rosecrans- Nebeker treasury signatures but not the word territory. When Oklahoma was admitted to statehood in 1907, a new 10-10- 10-20 Brown Back plate was prepared for the bank with the statehood date and the then-current treasury signatures. Three of the "undesignated" territorial notes have been recorded. You can see a photo of one in the October 31, 1983 Hickman and Oakes Auction Catalog, page 52. These notes are territorials and I count them as such in my totals. They Series of 1882 Brown Backs $5 $10 $20 Series of 1882 Date Backs $5 $10 $20 $100 Series of 1882 Value Backs $5 $10 $20 Series of 1902 Blue Seals $5 $10 14 5 2 13 5 4 1 12 7 2 37 15 5550 7718 1750 2059 2614 1651 2129 4734 6484 1833 1016 2068 117 54 22 18 15 14 14 12 12 10 10 9 Total 307 Paper Money Whole No. 109 Page 17 Table 1. Census of Known Large Size Territorial Notes and the Number of Reported Banks That Issued Them. Number of Notes Number Survival Number of Reported Percent Territory Reported Issued (1 Per # Issued) Banks Banks Reported Banks Territory of Alaska 1 6792 6792 1 1 100 Territory of Idaho 4 76524 19131 8 3 37 Territory of Nebraska 5 152276 30455 3 2 66 Territory of Washington 8 244654 30581 40 7 17 Alaska — Undesignated 9 6224 691 1 1 100 Territory of Wyoming 10 97848 9784 11 4 36 Island of Porto Rico 12 15414 1284 1 1 100 Territory of Utah 25 221208 8848 17 5 29 Territory of Dakota 25 412118 16484 74 11 14 Territory of Arizona 26 365494 14057 18 13 72 Territory of Montana 31 280764 9056 25 10 40 Territory of Colorado 54 450806 8348 13 9 69 District of Alaska 54 57424 1063 1 1 100 Territory of Oklahoma 82 629752 7679 158 52 32 Indian Territory 100 942276 9422 175 61 34 Territory of New Mexico 108 902352 8355 55 27 49 Territory of Hawaii 123 1013412 8239 5 4 80 Summary 677 5875338 8678 605 211 35 NOTICE: There were 606 territorial banks; however, Ketchikan, Alaska, issued only small size notes. Alaska-undesignated indicates the Juneau 1902 notes which do not carry the territorial label. Table 2. The dozen most reported territorial banks. Table 3. Current statistics on the known notes from the First National Bank of Honolulu, Hawaii (5550). Reported Bank Charter Notes Number Known First National Bank of Honolulu, Hawaii First National Bank of Fairbanks, Alaska First National Bank of Santa Fe, New Mexico Deseret National Bank of Salt Lake City, Utah First National Bank of Albuquerque, New Mexico Colorado National Bank of Denver, Colorado First National Bank of Central City, Colorado First National Bank of Raton, New Mexico First National Bank of Porto Rico at San Juan First National Bank of Pueblo, Colorado First National Bank of Denver, Colorado First National Bank of Yankton, Dakota join the Otoe County National Bank of Nebraska Territory (1417) 10-10-10-20 First Charter plate (see TERRITORIALS, page 25), and the First National Bank of Juneau, Alaska (5117) 10-10-10-20 1902 plate (see TERRITORIALS, page 54), as oddities which do not carry territorial labels. Another State National Bank which was organized dur- ing territorial days was the State National Bank of Artesia, Territory of New Mexico. Notes from this bank carry the territorial label as shown on page 162 of TERRITORIALS. Apparently the state/territory conflict did not bother later plate makers. Total 117 POSTSCRIPT Since the day I first learned about National Bank Notes in 1963, nothing has quickened my pulse like the word terri- tory on the face of a note. For years I dreamed of owning such a piece—hopefully from my home of Arizona. As Page 18 Paper Money Whole No. 109 shown on Table 1, Arizona territorials have proven to be very scarce, so I was forced to wait years for my first. Actually the first territorial that came my way was an xf $20 1902 Red Seal from Alamogordo, Territory of New Mexico, a flaming rarity if there ever was one. The first Arizona territorial did not come my way for another four years. It was worth waiting for—an 1882 Date Back $10 on Clifton, a scarce location to say the least. I assume that my experience is rather typical of our collecting fraternity. The stuff worth waiting for just doesn't fall into your lap—you have to earn your right to own it through patience, digging, and ultimately a genuine appreci- ation of what you hold. If you possess a territorial or two, I would very much appreciate learning about them. Send preferably a photocopy and list the grade. Be sure the serials are readable on the copy. All I can offer in exchange is a listing of known notes from that area and the thrill I will get in sharing your find. Peter Huntoon, P.O. Box 3681, Laramie, WY 82071. Mismatched Serial Numbers by JIM GREENE The newly-discovered mismatched serial number suffix letter of the 32-subject sheet on Boston has created a great deal of interest in this area of error note collecting. Mis- matched serials occur in two different ways: the human error of incorrectly setting the automatic numbering machine, and the clogging of one or more of the eight cylinders during the printing process. A clogged cylinder may remain clogged and repeat the identical serial on numerous notes, or it may free itself and continue in a normal way but with a different serial than the other side of the note. It would have to be assumed that a mismatched prefix or suffix letter would be human error. These are far scarcer than numeral mismatches, with only four varieties known to the author. Information for the following listing of mismatches known to me has been gathered over a long period of time. It is by no means complete. The range between low and high serial numbers does not necessarily represent the number of notes that reached circulation. Entire packs of mismatched notes have been returned to the Bureau of Engraving and Printing by banks catching the error. One of the most surpris- ing characteristics is the large number of mismatched serials with only a single example known. The accompanying photograph of a 1963 FRN shows the beginning of a mismatch due to a clogging cylinder. The top note with a partially turned digit was printed prior to the bot- tom note which has the completed mismatched serial. The note printed between these two was removed by an inspector and replaced with a star. The finder of these notes failed to keep the next note in the group. Appreciation is expressed to the many kind dealers who allowed the copying of mismatched serials in their stock and to the many collectors who have been so gracious in proving information from their collection and from observations. Owners of mismatched serials are invited to send additional information to correct and update existing information. Paper Money Whole No. 109 LISTING OF KNOWN MISMATCHED SERIAL NUMBERS DEN. SERIES LOW SERIAL HIGH SERIAL RANGE Page 19 NUMBER OBSERVED $1 1934 A84213561A/A83213651A I $1 1934 D17163828A/D17163838A 1 $1 1935A 115240041B/115250041B I $1 1935A Y02448276B/Y02448266B 1 $1 1935A T30211012C/T30211032C T30211030C/T30211060C 19 2 $1 1935D B07360006F/B07350006F 1 $1 1935D X38214676F/X38214686F X38214676F/X38214687F 2 2 $1 1935E A19342833H/A29342833H A19343077H/A29343077H 245 2 $1 1935E D535769491/D535769501 1 $1 1935E G14287674H/G25287674H 014287903H/G25287903H 230 3 $1 1935E N64714167H/N64714160H N64714190H/N64714190H 24 6 $1 1957 G55440057A/G54440057A G55449459A/G54449459A 9,402 175 $1 1957 U26123556A/U26023556A 1 $1 1957A D46629999A/D46639999A 1 $1 1957B U37030183A/U47030183A U37034833A/U47034833A 4,651 259 $1 1957B *36858990B/*36858998B *36858998B/*36858999B 9 2 $1 1957B *38763691B/*38763690B 1 $1 1957B *97751967A/*97751947A I $1 1963 A04519961*/A04519849* I $1 1963 B23399465A/B23399475A 1 $1 1963 B57476922A/B57476921A B57476947A/B57476946A 26 12 $1 1963 H87796273A/H89796273A H87796509A/H89796509A 237 2 $1 1963 L82577814B/L82577924B L82577823B/L82577933B 10 2 $I 1969 F68920022A/F67920022A F68929863A/F67929863A 9,842 279 $1 1969A D42318978B/D32318978B D42319266B/D32319266B 289 2 $1 1969D B44573565E/B43573565E B44573725E/B43573725E 161 3 $1 1974 D24096777A/D24006777A 1 $1 1974 E37084665D/E37086665D $1 1974 E75293653D/E74293653D 1 $1 1974 G53969353B/G53069353B 1 $1 1977 E00207447E/E00227447E 1 $1 1977A A97250469B/A86139469B A97250766B/A86139766B 298 5 $1 1981 E61233095B/E61233195B 1 $5 1929 0000001A/C001001A (charter #5089) 1 $5 1934A D64187579A/D64187601A 1 $5 1950 G81575819A/G81575829A 1 $5 1950A B59707801C/B59707700C B59707881C/B597077000 81 26 $5 1950A E64819598A/E64819599A 1 $5 1950A H40380000A/H40390000A 1 $5 1950A H84204523A/H48203523A H84206305A/H48206305A 1,783 4 $5 1953 A10090000A/A10000000A 1 $5 1953 A46727000A/A46726000A 1 $5 1953 A47740000A/A47750000A 1 $5 1953 A705862I1A/A70586100A A70586214A/A70586100A 4 3 $5 1953C G45989009D/G45988979D $5 1969 C39860011A/C39860000A 1 $5 1969A 122910172A/122900172A 1 $5 1974 161120176A/161220176A 1 $5 1974 J36138170B/J35138170B J36139919B/J35139919B 1,750 3 $5 1977A E04098198*/E04088198* 1 $5 1977A H67346122A/H67344644A H67346122A/H67345293A 650 7 $5 1977A L44596715B/L45596715B L44597007B/L45597007B 293 5 $10 1950A B93406999C/B93407000C 1 $10 1950A D95627966A/D95627965A 1 $10 1950A E01110049*/E01100049* E01110056*/E01100056* 8 2 $10 1950A F0101235?*/F01012407* 1 $10 1950B C07631591*/C07631491* 1 $10 1950D E11000040*/E11100040* E11000817*/E11100917* 778 13 $10 1963A E63506330A/E64506330A E63519775A/E64519775A 13,446 48 $20 1950C F10070511B/F10070510B F10070535B/F10070534B 25 24 $20 1977 G45066566B/G45076566B 1 $ 1000 1934 H00010367/H00010337 I PREFIX AND SUFFIX LETTERS $1 1957 A63721173A/Q63721173A A63725822A/Q63725822A 4,650 6 $1 1977A B08708398D/A08708398D 1 $1 1981 A99951072H/B99951072H A99953908H/B99953908H 2,836 6 $5 1953A D65060742A/A65060742A 1 NOTE: Single known mismatch serials are listed as low serial numbers. Page 20 Paper Money Whole No. 109 Canadian Legal Tender Note Specimens on Market TAE fliSt NATIONAL MA if L11 TI1 ROCK 000114A IK)11,1,11fi Paper Money Whole No. 109 Page 21 Offered for sale in list no. 4, November 1983, of C. P. Stocker Limited, P.O. Box No. 130, London SW17 7BB, are three specimen Dominion of Canada legal tender notes for use by banks only. According to Stocker, they are unrecorded in Pick but not unknown (in the Bank of Canada Collection). The three large note specimens are approximately 7 3/4 x 41/2 inches. The $5,000 is dated 2nd. Jany. 1901; the $50,000, Jany. 2nd 1918; and the $1,000, 2nd Jany. 1924. The obligation is the same on all three: "On demand to bearer, being a bank to which 'The Bank Act' of Canada applies on the conditions mentioned below, at the office of any assistant Receiver General of Canada. This note is good only in the hands of a bank to which 'The Bank Act' of Canada applies and will be redeemed only when presented by one of such banks." The offer is unpriced ; interested parties are invited to contact Stocker. FlOTE VifillETIES BY M. OWEN WARNS NLG The First National Bank of Little Rock, Iowa, Charter 8119, was established in 1906. It was located in the north- western corner of Iowa in Lyon County. The bank was capi- talized at $25,000. The original officers were M.D. Bils- borough, president; W.N. Burton, vice-president; and Charles C. Carter, cashier. The bank closed on October 31, 1933, having been placed in receivership. It was the last bank to fail in Lyon County. The Little Rock Branch Bank of The Rock Rapids State Bank has served the banking needs of Little Rock's 535 inhabitants since then. We are indebted to Arly Lindaman of Little Rock for the following information : Her father, W.F. Lindaman, whose signature appears on the note shown here, was appointed Conservator when the bank was placed in Conservatorship on March 31, 1933, and held that position until the bank was placed into receivership. The bank issued only 792 - $20 Type-I notes. This is the first such note to surface and was in a recent Lyn Knight Sale of notes from the Amon Carter col- lection. (This note will appear in Supplement XIII.) Arly has also furnished us with details regarding the bank structure. It was constructed at the time the bank was established in 1906 and now houses a laundromat on the first floor and professional offices on the floor above. The re- maining clue that a bank occupied the structure is the bank title—"First National Bank" —inscribed in the stone panel above the arched doorway, and long since partially obliter- ated with the passing of time, but still visible with a little imagination. Little Rock is looking forward to 1984 when it will be celebrating its centennial! Our congratulations on their accomplishment! Bunco, Bogus and Bank bobbin' A Sorry Record Compiled by BARRY WEXLER, SPMC #5000 "Found A Counterfeit Cave" Henry S. Gloe, an Orangeville (N.Y.) farmer, while remodeling his house, discovered a cave under the foundation which years ago had been the headquarters of a band of counterfeiters. On one side of the cave was a large collection of moulds, some made of metal and others of plaster of paris, while sheets of hammered metal the size of silver dollars, half dollars, quarter, and dimes were scattered around the floor. All moulds bore the date 1853, and it is believed by the old Wyoming County settlers that the cave and outfit were left by a man named Weaver, who fifty years ago had resided in that section, and was known as a counterfeiter of great skill and cunning. (November, 1902, No. 11, "Dickerman's Counterfeit Journal.") On the lighter side, this joke, also from the November 1902 edition: "A Frank Confession" An ambitious Philadelphian who wished to start in business for himself applied to a wholesale woolen merchant and obtained credit for $400. The salesman asked him what he manufactured. "I mek pants," he replied. "How do you want to buy these goods?" "The best vey I can," was the answer. "How will you pay for them?" "Veil, I gif you my note for four mont's." "Is your note good?" The buyer looked around, winked to the salesman, and put his finger on his nose. "My vriend," he said, with the air of one who is about to impart a confidence, "if my note vas goot, I vould make notes, not pants!" HO were the artists whose work we so admire? Where did they come from? When did they live? What were their achievements? At some point during a collector's life he must wonder about these things, and more. With this listing I hope to answer some of the questions that I am sure many of us have had tucked away for future attention. The one overriding reason why people collect any- thing must be its beauty. Artists must excel at beauty and engravers must be good artists. The product of their toil is what we as collectors hold dear. No doubt there were more engravers in the bank note business of the state note era than are listed here but the information on them has either been lost in ob- scurity or unavailable to this compiler despite diligent research. Some painters went on to become bank note en- gravers and some bank note engravers went on to become more famous as painters. Often children, sib- lings or spouses of the engraver followed his example and became engravers in their own right. Some of the sculptors who designed our coinage of the 19th century were also engravers who contributed to the manu- facture of the plates. Many of the engravers found it beneficial to join with others in the trade, forming associations and cor- porations, the most successful in terms of lineage being the American Bank Note Company of New York, which is still in business today. Listed here are the names of state bank note en- gravers along with some pertinent information which should help us understand and appreciate their work a little better. The names of engravers or lithographers of merchant scrip only should be compiled separately and do not appear in this listing. Page 22 Paper Money Whole No. 109 ...American Bank Note Engravers of the State Bank Note Era Brief Biographies by C. JOHN FERRERI ADAMS, WILLIAM (?). In association with an engraver named Baldwin he produced plates out of New York City. Did a fair amount of bank note work but information on both these gentlemen is sparse. ARMSTRONG, WILLIAM G. Born 1823 in Montgomery County, Penn. He was a pupil of Longacre in Philadelphia. Devoted a part time of his life to the engraving of banknotes. BALCH, VISTUS. Born in Williamstown, Mass. in 1799; died in Johnstown, N.Y. in 1884. He was in partnership with Samuel Stiles in Utica, N.Y. BALD, J. DORSEY. One of the first trustees of American Bank Note Co. Was a partner in the Bald, Cousland Co. BALDWIN, GEORGE D. 1823-1869. In association with an engraver named Adams out of New York City. See above. BANNISTER, JAMES. 1821-1900. Born in England. Was apprenticed to the company of A.L. Dick of New York. His main concern was engraving portraits for book illustrations but he also did bank note engraving. BARBER, JOHN WARNER. Born in 1798 in Windsor, Conn. Died in 1885. He was apprenticed to Abner Reed and probably did bank note engravings for his firm. BOGARDUS, JAMES. Born 1800 in Catskill, N.Y. He invented a machine for producing bank notes from separate dies. Died in 1874. CARPENTER, SAMUEL H. 1800-1870. In 1854 he was associated with Charles Toppan to form the Toppan, Carpenter & Co. firm. CASILEAR, JOHN W. Born in New York, 1811; died, 1893. Was apprenticed at 15 years of age to Peter Maverick, where he became an excellent line engraver. He also studied bank note engraving under A.B. Durand. Went on to become a landscape painter of good reputation. Became an associate and then full Academician of the National Academy in 1851. CLARK, ASAHEL. 1800-1836(?). Born in Cooperstown, N.Y. Associated with Ralph Rawdon, forming Rawdon, Clark & Co. of Albany, N.Y. CLARK, JAMES. Worked for an establishment at 67 Broadway, New York City in 1840, engraving bank notes, etc. COUSLAND, WILLIAM. 1825-1856(?). Worked in association with J. Dorsey Bald about 1853 under the name of Bald, Cousland & Co. New York & Philadelphia. CUSHMAN, GEORGE H. Born at Windham, Connecticut in 1814, died in Jersey City, N.J., 1876. He was a pupil of Asaph Willard, an engraver in Hartford, Conn. Mr. Willard was an active member of the Graphic Banknote Co. in Hartford and we can assume that George Cushman lent his talents to that firm. DAGGETT, ALFRED. Born in New Haven, Conn. in 1799 and died there in 1872. He was a line engraver of portraits and bank note vignettes. DANFORTH, MOSELY ISAAC. Born in Hartford, Conn. in 1800; died in New York in 1862. He was apprenticed to Asaph Willard of the Graphic Banknote Co. in Hartford. He was one of the founders of the National Academy of Design in 1826. He was associated in business with many of his colleagues and was vice-president of American Bank Note Co. at the time of this death. DARLING, CHARLES C.-1837(?). Was for a short time associ- ated with one of the Jocelyns producing bank note plates in Connecticut. DELNOCE, LUIGI. 1822-1890. Born in Italy, died in New York. Worked producing book illustrations but chiefly engaged in bank note work. DOOLITTLE, AMOS. Born in Cheshire, Conn., 1754; died in New Haven, Conn., 1832. He was credited with producing many of the primitive bank note engravings of the late 1700's and early 1800's. Famous for engraving on copper the battles of Lexington and Con- cord while serving in the Revolutionary Army. Paper Money Whole No. 109 Page 23 DRAPER, JOHN. 1770-1865(?). An apprentice of Robert Scot of Philadelphia. He was associated with many other engravers from 1810 through 1861 under various firm names. DUNNELL, E.G. He was an excellent landscape engraver and was by 1847 employed with the firm Rawdon, Wright & Hatch. He soon left the field of engraving for the pulpit. DURAND, ASHER BROWN. Born in Jefferson, N.J., 1796; died in South Orange, N.J., 1886. He was an apprentice to Peter Maverick and in 1817 became a partner of his preceptor, forming the company of Maverick and Durand. His talent in line engraving was evidenced in his engraving of the "Declaration of Independence" after the painting of John Trumbull. Formed a bank note company with his brother Cyrus and another with Joseph Perkins. He left engraving for the brush and palette and became quite famous as an American painter. DURAND, CYRUS. Born in Jefferson, N.J., 1787; died at Irving- ton, N.J., 1868. He was the elder brother of Asher B. He was mostly a mechanic and produced a machine for Peter Maverick for ruling straight and wavy lines for bank note work. He was also credited with making the first geometric lathe in America. His life was de- voted to invention and perfection of machinery used in bank note production. He was also a partner with his brother under the name of A.B. & C. Durand. DUTHIE, JAMES. 1825-1876(?). He was a business partner with John E. Gavit about 1849. Born and educated in England, he was more famous for his book illustrations. EDMUNDS, FRANCIS W. 1806-1863. For a short time in 1858 was a partner in the firm of Edmunds, Jones & Smillie. This firm, shortly after starting up, joined the association of the American Bank Note Co. EDSON, TRACY. 1809-1881. He was a member of the Rawdon, Wright, Hatch & Edson firm, which soon became associated with American Bank Note. Because of his administrative skills he even- tually became its president. FAIRMAN, GIDEON. Born in Newton, Conn., 1774; died in Phila- delphia in 1827. He opened an office in Albany in 1796 but in 1810 moved to Philadelphia for the formation of the Murray, Draper and Fairman Co. Like many engravers he was in partnership with other engravers also at different times. FAIRMAN, RICHARD. 1788-1821. He was the brother of Gideon and worked for a time for his brother's firm. GAVIT, JOHN. Born in New York in 1817; died at Stockbridge, Mass., 1874. Learned the bank note engraving business in Albany, N.Y. In 1855, he assisted in the formation of American Bank Note Co. He was elected president of this company in 1866 and held that position until his death. About 1849, he was in business with James Duthie. GOLDTHWAIT, G.H. This man apparently was working as a bank note engraver in Boston in 1842. GOODHALL, ALBERT GALLATIN. Born in Montgomery, Ala., 1826; died in New York in 1887. He learned copperplate engraving in Havana in 1844. He moved to Philadelphia in 1848 and began engraving bank notes on steel. Eventually became a trustee of the American Bank Note Co. HALBERT, AUGUST. He was a nephew and probably pupil of J.F.E. Prud'homme. At about 1835, he was working for Harper Bros. in New York. By 1838, he was employed by the firm of Rawdon, Wright & Hatch. His specialty was line engraving. HALL, GEORGE R. Born in London in 1818; died in 1858(?). He was the brother of H.B. Hall, Sr. and was also his pupil. He came to New York in 1854 and was employed by Rawdon, Wright, Hatch & Co. HALL, PETER. Born in Birmingham, England in 1828; died in Brooklyn, N.Y. in 1892 or 1895. He came to the United States in 1849 and learned to engrave while employed at American Bank Note Co. His specialty was script engraving. He was also a talented engraver in the stipple method. HAMLIN, WILLIAM. He was born in Providence, R.I. in 1772 and died there in 1869. He was established as a manufacturer and re- pairer of sextants and quadrants and other nautical instruments. He was self-taught and his work was primitive but filled a need at that time. He was an admirer of George Washington and consequently some of his best plates have him for their subject. HAMMOND, J.T. He was a good line engraver of landscapes and subject plates in 1839 and was employed in Philadelphia. He later moved to St. Louis, Mo. He evidently was a partner in the engraving firm of Woodruff and Hammond, producing plates for many mid- western banks. HANKS, O.G. 1821-1879(?). Born in Troy, N.Y. He was a capital line engraver of both portraits and landscapes. He studied with the firm of Rawdon, Wright & Hatch in New York. HARRIS, JAMES. A line engraver working in New York. This was probably the person who was in partnership with Alfred Sealey, engraving bank note plates in New York City. HARRISON, CHARLES. In 1840, he was working as a letter en- graver in New York and for many years worked as an engraver for American Bank Note Co. HARRISON, DAVID B. He was a bank note engraver for many years in the employ of American Bank Note Co. He continued to engrave until 90 years of age. HARRISON, RICHARD G. He was a line engraver who was prob- ably one of several sons of William Harrison, Sr. who came to Phila- delphia in 1794. He was engraving book plates before entering the bank note field. After 1822, he is called "bank note engraver" in the Philadelphia directories. HARRISON, WILLIAM. Born in England, died in Philadelphia, 1803. He was the grandson of John Harrison who invented the chro- nometer. He learned engraving in London and for a while was employed by the Bank of England. In 1794, he came to Philadelphia to engrave for the Bank of Pennsylvania. HARRISON, WILLIAM, JR. He was a son of the previously men- tioned William Harrison. He was an engraver in both the line and stipple manner during the early 1800's and was most likely employed by the bank note companies. HARRISON, WILLIAM F. He was an excellent letter engraver and was employed by various bank note companies 1831-40. HATCH, GEORGE W. 1804-1866. Born in western New York, died at Dobbs Ferry, N.Y. He was one of the first students in the National Academy of Design in 1826. He was also a pupil of Asher B. Durand. He was a good line engraver and was drawing and en- graving vignettes in Albany and New York City. Many of his bank Page 24 Paper Money Whole No. 109 note engravings are signed. He eventually became president of American Bank Note Co. in 1863. HAY, De WITT CLINTON. 1819-1887. Born near Saratoga, N.Y. In 1850, he was an apprentice with the firm Rawdon, Wright, Hatch & Smillie in New York. Eventually he became a partner in the firm of Wellstood, Hanks, Hay & Whiting. HEATH, CHARLES. He is credited with engraving the first notes to be issued by a private bank in America. This was the Bank of North America of Philadelphia. He worked in the 1790's. HINSCHELWOOD, ROBERT. Born in Edinburgh, Scotland in 1812; died 1891. He came to the U.S. about 1835 and was employed as a landscape engraver by Harpers and other New York publishers. He also worked in Cincinnati about 1855 and later became employed by the Continental Bank Note Co. of New York. He married a sister of James Smillie, another bank note engraver, and some of his plates are engraved after Smillie's drawings. HORTON, (?). Probably came from Providence. He was an en- graver of portraits and views. About 1830-35 was employed in Phila- delphia and Baltimore for various publishers. He also engraved for hook publishers in Providence as early as 1823. His primitive en- gravings are in evidence on some issues of notes issued in the New England area. HOUSE, T. He was a banknote engraver employed chiefly by the Boston concerns. He was at work as early as 1836. He died about 1865. HUFTY, SAMUEL. 1800-1853(?). Worked during the 1840's and was in association with Mosely Danforth during most of his bank note engraving career. JOCELYN, NATHANIEL. Born in New Haven, Conn. in 1796; died there in 1891. He was the son of a watchmaker. He was an apprentice engraver at 18 years of age and at 21 entered into partnership with Tisdale, Danforth & Willard in the Hartford Graphic and Banknote Engraving Co. Later with Mr. Danforth he founded the National Banknote Engraving Co. He also worked with his brother Simeon S. and executed quite a number of plates under the name of N. & S.S. Jocelyn. Eventually he tired of engraving and became a portrait painter. He was made an Academician of the National Academy on May 13, 1846. JOCELYN, SIMEON S. Born in New Haven, Conn. in 1799; died at Tarrytown, N.Y. in 1879. His specialty was line portraits. He engraved drawings of his brother Nathaniel and entered into business with him in 1827 under the name of N. & S.S. Jocelyn. He was also associated with S.B. Munson as bank note engravers. JONES, ALFRED. Born in Liverpool, England in 1819. He was accidentally killed in New York in 1900. In 1834, he was apprenticed to the firm of Rawdon, Wright, Hatch & Edson of Albany, N.Y. He later became a partner in the firm of Edmonds, Jones & Smillie. He was made an Academician of the National Academy in 1851. As a line engraver he had few, if any, superiors in this country. KEARNY, FRANCIS. Born in Perth Amboy, N.J. about 1780. He was a student of Peter Maverick in New York. He did considerable work in line, stipple and aquatint. He became a member of the firm of Tanner, Valiance, Kearney & Co. of Philadelphia about 1823. LENEY, WILLIAM SATCHWELL. Born in London, England, 1769; died at Longue Pointe, Canada, 1831. He was a pupil of the well-known English engraver Peltro W. Tompkins and his work bears evidence of careful training in the art of stipple engraving. He came to the U.S. in 1805 and is most likely the engraver associated with William Rollinson, turning out bank note plates in the 1820's. LONGACRE, JAMES BARTON. Born in Delaware County, Penn. in 1794; died in Philadelphia in 1869. He was taught to engrave by George Murray in Philadelphia. He was a noted enaraver in the stipple manner. He was also the designer of the U.S. Indian cent in 1864. He became a partner in the firm of Draper, Toppan, Longacre & Co. in 1837; bank note plates were their main concern. MAJOR, JAMES PARSONS. Born at Frome, Somersetshire, England in 1818; died at Somerville N.J., 1900. He came to the United States as a bank note engraver in 1830. For over 55 years he was in charge of the engraving and modeling department of what is now the American Bank Note Co. MARSHALL, WILLIAM EDGAR. Born in New York in 1837; died there in 1906. He was employed by American Bank Note in 1858 but subsequently went on to painting. He was distinguished by having engraved many famous personalities, including Lincoln, Longfellow, Grant, Sherman and Theodore Roosevelt. MASON, D.H. The Philadelphia directories of 1805-18 listed D.H. Mason as a music engraver. In 1816, he executed bank note engrav- ings for the firm of Murray, Draper, Fairman & Co. He was also an architect. MAVERICK, PETER. Born in New York in 1780; died there in 1831. He was son and pupil of Peter Rushton Maverick, one of the early engravers of New York. Sometime after 1802, he was practicing in Newark, N.J. and was the preceptor of Asher B. Durand. In 1817, they formed a partnership. He was one of the founders of the National Academy of Design in 1826. Peter was from a family of engravers. He had two daughters, a brother, son and father in the business. MUNSON, SAMUEL B. Born in Connecticut in 1806; died in Cin- cinnati, Ohio, 1880 (1850?). In 1830-35, he was engraving in associa- tion with S.S. Jocelyn in New Haven. In 1836, he moved to Cincin- nati as part of the firm Doolittle and Munson. MURRAY, G. Born in Scotland (1770?); died in Philadelphia in 1822. He was a pupil of the British engraver, Anker Smith. In 1810, he organized the bank note and general engraving firm of Murray, Draper, Fairman & Co. NEWCOMB, D. This name as engraver appears on vignettes on title pages of books published in Boston in 1820. Judging by his work, he was probably one of the bank note engravers then in business in Boston. NICHOLS, FREDERICK B. Born in Bridgeport, Conn. in 1824; died sometime after 1906. He learned engraving with the firm of Rawdon, Wright, Hatch & Smillie, the last mentioned being his chief instructor. In 1848, he invented a process for relief engraving. ORMSBY, WATERMAN LILLY. Born in Hampton, Windham County, Connecticut in 1809; died in Brooklyn, N.Y. in 1883. He was a student in the National Academy of Design in 1829. He was engraving on his own soon after. Having a mechanical mind, he invented a ruling machine, a transfer press, and a gammagraph, all useful tools in bank note engraving. He was a champion of the single vignette method of engraving particular denominations of bank notes so as to foil counterfeiting. This method is in evidence on many of his bank note plates. OURDAN, JOSEPH PROSPER. Born in New York City in 1828; died in Washington, D.C. in 1881. He served his apprenticeship under W.L. Ormsby in New York. Joseph taught his father Joseph Paper Money Whole No. 109 Page 25 James how to engrave, who in turn found employment with the United States Treasury Dept. He was employed at one time or another by the Continental and National Bank Note Companies of New York and the American Bank Note Co. of Philadelphia. PACKARD, RAWSON. In 1839, he was engraving and in partner- ship with the firm of Hall, Packard & Cushman. PARADISE, JOHN WESLEY. Born in New Jersey in 1809; died in New York in 1862. He was a pupil of Asher B. Durand and became an admirable line engraver of portraits. He was one of the founders of the National Academy in 1826. He was chiefly employed as a bank note engraver. PEASE, JOSEPH IVES. Born in Norfolk, Conn. in 1809; died in Salisbury, Conn. in 1883. He was the inventor of a power loom and a propeller for boats. He was an apprentice with the Hartford engraver Oliver Pelton. He devoted the later portion of his life to bank note engraving. PELTON, OLIVER. Born in Portland, Conn. in 1798; died at East Hartford, Conn. in 1882. He was first a pupil and then partner of Abner Reed in Hartford. In 1827, he was established in business in Boston and in 1836, the firm of Terry & Pelton was in business engraving bank notes in the same city. His specialty was line engraving of portraits. PERKINS, JACOB. Born in Newburyport, Mass. in 1776; died in London, England in 1849. He was actually a silversmith and made the dies for the Massachusetts copper coinage of 1787. He was some- what an engraver but more accurately an inventor of bank note plate machinery and production methods. He made practical the use of steel in place of copper for bank note plates, thereby lengthening their useful life. He also helped in developing a method of dupli- cating engraved steel plates, the process being called "sider- ography." His most notable invention as far as collectors are con- cerned was the stereotype steel plate. PERKINS, JOSEPH. Born in Unity, N.H. in 1788; died in New York City in 1842. In 1818, he trained in Philadelphia to learn script engraving. In 1825 he went into partnership with Asher B. Durand in the bank note engraving firm of Durand, Perkins & Co. PRUD'HOMME, JOHN FRANCIS EUGENE. Born on the island of Saint Thomas, West Indies in 1800; died in Georgetown, D.C. in 1892. He was an engraver of portraits in stipple. In 1852, he became interested in bank note engraving and after 1869 was employed by the Treasury Department. PURCELL, EDWARD. 1810-1860(?). Was a partner in the firm of Jocelyn & Purcell about 1850. RAWDON, FREEMAN. Born in Tolland, Conn. in 1804; died 1859. He was the pupil of his brother Ralph Rawdon, then an en- graver in Albany, N.Y. He was the Rawdon of Rawdon, Wright & Hatch and Rawdon, Wright & Co. RAWDON, RALPH. 1790-1860(?). In 1813, he was engraving in Cheshire, Conn. About 1816, he moved to Albany, N.Y. and with his brother Freeman and Asaph Willard went into the bank note and general engraving business. REED, ABNER. Born in East Windsor, Conn. in 1771; died in Toledo, Ohio in 1866. He was apprenticed to a saddle maker and started his engraving career working on the metal name plates on saddles. In 1803, he settled in Hartford, Conn. He was one of the earliest bank note engravers in this country and produced plates for both U.S. and Canadian banks. He engraved the plates for the Hart- ford Bank in 1792. Among the apprentices in his employ were Asaph Willard, Oliver Pelton, Alfred Daggett, Vistus Balch and William Phelps, a plate printer. RICE, JAMES R. Born in Syracuse, N.Y. in 1824. He studied en- graving under his brother W.W. Rice of Rawdon, Wright, Hatch & Co. of New York in 1846. RICE, W.W. 1820-1860(?). He was an engraver of portraits and sub- ject plates of the firm of Rawdon, Wright, Hatch & Co. of New York. ROLLINSON, WILLIAM. Born in Dudley, Staffordshire, England in 1762 or 1772; died in New York in 1842. He was probably a silver- smith and learned to engrave on plate. It is said he was the engraver who ornamented the silver buttons on the coat worn by Washington at his inauguration as President. He is most likely the engraver who was associated with William Satchwell Leney under the firm name of Leney and Rollinson. ROST, CHRISTIAN. 1824-1896. Born in Germany, studied in Paris and London. By 1860 he was a well-known engraver in New York and about the same time became employed at American Bank Note Co. One of his engravings appears as the main vignette on the notes of the Lewiston Falls Bank of Maine. The scene is of the falls at Lewiston. SEALY, ALFRED. Born in the United States and is said to have died in Canada about 1862. He was a line engraver and devoted most of his later life to bank note work. SMILLIE, JAMES. Born in Edinburgh, Scotland in 1807; died in Poughkeepsie, N.Y. in 1885. Came to New York in 1829, and in 1851 became an Academician of the National Academy. He excelled as a line engraver of landscapes. From 1861, he devoted his time solely to bank note engraving. He had two sons and a brother who were also in this line of work. SMILLIE, JAMES DAVID. Born in New York in 1833; died in 1909. He was a son of James Smillie and taught by him. He was a founder of the New York Etching Club and was made an Academ- ician of the National Academy in 1876. His principal specialty was bank note engraving but he also produced general work. SMILLIE, WILLIAM CUMMING. Born in Edinburgh, Scotland in 1813 ; died in 1908. He was connected with several bank note companies, the last of which, Edmunds, Jones & Smillie, was later absorbed by American Bank Note Co. In 1866, he secured a contract to engrave the paper currency of the Canadian government and es- tablished a bank note company in Ottawa. SMILLIE, WILLIAM MAIN. Born in New York in 1835; died there in 1888. He was a son of James Smillie and was known as an expert letter engraver. He was long employed by one of the firms that in 1857 merged into the American Bank Note Co. In 1880, he became vice-president of that firm. SMITH, GEORGE GIRDLER. Born at Danvers, Mass. about 1799; died in Boston about 1858. He was probably a pupil of Able Bowen, the Boston engraver. Sometime after 1830, he was engaged in the bank note engraving business with Terry and Pelton, and when that firm was absorbed by another he went back into the general engrav- ing field. He was an engraver in both the line and stipple manner. SPENCER, ASA. Born in New England in 1790(?); died in England in 1847 (1853?). In 1815, he was a member of the bank note engrav- ing firm of Murray, Draper, Fairman & Co. He invented a process of applying lathework to bank note engravings. He also had a hand Page 26 Paper Money Whole No. 109 in developing a technique known as "medallion engraving." He later on was in partnership with the firms of Underwood, Bald, Spencer & Co.; Underwood, Bald, Spencer, & Hufty; Danforth, Bald, Spencer & Hufty; and Danforth, Spencer & Hufty. STEEL, JAMES W. Born in Philadelphia, Penn. in 1799; died there in 1879. He was a pupil of George Murray and for a time was en- gaged in the bank note engraving business for Tanner, Vallance, Kearney & Co. STILES, SAMUEL. Born in East Windsor, Conn. in 1796; died in New York in 1861. He served his apprenticeship as an engraver with Abner Reed and for a while engraved plates under the name of Reed & Stiles sc. In 1824, he moved to Utica, N.Y. and formed a general engraving business with Vistus Balch. He was also at one time a partner in the firm of Stiles, Sherman & Smith. TANNER, BENJAMIN. Born in New York, 1775; died in Balti- more, Md., 1848. He was possibly a pupil of Peter R. Maverick. In 1816-24, he was a member of the firm of Tanner, Valiance, Kearney & Co. He was both a line and stipple engraver. TANNER, HENRY S. Born in New York City in 1786; died there in 1858. Although he was an engraver of maps and charts, he invented a process of bank note engraving which was intended to increase the difficulty of counterfeiting. TERRY, W.D. In 1836, in connection with Oliver Pelton, he formed the Boston Banknote Co. This firm also did general engraving. Some of his early work was signed at Providence, R.I. TIEBOUT, CORNELIUS. Born about 1770 in New York ; died in Kentucky about 1830. He learned the basics of engraving in New York but went to London to seek instruction under more able masters. He excelled in the stipple manner of engraving. TISDALE, ELKANAH. Born in Lebanon, Conn. about 1771; died sometime after 1825 (1835?). He practiced engraving in Hartford, Conn. until about 1825. During this time he became a member of the firm, Graphic Banknote Co., where he worked as a designer of vig- nettes rather than an engraver. TOPPAN, CHARLES. Born in Newburyport, Mass. in 1796; died sometime after 1868 (1874?). He was a pupil of Gideon Fairman. After the death of Fairman, he became a partner in the firm of Draper, Toppan, Longacre & Co. This firm changed names a few more times and was then absorbed into the American Bank Note Co. Charles Toppan became president of American Bank Note Co. in 1858. TUCKER, WILLIAM E. Born in Philadelphia in 1801; died there in 1857. He was a pupil of Francis Kearney in Philadelphia and also studied in England. He was an excellent engraver in line and stipple. He is most likely the person involved in the bank note firm of Woodruff & Tucker. UNDERWOOD, THOMAS. Born about 1795; died at Lafayette, Ind. in 1849. He was a good bank note engraver and during his career was a partner in at least seven bank note engraving firms, all bearing his name. VALLANCE, JOHN. Born in Scotland; died in Philadelphia in 1823. He was one of the founders of the Association of Artists in America. He was an excellent script engraver and was a member of the firm Tanner, Valiance, Kearney & Co. of Philadelphia. Some early bank notes bear his name. WARREN, A. COOLIDGE. Born in Boston in 1819; died in New York in 1904. He was the son of Asa Warren, a portrait and minia- ture painter. He served as apprentice under G.G. Smith, the Boston engraver. For a number of years he was employed by the New England Banknote Co. In 1863, he moved to New York and com- menced work with the Continental Bank Note Co. WELSH, CHARLES. 1820-1859(?). He was engraving bank notes in the early 1840's. He later became associated with John Draper. Subsequently his firm was absorbed by the American Bank Note Co. WELLSTOOD, JOHN GEIKIE. Born in Edinburgh, Scotland, in 1813; died some time after 1880. He came to New York in 1830 and was employed by Rawdon, Wright & Co. In 1848, he formed the firm of Wellstood, Benson & Banks. This firm eventually merged with the American Bank Note Co. WHITING, WILLIAM H. 1812-1861(?). Was engraving in 1852 with the firm of Wellstood, Hanks, Hay & Whiting. After one more name change this firm was merged with the American Bank Note Co. WILLARD, ASAPH. He was in business in Albany, N.Y. as early as 1816. He was a member of the firms Willard and Rawdon and the Graphic Banknote Co. WOODRUFF, WILLIAM. He was an adequate engraver in both line and stipple. After 1824, he moved to Cincinnati and was most likely the partner in the bank note engraving firm of Woodruff and Hammond. WRIGHT, CHARLES CUSHING. Born 1800 in Damariscotta, Maine; died in New York in 1854. In 1824, he was associated with Asher B. Durand in New York engraving medals to be awarded by national and state governments. He was one of the founders of the National Academy of Design in 1826. He was most likely the partner in Durand, Wright & Co. and Wright and Prentiss, both bank note engraving firms. REFERENCES Dictionary of American Painters, Sculptors, and Engravers. Mantle Fielding, 1926; Revised 1974. The Story of American Bank Note Company, William Griffiths, 1959. History of American Painting, Vol. 3, James Thomas Flexner. A Description of the Present System of Banknote Engraving, W. L. Ormsby, 1852. Personal archives. A-Z Financial Americana Issues 20-Page Price List Nineteenth and early twentieth century checks are featured in the newly released 20-page price list of A-Z Financial Americana, 1416 So. Big Bend Blvd., St. Louis, MO 63117. There are several pages of better imprinted revenue stamped checks, which range in price from a few dollars to $75.00. The remainder consists of checks with interesting and historic vignettes of many different types and periods. A detailed description is given of each item, to aid the beginning and advanced collector. There are approximately 450 different checks in the list. Copies are available for $1.00 from the address above. Paper Money Whole No. 109 Page 27 The African Ostrich Farm and Feather Company by EDWARD SCHUMAN E XOTIC ostrich feathers have been used for many pur- poses. In primitive Africa, they were highly prized and valued. In collections of odd and curious money, ostrich feathers as well as other rare feathers have been classi- fied. While making money was the aim of the African Ostrich Farm and Feather Company, there is another story about it worth reading. The author is president of the P.R. Schuman Duster Co., Inc., dealers in feathers and manufacturers of feather dusters. The firm was founded in 1907 by Philip R. Schuman, who remained active in the firm until he died in March of 1983 at the age of 93. My father had often mentioned the time that he, along with many others in the feather business, had hoped to strike it rich, not with a gold or silver mine, but with a feather farm. At one time, ostrich birds flourished throughout Africa. While in the wild or untamed state, they roamed throughout the continent. Similar to the American buffalo or bison, they Rfric Ostrich Tani! d tathtr Comp W. fit. Ht LE, PRESIDENT HON. GEO. W. OSTER, "JIG PRES=OENT JAS. E TEPLE, SECAETAAV A. N. YOST, TRCAS,,RER E3 LOOMSBU1RG, PA.,_ July . _24, 1913. Mr, P. H. Updegrave, valley View, Pa. Dear Sir:- We have your application for 50 shares of stock, together with cash to cover the same and here- with enclose your receipt, thanking you very much for this payment, We also enclose stock certificate. Please sign the enclosed stock certificate receipt and re- turn to us for filing. We hope you can make a trip up this way in the near future and see what a splendid proposition you have obtained. All those who do come,,,go away very well pleased and very often increase their holdings. We wish to congratulate you upon securing this excelleht in- vestment while you can obtain it at the present low price, for weaxpect future advances without notice and if you have anyffriende who are considering this in- vestment, please tell them to act promptly. Yours verytruly, AFRICAN OSTRICH FARM & FXATt R CO. JET/M1. SICCR.b. "TARY. Letter from African Ostrich Farm and Feather Company. Page 28 Paper Money Whole No. 109 Stock certificate of the African Ostrich Farm and Feather Company. Paper Money Whole No. 109 Page 29 •C' ?.••• ":„11,1:••••/2:- • . , I 7/ ////.// Z X04".{ ,/,://: 1;e0/ re 7 A1, /4,4,2141/ 4fik` /A:n (1;40aite/‘a;:afeyviiw./ eari.r(1.-Ø ivy,/ / /.;K:,/(fV,./4-„i' ,942.$1/14.):44/4 ,/e • /././ /X.;-„,?,/•//// _Kr" erd..-71,:r1 Reverse side of stock certificate. Bloomsburg, Pa ,9z<1 RECEIVED FROM African Ostrich Farm and Feather Co. Stock Certificate No. / for .."7" Shares. Page 30 Paper Money Whole No. 109 were hunted and slaughtered for the meat until they dis- appeared from almost every region of the world, except in the Oudtshoorn District near Capetown in South Africa. Since 1875, the birds have been raised on farms, with the feathers painlessly taken semi-annually. In the early years of the 20th century, ladies' fashions demanded large ostrich plumes for millinery purposes. A lady would not think of going out doors without her hat, and every hat had to have a large ostrich plume. It was at the height of the Empress Eugenie style, named after the wife of Napoleon III, whose wearing habits were copied by the masses. My father would speak of people coming to his fac- tory, buying feather dusters made of ostrich feathers, and ripping out the feathers for fashion purposes. An ostrich feather plume could be pawned for $20—which was several weeks' wages for the average worker in those times. William H. Hile was a famous world traveler and author. In 1912, he published a book The Ostrich for the Defence in which he advocated the commercial farming of ostrich birds in the United States as a new industry. He finally was able to purchase several dozen of these giant birds and bring them to California in the hopes of starting an ostrich farm. For some reasons, the birds would not thrive in the climate and Hile was advised to bring them east. He purchased 150 acres in Columbia County, Pennsylvania, near the town of Blooms- burg, and established his farm. His idea was that the birds would provide meat and eggs for eating, and plumes for the fashion and feather duster trades. The ostriches did well, but there were problems getting the eggs, nearly six inches in diameter, to hatch. Steampipes in the ground to increase the ground temperature was one solution which met with spotty success. Finally a barber in a nearby town, who was an expert on the hatching process of duck eggs, figured out a way to hatch ostrich eggs. A long-prominent Columbia County historian, Edwin A. Barton, recalled the ostrich farm. It was, he said, the object of excursion trains from Sunbury, Williamsport, and Scranton, which carried thousands of people who had paid 25 cents each to see the giant birds. While at the farm, the tourists bought plumes, feather dusters, and partook of the ostrich eggs and meat. With the outbreak of World War I, styles changed, and the huge ostrich plumes which for years had been the vogue with fashionable women were no longer in demand. It was this factor that caused the company to fail after only a few years. As business dropped off, and people stopped coming to view the birds, the flock was left to dwindle. The last bird was owned by a local tavern keeper who kept the bird in a pen at his home and used the giant eggs for tremendous omelettes. Finally, the local health officer, after receiving a complaint, ordered the disposal of the bird, which was butchered and said to have provided over 200 pounds of fairly good meat. The certificate numbered 1227 shown here is for 50 shares valued at $1.00 each, purchased by a P.H. Updegrave July 24, 1913. It is a quite ornate certificate, having a vignette of the ostrich farm showing five of the ostrich birds. It is signed by William H. Hile as president, and A.N. Yost as treasurer. There is also a receipt covering the purchase, as well as a personal letter to Mr. Updegrave complimenting him on his good judgment in purchasing stock in the company, as well as asking him to recommend it to his friends. Receipt for stock purchase in the company. I do not recall the amount invested by my father in this company, nor could I ever locate the certificate of purchase. It probably was thrown out years and years ago in disgust with all the other poor investments. My occupation is quite unusual. It stumped the experts on "What's My Line" years ago. Many of my numismatic friends kid me about being a feather merchant and such. When Grover Criswell telephoned me to say he had some- thing that I had to have, he was surprised that I knew so much about the company. I had everything but the certificate. Ostrich products are again in vogue. The leather is used in high fashioned and very expensive ladies shoes, handbags, belts and wallets. Ostrich feather boas are used on stage. Most every sultry songstress has a large feather boa draped over her shoulder. The dress trade, as well, uses ostrich trim. Many will recall the novelty hats sold at recent world's fairs using a large ostrich plume. The feather costs more than the hat. I would imagine that if a proposition identical to the one presented to my father some 75 years ago were made today, the chance of success would be good. Who knows, one day perhaps they will be storming into our factory ripping apart the dusters for the feathers. Stranger things than this have happened. Sycamore Coin Gallery & Jubilee Coins Announce Purchase of Illinois National Currency Collection Sycamore Coin Gallery of Sycamore, Illinois and Jubilee Coins of Moline, Illinois, have announced joint purchase of the finest col- lection of Illinois National Currency ever assembled. The collection of more than 500 pieces contains notes from 27 cities which are believed to be the only ones known from those cities. Included are National Currency notes from 90% of the cities in Illinois. The collection contains six Original Charter one dollar notes, four "Lazy Deuces," and three Original fives. Eight 1875 Series notes are included. The 1880 Series is represented by no fewer than 26 Brown Backs, 19 Date Backs, and five Value Backs. An equally impressive selection of 1902 Third Charter notes is also available. Also included are 10 notes with Serial Number I, highlighted by an Original Charter one-dollar from Fairbury, and an 1882 Brown Back from Cairo. Another feature of the collection is the assortment of nearly 100 different 1929 Type II Small Size notes from a variety of cities in the state, with at least six 14000 Charter numbers. Interested collectors are invited to contact either Bob Rozycki at Sycamore Coin Gallery, 358 W. State Street, Sycamore, Illinois 60178 (815) 895-6669 or Al Hurry, Jubilee Coins, 1531 47th Avenue, Moline, Illinois 61265 (309) 797-1631. 4,"4:ots.4.44:411 A00004021 A My vs ONESIIMILUDOLIAltfl; A00004015 A A00004016A Paper Money Whole No. 109 Page 31 The First Small "Ones" by DAVID KLEIN Inscription on back of .400004015A. Daniel Nash Morgan, a greater Bridgeport, Connecticut native, was Treasurer of the United States between 1893 and 1897. His signature thus appears on the Educational Notes. An important, highly respected man, he continued to be in- terested in the paper money of the United States long after he was no longer in office. An indication of his interest in paper money is the illus- trated letter from W. 0. Woods, who was Treasurer of the United States at the time the first, new, small-sized Silver Certificates were issued, in July of 1929. Woods was respond- ing to Morgan's request for low-numbered notes. Bureau records indicate that the first 4,000 numbers were used for uncut sheets, but only 11 or 12 of these are known to exist today. Some small amount of light can be shed on what transpired in 1929 by the actual notes which Woods sent to Morgan. I have been fortunate enough to acquire five of the ten notes that were sent to him. These notes are serial numbered A00004012A, A00004013A, A00004015A, A00004016A, and A00004021A, and thus establish the range of the notes which were sent. Woods indicates in his letter that these were the lowest numbered notes available, and the lowest he had sup- plied "to anyone for personal reasons." This implies that low-numbered notes, or perhaps sheets, were given out for other reasons, perhaps, political or for public awareness of the new size and style. Morgan gave the notes away, but only after he had either written on the back of them or autographed them, or both. On A00004012A he wrote, "D N Morgan July 15, 1929 from W.O. Woods Treas US in exchange." This matches up quite neatly to the writing in Morgan's handwriting on a registered article return receipt. At the bottom of the back of this docu- ment he wrote, "From U S Tr W. 0. Woods 10 US notes sent ... in exchange U. (S) Sil Certs." I wonder what notes Morgan sent as face payment? Perhaps, ten large-sized F40s? On the second note, A00004013A, Morgan wrote, "Mrs. Mary Morgan, Bridgeport, Conn, July 15, 1929," but did not autograph it. Several years ago when I acquired this note from a local coin dealer, I did so because of the serial num- ber. Until I found other notes from the group I didn't realize the true importance of the note. The five Morgan notes. On A00004015A Morgan became garrulous. He wrote, "D N Morgan July 15, 1929" at the right edge; "Received from W 0 Woods Treas US from 2 Packages of 4000 one dollar bills" over the "E" in ONE area; "Daniel Nash Mor- gan Bridgeport Connecticut" below the "0" in ONE area; and Treas US June 1, 1893 to July 1, 1897," at the left edge. All of this writing appears at right angles to the printing of the note on this and all of the notes I have. If Morgan was Page 32 Paper Money Whole No. 109 TREASURY DEPARTMENT WASHINGTON OFF101 OF TREASURER OF THE UNITED STATES mmtartymetworammls Jai; 11, 1929. Dees Mr. Morgans ln your letter of April Seth, you expressed a desire to procure ten one dollar bills of as los number as any be available. I an accordingly transmitting them to Jolt, It is with regret that I find myself enable to forward lower nunbess. There has been s great diskag for the low numbered certificates and these I an sending, you are the lowest the writer ha' sent to agrommoildkom has supplied for personal reasons. With kind regards and the expression of hope that you may continue in good health and spirit, I sa Sincerely yours, enclosures Hon. Daniel N. Morgan, P. 0. Box 155, Bridgeport, Conn, Transmittal letter from W.O. Woods to D.N. Morgan. correct, the notes were packaged in bricks similar to today's from the outset. On A00004016A, Morgan wrote above the "E" in ONE, "For Mr. Albert A. Grinnell, Detroit, Michigan, July 15, 1929;" and below the 0 in ONE, "D N Morgan Treas US, June 1, 1893 to July 1, 1897." This one note involves three treasurers of the US (Tate, Woods, and Morgan) and one of the most renowned numismatic names of the century. The last note of the group, A00004021A, has written in the right margin, "July 10, 1929" followed by an indecipher- able something after which is, "Pa issued to W 0 Woods Treas US." This doesn't really make much sense as the notes weren't sent to Morgan until July 11, and everything the statement says seems backwards. Morgan's writing on the note continues above the "E" in ONE with "To in David E. Bunswish(?), Shelton, Connecticut, August 21, 1929;" and below the "0" in ONE, "D. N. Morgan, Treas of the US, June 1, 1893 to July 1, 1897." This last note is the only one which is not CU. Morgan apparently gave out A00004012A through at least A00004016A on July 15, 1929, but didn't give out the last note until August 21, 1929. At this writing, I do not know what transpired with the five missing pieces of the puzzle, numbers A00004014A, A00004017A, A00004018A, A00004019A, and A00004020A. The notes do give us a bit of insight into low-numbered, first block, 1928 Silver Certificates and a similar small frag- ment of knowledge about W. 0. Woods, and more so about Daniel Nash Morgan. The Green Goods Game Conducted by Forrest Daniel Paper Money Whole No. 109 Page 33 giveaway, especially with the same face on both sides, per- haps the merchant thought he was receiving two notes acci- dentally stuck together while giving change for only one. That suggestion was never reported in the newspapers, however. Chief Burt and Deputy United States Marshal Andrew S. Quist took the four accused to Fargo to appear before United States Commissioner Joseph A. Montgomery. In a newspaper interview Chief Burt said: New Jersey Notes Passed in North Dakota I F the grift works, work it." If that principle from the confidence man's handbook isn't in most books of quotations, it should be. For once a swindle proves effective, others in that form of occupation are sure to employ it for their own gain. The fact that an end comes and someone is charged with fraud seldom serves to deter the con man; certainly he will not be the one to be caught. To prove that axiom, obsolete notes of $1.00 and $5.00 of The State Bank at New Brunswick, New Jersey, found ready circulation, for a time, several times in North Dakota. Incidents have been reported in Paper Money before,' but those did not reach the proportions of an earlier exposure of the game. Four men of the "hobo type" struck Valley City, North Dakota, on June 25, 1903, and immediately set about adding to the commercial activity in town. Before they were arrested by Chief of Police Robert Burt they succeeded in spending about $100 of obsolete currency notes of the State Bank at New Brunswick. Since the notes were quite different in style from any current United States money the question arises, "How could they be passed?" The answer was known im- mediately—the notes resembled Canadian chartered bank notes which had some currency in areas near the northern border, and the name New Brunswick suggested the Canadian province. If actual notes of The Bank of New Brunswick had little circulation in the West there was little chance for comparison, and the passer did not expect the receiver to read all the fine print which would reveal the fraud. Chief Burt arrested J. B. Bates, Thomas Elliott, Leonard King and Joe Kobar, the persons identified by a dozen or more people as passers of the notes in Valley City. It was reported they were seen with from $500 to $600 worth of the notes, but when they were taken they had neither "counter- feit" nor good money. And they refused to make any state- ment. At the time of their arrest the four were camped about a mile south of the town along the Cheyenne River. A careful search of the area failed to reveal any hiding place of a supply of New Brunswick notes or the proceeds of the fraud. The New- Jersey notes were passed for small purchases of food, tobacco or personal items, the greater amount being returned in good money. Since the bright red backs of the bogus $5.00 notes might have attracted attention to the bills, the men pasted two notes back to back. If the double thickness might seem to be a sure It would be pretty hard to tell just how much of this money was passed in Valley City. Just before leaving I asked the Landlord of a certain hotel if he had any $5 bills. He opened his cash drawer, "No," he replied, "but I have quite a number of Canadian ones." I asked him to let me see them, and they were all counterfeits of the State Bank of New Brunswick style. He said that he had no idea where he got them, but thought that they were passed by local parties in settling small accounts. This leads me to believe that a large majority of the business people of the city were caught by these fellows and that the money was going the rounds for a number of days, without the slightest suspicion of the fact that it was no good. A number of the bills were exhibited at the courthouse in Fargo and a reporter acknowledged that they closely re- sembled Canadian money and if only the ones had been passed the men might not have been apprehended. One of the dozen or so Valley City businessmen who traveled to Fargo to testify against the men said one of the Valley City banks had received several of the $1 bills without question. At the arraignment, U.S. Commissioner Montgomery and Attorney Engerud decided that the notes themselves posed no offense against federal law and dismissed the men. The federal authorities felt that the "queer" passed was money of the green goods man, and that it was sent to the state to some party who bit on the game. The men refused to say where they had got it. Immediately upon their release by federal authorities, the four men were arrested on a state warrant charging them with forgery in the second degree. They were to be held in the Fargo jail until being returned to Barnes County and Valley City for trial; but it was decided to release all the men except Thomas Elliott, who appeared to be the ring leader. Elliott was described as a "smooth duck," about five feet eight inches in height, and weighing about 140 pounds. He said he was from Illinois and was bumming his way to Seattle when he met three other men in Valley City; he had never seen them before. Notes Found In Fargo The publicity attending the charge against Elliott and his group caused authorities in Fargo to begin an investigation in that city. The bills were circulating there too; but mostly ones; only one five was cited in the first report. The ticket seller at the ball park had several of the bills and saloon keepers across the river in Moorhead, Minnesota, cashed about $25 worth of the stuff. A well-organized gang seemed to be covering the area with New Brunswick notes. It was learned the gang worked northern Minnesota about two weeks earlier and Grand Forks, North Dakota, was probably touched about the same time. The scope of the operation only came to light after the arrests in Valley City. Page 34 Paper Money Whole No. 109 One-dollar State Bank at New Brunswick note which may have been used in the "green goods game." A few days later newspapers informed their readers of the nature of the bills: that they had been issued before the [Civil] war by the State Bank of New Brunswick which had passed out of existence long since, that the bills had been known as red dog currency and had no value except as curi- osities. It was estimated between $50 and $100 had been floated in Valley City; some of the victims did not admit receiving the bills so the actual amount was unknown. Elliott in Jail After his three associates were released in Fargo, Thomas Elliott was returned to Valley City and lodged in the county jail. At his appearance before Justice Smith he was held to the next session of district court, and bail was set at $1,000. The charge was obtaining goods under false pretenses. Other reports of passing the alleged money implied that Elliott was part of a fairly large gang engaged in the activity in a number of cities. After about a month Elliott decided he had had enough of the hospitality of Barnes County and attempted to leave jail through a wall on a Sunday afternoon. With a table knife fashioned into a saw and a couple of iron bars six or seven inches long, he went to work on the stonework. He had an opening almost large enough for him to pass through when Deputy Sheriff McFagden came around to serve supper. Elliott was placed in a cell and was expected to spend most of his time there until the day of his trial. And there he stayed until September 14. Before his earlier escape attempt on July 26, Elliott had been allowed the liberty of the corridors, but later it was thought the cells would hold him. The cells were made of chilled steel bars about four inches apart, but in Elliott's cell a corner bar had been removed to admit a water pipe. The opening was covered with a steel plate about an eighth of an inch thick. Elliott cut through the plate, the cell's only vulnerable spot, and escaped into the corridor through an opening 6 'A inches by 11 inches. Out of the cell, he attacked the casing of one of the barred windows where he cut away the woodwork and broke through the masonry and stone work at the side of the bars. As a substitute for a crow bar he used a good-sized rod which had been used to suspend the heating pipes. Marks indicated he had a small saw of good quality to cut his way from the cell, but where he obtained it was unknown. Sheriff Oppegard offered a $25 reward for Elliott's arrest and promised an energetic effort to recapture the "dangerous crook," although there was only a minor charge against him. The Grift Is Worked Again After the publicity attending the arrest of Thomas Elliott for passing the New Jersey bills, it is likely the fraud dis- appeared from North Dakota for a time. At least no mention has been found between 1903 and 1906—there is still a chance, however. In April of 1906, Del Benton, a young man known as a bootlegger in Tagus and Berthold for a year or so, came into possession of several New Jersey bank notes. Where Benton obtained the notes was never learned, but he used one to purchase a railroad ticket from Berthold to Minot and received $4.30 in change for the $5.00 note. When Agent J. N. Brennan made up his cash for the day he spotted the bogus note and recalled receiving it from Benton. Bren- nan called another agent to fill in for him and took the mid- night train in pursuit of the culprit. In Minot the authorities were notified and Benton was arrested. When he was searched at the police station, Benton had another ten bills of the same type on his person. The bills bore the name of the State Bank [at] New Brunswick ; they were the same on both sides and were two notes pasted to- gether. The newspapers usually called the notes counterfeit and said they had frequently been reported in circulation. A preliminary hearing was held before Judge William Murray on a charge of obtaining money by passing false tokens and Benton was bound over to the July session of district court in the sum of $700, in lieu of which he was lodged in the county jail. The report of the hearing states Benton had five of the bills in his possession when arrested. Minot police made an inquiry about town to learn if any of the bills had appeared there, but none were reported. Benton had only just arrived in the city when he was arrested. After about a month in jail, Benton, said the Ward County Reporter, was to be turned over to federal authorities on a charge of counterfeiting. The newspaper also quoted an attorney who stated the charge of counterfeiting could not Paper Money Whole No. 109 Page 35 Five-dollar State Bank at New Brunswick note of a type which may have figured in the grift. stand, the bills had once been "legal tender", so pasting them together would not constitute counterfeiting. He might be convicted of getting money under false pretenses, "but as long as the bills were once legal he is immune from a counter- feiting sentence." Del Benton appeared before Judge Evan B. Goss in Minot on a charge of obtaining money under false pretenses. He pleaded guilty and was sentenced to serve two years in the state penitentiary. The Ante Ups To $10 When the green goods game reached the more rural areas in October 1906, details became sketchy and identification questionable. Anton Baron accepted a $10 bill of "Confeder- ate currency" at his store in McClusky, but on closer in- vestigation discovered it was two bills pasted together. The local newspaper noted the "confederated money was only printed on one side." If that identification is correct, another variety of obsolete was introduced. Baron identified the man who passed the bill as being from Harvey and made a complaint to Judge Johnston who swore in Jack Frantz as constable and an arrest was made. At a hearing, the man was released on the vouching of "Cousin Bill" that he did not answer the description of a man wanted in Turtle Lake for passing ten such bills. Later Mr. Reiswig discovered he had been buncoed by the same sharper in a sale of ten cents worth of "Battle Ax," and had paid out $9.90 in good coin. About that time, a telegram from States Attorney Wm. L. Nuessle brought a full description of the man wanted at Turtle Lake for passing five bogus bills; it fit the man just released. Deputy Sheriff Jones was summoned from Denhoff, but he was too late— "the bird had flown fifteen minutes before Dan Jones entered the Hall of the Green Cloth where John Besto, a man of many aliases, a derelict pigger of Drake, former Harveyite, bunco man and all around crook, had been holding out." It appears that Besto was the man who passed the bills, but there is no direct statement he was the one. Deputy Jones wired neighboring towns to be on the lookout for the "bold, bad youth, who could stack a deck of cards or match confederate currency with equal dexterity." The newspaper in neighboring Denhoff said the "suspected counterfeiter" had been entrusted to R. H. Johnson and a pilgrim who goes by the happy cognomen of "Cousin Bill," but they had gotten cold feet and let the man get away. A second-hand news item reported that the counterfeiter in Turtle Lake, "after bleeding the aristocracy, visited the slums and relieved the 'Cracker Jack' poker players of about $50." Those bills are not identified; but a stranger attempted to pass bogus currency in Anamoose at the same time and a $10 note on a New Jersey bank no longer in existence was accepted at the Schmidt & Schultes store. Speculative Conclusions Commissioner Montgomery, in Fargo, said the New Brunswick bills were the money of the green goods man. That is possible, but not in the type of operation he suggested. The green goods game was played several ways, and actual coun- terfeit or spurious notes were seldom used. A sucker was shown genuine notes which were said to be counterfeit and he was offered the opportunity to test their quality by cashing one at a bank. On finding the bills would pass inspection at the bank, the victim was permitted to buy as much "counter- feit" as he could afford. In many cases he was told the police were watching the dealers so the goods would have to be shipped to him by express; that way the purchaser would not be apprehended with counterfeit money as he left the meeting place. When the parcel was received it contained sawdust or sand. A Norwegian immigrant from Taylor, North Dakota, went to New York and was gulled by that game.' In another version of the game, the green goods would actually be wrapped to be carried away by the purchaser. The bait and switch was played on him and he left with a parcel of plain paper. Selling obsolete currency in either of those ar- rangements would be an unnecessary expense. Those dealers were after suckers and advertised their goods widely.' Obsolete notes of the New Brunswick type or counterfeit bills were sold to persons who knew what they were buying and how to use it. Some of them were passed by "hobo types" as suggested in Valley City; Tom Elliott and his group of pushers were transients planning to be long gone when the fraud was discovered. It was a stranger, too, who passed the Page 36 Paper Money Whole No. 109 $10 note in Anamoose. "Cousin Bill" may well have been the monicker of a hobo ("pilgrim") well known enough in McClusky that his real name was never known. He became part of the operation by giving a false description leading to the escape of Besto. Besto and Benton were described as an operator of a blind pig and a bootlegger. North Dakota was a prohibition state and the illicit liquor network could have provided a con- venient distribution system for bogus bills too. Both were caught when they passed the bills to people they knew. More success seems to have attended strangers. Although Elliott and his gang were captured, they had no money on them— neither New Brunswick nor United States. They were seen with $500 or $600; where was it ? Did they have it banked with a local bootlegger until it was time to leave town? Hobos had little difficulty locating the local booze sellers. It seems reasonable to guess the swindle could be worked without the transient passers having to hold the queer for any great length of time. The local operator did not have that advantage. The Notes The use of New Brunswick bills in an area where Cana- dian notes were acceptable was a good choice. And apparently it was well enough known that the red backs had to be covered. Very few, if any, Canadian notes of the period had bright red backs, and the few that did were higher denomi- nations. Backs of Bank of New Brunswick notes were uni- formly blue until 1903. By 1900, most notes were printed on much heavier paper than the New Jersey notes ; pasting the notes together would have added needed body to the thin paper used by earlier banks, as well as hide the bright backs which might be a give-away. There is also a numismatic question : What effect did the green goods operation have on the present supply of notes of The State Bank at New Brunswick ? In New Jersey's Money, George W. Wait lists a number of notes which may have been the designs used in North Dakota since we have no accurate description. Certainly the bank had a large supply of unissued notes on hand when cir- culation was suspended; and when the bank finally closed in 1877, those, of course, came into other hands. Since the notes passed were readily available in quantities to green goods men, how did their activities affect the survival rate? Wait lists two $1.00 notes with green backs and assigns them rarity values of 1 and 2, placing them in the common category. The two red-back $5s are given rarities of 1 and E- very common and very scarce. The scarcer of the $5.00 notes appears to be an earlier issue, which could account for fewer surviving; but, again, it required two $5s to make one passable bill. It is possible some of the surviving notes of The State Bank at New Brunswick once passed in the green goods game. There would be added interest in a note that could be certified as one such. A collector can only speculate : Did the fraudulent use of the bills reduce some of the survival numbers to a Rarity 6? or even a Rarity 2? NOTES: 1. "A Slight Case of Fraud," PM, Vol. 13, No. 4, 1974. "Some Notes For An Article on Bogus Passing," PM, Vol. 20, No. 2, March/April, 1981. 2. "Counterfeit Passing—A Case in Point," by Forrest W. Daniel, The Essay-Proof Journal, Vol. 37, No. I, 1980. 3. "Counterfeit Passing, Growth Industry of the 1870's," The Essay- Proof Journal, Vol. 36, Nos. 2, 3, 4, 1979. SOURCES: Newspapers: Pierce County Tribune, Rugby; Valley City Times- Record; Fargo Forum and Daily Republican; McLean County Gazette, McClusky; Harvey Herald; Denhoff Voice; Sykeston Tribune; Minot Daily Optic; Minot Weekly Optic; Ward County Reporter, Minot; Berthold Tribune; Anamoose Progress. New Jersey's Money, By George W. Wait, Newark: The Newark Museum, 1976. Descriptive List of Obsolete Paper Money Issued in New Jersey, By D. C. Wismer, 1928. The Charlton Standard Catalogue of Canadian Paper Money, Toronto : The Charlton Press, 1980. Imminent and Proposed Changes in U.S. Currency During the last quarter of 1983, the numismatic press was rife with speculation about proposed changes in the appearance of U.S. paper money. It was based on Treasury plans and surveys as revealed in Congressional hearings. According to Peter H. Daly, deputy direc- tor of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing, "Color copiers and other advances in reprographic technology pose a growing threat to U.S. currency." Among the options being considered are modest changes in de- sign, including the use of more intricate patterns of lines with the addition of background tints in the currently blank areas of the de- sign; introduction of a watermark ; the use of magnetic threads or some other form of security threads ; and use of optical variable devices. The last mentioned are three-fold: a "thin film" device consist- ing of a plastic substrate with metal particles embedded in it —like the sun-screening film used on some windows ; a "defraction aradiant" deterrence which also uses a substrate but instead of metal particles, images are placed on the substrate by a laser to create a master substrate, somewhat analagous to decals on automobiles that pass through a rainbow effect when viewed at changing angles; and a "hologram," a three-dimensional device also created through use of very sophisticated lasers and now being used on MasterCards. Within this framework Daly confirmed that one plan is a seal that displays the denomination of the note when viewed from one angle and the legend UNITED STATES FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM when viewed from another angle. Any such changes are several years away, with a gradual period of transition. However, during 1984 there will be the minor changes involving the new signature combination Series 1981-A, with the signature of the new U.S. Treasurer, Katherine Davalos Ortega, and that of Treasury Secretary Donald T. Regan. Another expected change, likely to take place around the middle of this year, would be the introduction of a so-called "universal" Federal Reserve seal on all Federal Reserve notes. This seal would be similar to the one now being used on U.S. currency but would lack any designation identifying a specific Federal Reserve bank. Since 1914, all Federal Reserve notes have carried seals, letters and num- bers specifically designating one of the 12 individual banks in the Federal Reserve system. Whereas collectors needed to obtain up to 12 different peices to complete a set of any particular note, with the anticipated change, they would need just one example of any given type. - CO /- /77//7///// Inr CENTS.RECEIVABLE IN -PAYMENT OVAL OVII URN' EMIL'S 10.116.111C CR S FIFTY C7K kfTS .1.°11, Paper Money Whole No. 109 Page 37 !Railroad Notes and Scrip of the United States, the Confederate States and Canada by RICHARD T. HOOBER (Continued from PM No. 108, Page 277) FLORIDA FERNANDINA —FLORIDA RAILROAD COMPANY Constructed by the State, this road was opened in 1861. Financing was effected by a mort- gage and swamp lands granted by the government to the State. Bonds were issued on the lands of $1,540,000 and "free land bonds" secured by a mortgage on the donated lands. The line was to provide a more direct route between the Atlantic ports, New Orleans and Havanna, from Fernandina to Cedar Keys, totaling 154 miles. Considerable damage to tracks during the war resulted in failure of the company to pay interest on the first bond issue. Commissioners of the Internal Fund sold all property for $320,000, and a new company was organized with a capital of $3,000,000. In 1880, one train was operating each way daily, as the Atlantic, Gulf & West India Transit Company Railroad, now part of the Seaboard Air Line Railway. Florida No. 3. 1. 25‘Z Typeset note, payable to bearer in transportation. R7 2. 50t Similar to No. 1, except for denomination. Date —1st August, 1861. Imprint —None. R7 3. 5() ,X (L) Woman with cornucopia. (C) Woodmen felling trees. (R) Cattle, viaduct, FIFTY CENTS above. R5 4. 1.00 (C) Train at station. (R) Woman with rose. R6 5. 2.00 (C) Riverboat. (R) Two children. Date—April 1, 1861, part ink. Imprint —American Bank Note Company. R6 6. 1.00 (L) Child's head. (C) Train at station. (R) Woman with rose. Green 1867 overprint. R7 7. 2.00 (L) Value in medallion. (C) Riverboat. (R) Two children. R7 /(riz 1;///// MIA % • ttv r r, „If:41j, AL, Cif 77//7-0-TW 0 D °LIARS 0/, iv?, 0 4, e / JACKSIATiE - • *11\\ AtVIVIt • t it t1r *1 .,v 1441- RAIL ROAD te rr frn ii . /;(//,/,./i//( //////,,././ r// 74/1/ - el// / >///// ir:(//re'V I/fatal a/ 2 1% 1./ 4/ , • • 8 1))/ win ,/ / ( s(/), II ?// pqi Page 38 Paper Money Whole No. 109 8. 3.00 (L) Woman with cornucopia. (C) Woodmen felling trees. (R) Cattle, viaduct. Date-1867, part ink. Imprint —American Bank Note Company. R7 JACKSONVILLE—FLORIDA, ATLANTIC & GULF CENTRAL RAILROAD COMPANY The road was incorporated January 24, 1851. 59 miles of single-track, 5-foot gauge rails, were laid from 1857 to 1860, between Jacksonville and Lake City. In July 1868, the line was sold to Florida Central Railroad, and finally, the road merged with Seaboard Air Line Railway. Florida No. 10. Florida No. 14. 9. 1.00 (L) Train. (C) Beehive at bottom. (R) Eagle on shield, 1 above. R6 10. 2.00 (L) Train. (C) Beehive. (R) Mercury. R6 11. 3.00 (L) Train. (C) Eagle. (R) Sailboat and riverboat. Date — 1859, part ink. Imprint—North Sherman & Co. 96 Chambers St. N.Y. R6 / / 7/, //ii///(/ /7/ (// ////, ,/, 4 ,/ ■ 1•1,91 1 .1‘,9 It 1,11 r.4 1' 1• 10.0 I 1.4, 14, s f ( ∎ ..,v 14,, a t.A t "4.. 4 t 11,11411,9 gte - Paper Money Whole No. 109 Page 39 12. 1.00 (L) Train, viaduct. (C) Two horses, train. (R) Woman's head. Plain reverse. R5 13. 1.00 Similar to No. 12, but with ornamental green reverse. R7 14. 2.00 (L) Two Indians. (C) Train. (R) Marshland, baskets of cotton. Plain reverse. R5 15. 2.00 Similar to No. 14, but with ornamental green reverse. R7 16. 3.00 (L) Man on horseback, cattle. (C) Train. (R) Indian girl and child. Plain reverse. R5 17. 3.00 Similar to No. 16, but with ornamental green reverse. R7 18. 5.00 (L) Cattle. (C) Train. (R) Indian woman seated with child. Plain reverse. R6 19. 5.00 Similar to No. 18, but with ornamental green reverse. Date - 1859-63, part ink. Imprint-American Bank Note Company, New York. R7 ST. JOSEPH- LAKE WIMICO & ST. JOSEPH CANAL & RAILROAD The canal and railroad opened in 1836, a distance of 12 miles. It was later extended to Tal- lahassee, totalling 70 miles. 20. 5.00 (L) 5. (C) Sailing vessel. (R) 5. R7 21. 10.00 (L) 10. (C) Sailing vessel. (R) 10. Date - 1837, part ink. Imprint - None. R7 TALLAHASSEE- TALLAHASSEE RAILROAD COMPANY The railroad was incorporated February 10, 1834. It was sold and re-incorporated June 24, 1869 under the same name and ran from Tallahassee to St. Mark, a distance of 21 miles. Following several mergers, it is now part of the Seaboard Air Line Railway. Florida No. 23. 22. 25 ,T (C) Train. Date-1861, part ink. Imprint - None. R7 23. 1.00 (L) ONE. (C) Wharf scene, between Is. (R) "Receivable in payment . . .," ONE above, 1 below. R7 '1- '1° AFILINICIL AV . vstlolvics 2 STATE OF FLORIDA, ilahas-seeliailRoadConipany ,2.VeI24 -.A,M .,o24 4.103k..tansaan ,I1111 Page 40 Paper Money Whole No. 109 Florida No. 28 24. 2.00 (L) TWO. (C) Wharf scene, 2 left. (R) "Receivable in payment," TWO above, II below. R7 25. 3.00 No description. Date-1852, part ink. Imprint—Rawdon, Wright, Hatch & Edson, New York. R7 26. 1.00 (L) Woman's head. (C) Family group, train. (R) 1 in medallion above and below. Green lathework. R4 27. 1.00 Similar to No. 24, with ornamental reverse. R2 28. 2.00 (L) Anchor, bales, 2 above. (C) Train on viaduct. (R) Woman's head. R4 29. 2.00 Similar to No. 28, with ornamental reverse. R2 30. 3.00 (L) Woman. (C) Sailor, boat and anchor. (R) 3 in medallion. R4 31. 3.00 Similar to No. 30, with ornamental reverse. Date — 1860, part ink. Imprint—American Bank Note Company. R2 (To be continued) POSTS PARAN PET 0444, 1Z4),„„. N..31SVERIGE (P%%*' SVERIGE 160 KRONOR Paper Money Whole No. 109 Page 41 Mail ballots will be distributed in the May/June issue of PAPER MONEY. Results of the election will be announced at the General Membership Meeting at the ANA Convention in Detroit this coming year. Those governors whose terms expire this year are Martin Delger, Larry Adams, William Horton, Jr., Peter Huntoon, and Steven Whitfield. If you have any questions or suggestions, please feel free to write me at P.O. Box 1, Boone, Iowa 50036. Connecticut Show in March Interest Bearing Notes LAadTrins Welcome to 1984! Best wishes for the New Year! Plan- ning is underway for your Society's 1984 activities and programs. The Alabama book has been typeset, and proof- reading is beginning as this is written (November), so we should have the Alabama book out by Memphis, if not be- fore. Our 1984 souvenir card will be issued at Memphis Coin Club's International Paper Money show in June. Dues Reminder This is a gentle reminder that 1984 dues are now due. Dues are still only $12. Your cooperation in renewing promptly will help to minimize the cost of sending out "sec- ond notice" statements. Please note that your dues notice and 1984 membership card were enclosed with the Novem- ber/December, 1983 issue of PAPER MONEY. Please be sure to: Pay your dues promptly. Fill out and keep your 1984 membership card with your name and year 1984. Your membership number appears on your magazine mailing envelope. Check the label on the mailing envelope, and make any necessary corrections. Please print any changes. This is important so we can keep the mailing list up to date and you wIl continue to receive your magazines regularly. Put your membership number on your check. Nominating Committee Each year, five members are elected to three-year terms on the Board of Governors. I have appointed the following nominating committee to develop a slate of candidates for your consideration for this year's election: Walter Allan—Chairman (2442 Lakeshore Highway West, Oakville, Ontario, Canada L6L 1H7) Charles Colver (611 N. Banna Avenue, Covina, California 91724) Steve Taylor (70 West View Ave., Dover, Delaware 19901) If you have any ideas regarding potential candidates, anyone on the committee will be pleased to hear from you. Additionally, candidates can be put on the ballot if a written nominating petition signed by ten members in good standing and a written acceptance from the nominee are received by Bob Aspiazu, SPMC Secretary, by no later than March 1, 1984. The Mansfield Numismatic Society will hold its 12th annual Coin and Paper Money show at the Elks Lodge, Pleasant St. (Rt. #32), Willimantic, Conn., on March 11, 1984. There will be both bourse and exhibits, plus an auction by Cassano at 4:15 PM. Admission is free. Contact C. John Ferreri, P.O. Box #33, Storrs, Conn. 06268. Centennial of Postal Savings in Sweden To celebrate the centenary of the Swedish postal savings system three stamps were issued Feb. 9, 1984 in the values 100 Ore, 1.60 kr and 1.80 kr. The stamps are issued in coils. The engravers were Lars Sj6Oblom and Arne Wallhorn. The design is by Jan Magnusson, who worked on originals by 011e Hjortzeberg. From a modest start postal savings have grown to a compre- hensive activity of great importance to millions of people and to the economic life of Sweden. No less than SEK 32 billion, i.e. an average of SEK 4.000 per inhabitant, is today amassed in the postal savings movement. For a long time the postal savings bankbook account was the only type of savings account. But gradually new bank services were introduced, e.g. the Postal Savings Bank made a pioneer effort in collecting savings by automatic paycheck deductions. This was how the personal account developed. Today it is a combined pay- check-deduction and savings account for 1.4 million people. Page 42 Paper Money Whole No. 109 SECRETARY'S ROBERT AZPIAZU, JR., Secretary EPORT P. 0. Box 1433 Hialeah, FL 33011 NEW MEMBERS 6610 Hank Hessing, 49 Union Ave. Apt. 404, New Haven, Ct. 06519; C, LG & SM U.S. Currency. 6611 Mariano A. Munoz, P.O. Box 638, Sandakan, Sabah, Malay- sia; C, British Commonwealth. 6612 David Proctor, Box 82643, San Diego, Ca. 92138. 6613 Dennis Black, Rt. 1, Charleston, Tn. 37310; C, China, S.E. Asia, U.S.A. 6614 R.J. Harp, 507 N. Maple, Mapleshade, N.J. 08052; C. 6615 James H. Goudge, P.O. Box 411, Conoga Park, Ca. 91305; C. 6616 Ron Wulf, R2-Box 231, Montello, Wis. 53949; C, Fractional Currency. 6617 Raymond D. Patten, 11 Annie St., Providence, R.I. 02908; C, CSA and Southern States. 6618 Samuel Seibert, P.O. Box 506, Elizabethtown, PA 17022; C, Foreign. 6619 Jerome Hannigan, 2618 W. Serendipity, No. 323, Colorado Springs, Co. 80917; C, US Currency. 6620 Okley C. Davis, 3103 Cotnellia St., Bellevue, Ne. 68005; C, US Fractional Currency. 6621 James Raye, PO Box 143A, Wheeling, Ill. 60090; D, Obsoletes & Natls. 6622 Franz J. Homer, 409 Wormwood Hill, Mansfield Ct., Ct. 06250; C, Everything. 6623 Bruno Lotz, 12526 Freeman Ave., Hawthorne, Ca. 90250. 6624 Adam Van Norden, 800 Bellshire Drive-440, Conroe, Tx. 77301; C, US Paper Money. 6625 E.V. Catoe, Jr., Box 175, Webb, Ms. 38966; C&D. 6626 J. Yasuk, P.O. Box 4533, Princeton, Fl. 33092; US. 6627 Tony Waggoner, 4555 Skyline Dr., Ashland, Ky. 41101; C, Obsoletes—Confed.—All U.S. 6628 F. Warren Garman, 13741, Cabells Mill Dr., Centerville, Va. 22020; C, US Currency. 6629 Paul F. Cocozza, 10 Highland Ave., North Tarrytown, N.Y. 10591; C. COMING EVENTS PAGE - REGIONAL MEETINGS- Milwaukee, Wisconsin —April 26-29,1984; Central States Numismatic Society 44th Annual Con- vention and Coin Show, MECCA Convention Center, Kilbourn at 6th Street. SPMC will hold an informal regional meeting at this event. Time to be announced. Watch this space and the numismatic press for further details. For general show information and bourse space, con- tact A.P. "Del" Bertschy, 3939 North Murray Avenue, Shorewood, Wisconsin 53211. - NATIONAL MEETINGS- Memphis, Tennessee—June 14-17, 1984; Memphis Coin Club's 8th Paper Money Show, Holiday Inn-Rivermont. Usual activities. SPMC program and speaker. Souvenir Card. Times to be de- termined. Watch this space and the numismatic press for further details. For bourse table space or further information, contact Mike Crabb, Box 17871, Memphis, Tennessee 38117. (901) 654-6118. Detroit, Michigan —July 28-August 1, 1984; American Numismatic Association 94th Anniversary Convention, Cobo Hall Convention Center, Detroit, Michigan. Usual activities. Times to be determined. Watch this space and the numismatic press for further details regarding SPMC activities at this event. Paper Money Whole No. 109 Page 43 mongymart Paper Money will accept classified advertising from members only on a basis of 5( per word, with a minimum charge of $1.00. The primary purpose of the ads is to assist members in exchanging, buying, selling, or locating specialized material and disposing of duplicates. Copy must be non-commercial in nature. Copy must be legibly printed or typed, accompanied by prepayment made payable to the Society of Paper Money Collectors, and reach the Editor, Barbara R. Mueller, 225 S. Fischer Ave., Jefferson, WI 53549 by the first of the month preceding the month of issue (i.e. Dec. 1, 1982 for Jan. 1983 issue). Word count: Name and address will count as five words. All other words and abbreviations, figure combinations and initials count as separate. No check copies. 10 07o discount for four or more insertions of the same copy. Sample ad and word count. WANTED: CONFEDERATE FACSIMILES by Upham for cash or trade for FRN block letters, $1 SC, U.S. obsolete. John W. Member, 000 Last St., New York, N.Y. 10015. (22 words: $1: SC: U.S.: FRN counted as one word each) FREE FOR THE asking: List of North Carolina Nationals by charter, series, denomination, and notes known. List of your North Carolina notes including serial numbers appreciated. Jim Greene, P.O. Box 725, Sparta, NC 28675 MISSOURI CURRENCY WANTED: large size Nationals, obsolete notes and bank checks from St. Louis, Maplewood, Clayton, Manchester, Luxemburg, Carondelet and St. Charles. Ronald Horstman, Route 2, Box 242, Gerald, MO 63037 (118) SPECIAL OFFERING: UNCUT sheets of 4 old United States revenue certificates dated 1878 with vignette of Taylor. Price $4.75 each. Frank Sprinkle, 304 Barbee Blvd., Yaupon Beach, Southport, NC 28461 (110) WANTED: MACERATED MONEY: postcards and any other items made out of macerated money. Please send full details to my attention. Bertram M. Cohen, PMW, 169 Marl- borough St., Boston, MA 02116 (114) WANTED: PENNSYLVANIA NATIONALS Muncy #837, Wellsborough #3938, LeRaysville, Shinglehouse, Tioga small, Ulysses large, New Milford small, Ulster large, Hop Bottom large, East Smithfield, Springville, Picture Rocks, Monroeton. Gerald Warner, Troy, PA 16947 (110) WANTED: LARGE, SMALL and obsolete notes of Belleville, Illinois and area. Oren E. Cannady, 1210 Western Ave., Belle- ville, IL 62221 MAIL BID: $100 CR. packs $1 FDR notes. 1 each of the 12 FDR districts. Bid closes Jan. 15. Sam Seibert, Box 506, Eliza- bethtown, PA 17022 OHIO WANTED: SANDUSKY, Norwalk, Huron, Bellevue, Port Clinton, and related exonumia. Include signatures if possible from #4792 and #11275. P. Rudolf, 90 W. Washing- ton, Norwalk, OH 44857 (112) BUYING ALABAMA MATERIAL: Nationals, obsoletes, checks, stocks, etc. Especially North Alabama, Florence, Tus- cumbia. Bob Whitten, 743 Prospect #3, Florence, AL 35630 (112) BEAUTIFUL WORLD BANKNOTES for sale! I have over 1,000 different notes from over 130 countries. Ask for free catalog or send $7 and receive 12 beautiful UNC. notes (all dif- ferent) from 9 nations (cat. value $24 + ). Satisfaction guaran- teed. Larry R. Kinney, P.O. Box 907P, Bothell, WA 98041 (113) WANTED: WESTCHESTER COUNTY, New York Na- tionals. Small or large, any condition. Send photocopy, note or description and asking price. Larry Feuer, 22 Beechwood Blvd., Port Chester, NY 10573 (phone 914-937-0937) (111) FLORIDA NATIONALS WANTED, large and small size on any bank. Especially want Gainesville 3894 signed McKinstry as cashier, and large size Ocala 10578. Shayne MacMahon, Box 13282, Gainesville, FL 32604 (112) MINNESOTA LARGE AND small wanted. Particularly need Osakis #6837, all Mankato banks, others. Please describe and price. Patrick Flynn, 122 Shadywood Ave., Mankato, MN 56001 (113) COLORADO MATERIAL WANTED: Nationals, checks, stocks, bonds, postcards, etc. Please describe and price. Max Stucky, P.O. Box 7768, Colorado Springs, CO 80933 (114) BUYING SERIAL NUMBERS 00000001, 11111111, 22222222, 33333333, 44444444, 55555555, 66666666, 77777777, 88888888, 99999999. Please describe and price. Also interested in other low or special S/N's. ANA, SPMC, PMCM. Graeme Ton, 203 47th St., Gulfport, MS 39501. (111) WANTED: GERMAN NOTGELD, collections, accumula- tions, dealers' stocks. No Austrian. Frank P. Fritchle, 1163 Pomegranate Ct., Sunnyvale, CA 94087. (117) BUYING AND SELLING Nationals and Type notes. A free price list is available upon request. Paying $125 or more for any small size note from the Palo Alto National Bank, Palo Alto, CA (Ch. #13212) grading V.G. or better. William Litt, P.O. Box 4770, Stanford, CA 94305 (112) LIST OF CHECKS available from plain to rare. Approxi- mately 250 items. $1.00 towards printing and postage would help but not necessary. Bob Pyne, 1610 Bennett Rd., Orlando, FL 32803 (111) MISSISSIPPI OBSOLETE NOTES wanted for my collection. Favorable prices paid for notes that are needed. Byron W. Cook, Box 181, Jackson, MS 39205 (112) QUESTION: DOES ANYONE in the United States have the complete story of paper scrip of McNeal Coal Company? Frank Sprinkle, 304 Barbee Blvd., Yaupon Beach, Southport, NC 28461 (110) INDIANA OBSOLETES WANTED: LaPorte 380-1, 381-1-2, 382-1, 383-1-2-3-4, 384-1, 385-1, 386 1 2 3-4 5 6, 387-1-2, 388-1. Michigan City 494-1-2-3-4, 495-1-2-3-4, 496-1-2-3, 497-1-2-3- 4-5, 498-1-2-3, 499-1-2, 500-1-2-3, 502-1. Sutlers 925-1-2-3, 926-1, 927-1-2, 928-1. Wanted actual notes or a good glossy black and white actual size photo of each note (both sides) and any other unlisted from the above. Also want other Indiana obsoletes, college currency, nationals, script, old checks, stock certificates, bonds, merchant tokens, bus tokens, revenue stamps, trout stamps, hunting stamps. Other misc. Indiana items. Richard L. Salzer, RR#3, Box 791, Knox, IN 46534 (111) Page 44 Paper Money Whole No. 109 ST. LOUIS NATIONALS wanted. Actively seeking notes for my collection. Appreciate Xerox of all large notes. Bob Coch- ran, 13001 Hollenberg Dr., Bridgeton, MO 63044 (114) HUNTSVILLE, ALABAMA WANTED: Nationals, checks obsoletes. Bob Cochran, 13001 Hollenberg Dr., Bridgeton, MO 63044 (114) STUART, VIRGINIA WANTED: First National Bank, Charter 11901. Nationals, checks, Xerox of notes. Bob Cochran, 13001 Hollenberg Dr., Bridgeton, MO 63044 (114) NORTH CAROLINA WANTED: Mount Airy, Charter 4896. Nationals, checks, Xerox of notes. Bob Cochran, 13001 Hollenberg Dr., Bridgeton, MO 63044 (114) COCHRAN, GEORGIA WANTED: First National Bank, Charter 7567. Nationals, checks, Xerox of notes. Bob Cochran, 13001 Hollenberg Dr., Bridgeton, MO 63044 (114) WANTED: BACK ISSUES of Paper Money for Missouri Numismatic Society Library. Prefer originals, but will gladly accept copies. Need 1963 #2, 1964 #3, 1965 #1. Bob Cochran, 13001 Hollenberg Dr., Bridgeton, MO 63044. WANTED: PAPER MONEY, Volume 15, Number 2; March/ April 1976. Bob Cochran, 13001 Hollenberg Dr., Bridgeton, MO 63044. WANTED: WAUSEON, OHIO notes #7091, Bowling Green, Ohio notes, #4045. Any other NW Ohio notes. Lowell Yoder, Box 100, Holland, OH 43528 (419-865-5516) (110) I COLLECT CALIFORNIA, Nevada, Alaska, Hawaii and all other Western stocks, bonds, checks, drafts. Please sell to me! Ken Prag, Box 531 PM, Burlingame, CA 94010 (phone 415- 566-6400). (119) TENNESSEE NATIONALS WANTED for my personal col- lection. Especially need first and second charters. largest prices paid. Jasper Payne, Box 3093, Knoxville, TN 37917. (113) WANTED: CU $1.00 FRN with serial #05041981 or 09221978. James E. Lund, Route 7, Box 726, Alexandria, MN 56308 (112) GENUINE STOCK CERTIFICATES. List SASE. 50 differ- ent $19.95. 100 different unissued $22.95. 100 different used without pictures $24.95. 50 different with 50 different pictures $34.95. 1 to 100,000 wanted. Hollins, Box 112-P, Springfield, VA 22150 (112) WANTED: VOLUMES 1-3 Paper Money. I collect Nebraska obsoletes. Nationals, post cards, railroad schedules, and books. Please send copies and prices. A.A. Armstrong, Jr., 211 W. 39, Scottsbluff, NE 69361 (110) WANTED: BANK OF The United States checks, notes, let- ters, 1791-1840 or Xerox copies needed for book on this sub- ject. Matt Rothert, Sr., 656 Graham St., Camden, AR 71701 (113) ILLINOIS NATIONALS WANTED: Chester #4187, Dahl- gren #7750, Dongola #10086, Equality #6978, Fairfield #5009 & 6609, Johnston City #7458, Jonesboro #12373, Mounds City #7443, New Douglas #13696, New Haven #8053, Omaha #10291, Ullin #8180. C.E. Hilliard, 201 E. Cherry, Win- chester, IL 62694 (112) WANTED: WAUKEGAN, ILLINOIS Nationals. Price and describe. William H. Serocky, 11181 W. 33rd St., Zion, IL 60099 (112) WANTED: WAUSEON, OHIO notes #7091. Also interested in other northwestern Ohio notes. Lowell Yoder, Box 100, Holland, OH 43528 (110) KANSAS OBSOLETE NOTES FOR SALE OR TRADE $1.00 - 1856 City Bank of Leavenworth, Kansas Territory, back design in orange. XF $275.00 Have many Kansas OBSOLETES for trade or sale, in- cluding several unique notes. Write (include SASE) if in- terested or if you have any Kansas to trade. Want notes from banks in Atchison and Lawrence. STEVEN WHITFIELD 407 CUMBERLAND DRIVE HUNTSVILLE, AL. 35803 702-851-8875 ECI CI-Talj 0Y0111124212 P.O. Box 10791. RENO. NV e9510-0791 MILITARY CURRENCY WORLD WAR 2 ALLIED - AXIS - JAPANESE OCCUPATION U.S. MILITARY PAYMENT CERTIFICATES PHILIPPINE GUERRILLA NOTES LM ANA-1066 IBNS-1593 PMCM-1109 SPMC-3386 PROfESSIOW NUMiSMNISTs rukt.G,Ir4c Paper Money Whole No. 109 Page 45 Interested in Paper Money? I WOULD LIKE TO SEND YOU OUR $3 RARE COIN REVIEW ABSOLUTELY FREE OF CHARGE! Ray Merena, President Bowers and Merena Galleries Interested in paper money? I imagine that you are, or you would not belong to the Society of Paper Money Collectors. Dave Bowers, Tom Becker, and I had a discussion the other day, and we came to the conclusion that there are a number of Society members who are not acquainted with our publications and the many outstanding cur- rency items we offer. So, I have come up with a special value for you! Read on .. . Now being prepared is our RARE COIN REVIEW #50. In addition to many other items it will have a marvelous selection of currency, a number of pieces of which once belonged to Amon Carter, Jr. First, there will be popular "type" notes such as the 1896 "Educational" series (including a cut sheet of low serial number $2), the Martha Washington $1, and 1886 $5 "Numismatic Reverse" note, the 1899 "Indian Chief" note, the 1901 "Bison" $10 note, and many others, mostly in Gem New preservation ! Then there is a marvelous offering of Vermont National Bank Notes, including a variety unlisted by Hickman-Oakes, plus some nationals of Mass- achussetts, Maine, and Rhode Island. Then comes some outstanding Gem New uncut sheets of small-size $1, including series of 1928-C, 1928-D, and the landmark 1928-E! There is also a full set of encased postage stamps with one of each issue. Our RARE COIN REVIEW bears a cover price of $3. While you may wish to subscribe at $15 for a year's worth of issues (or $50 for a year's worth of RARE COIN REVIEW issues plus our "Grand Format" auction catalogues), as an introductory offer, I invite you to send me your name and ad- dress, write the words "Special Review Offer," and I will send you free of charge and without obligation our new RARE COIN REVIEW #50 when it is released! I have only printed a few hundred extra copies, so send me your request as early as possible. A wonderful offering of paper money waits you, not to mention a vast inventory of coins and other items. BOWERS AND MERENA GALLERIES, INC. Attn: Special Review Offer P.O. Box 1224 Wolfeboro, NH 03894 Page 46 Paper Money Whole No. 109 OBSOLETE PAPER MONEY AUCTION DESCRIPTION Lot # Est. 1. IL $2 Lumberman's Bank at Grand Haven MI. E.L. Fuller, Rockford, IL and Dubuque, IA. 3 State note. 1857 AF $60 2. IN $1 MI city & S. Bend Plankroad Co. payable Marshall MI 1862. U 60 3. MA 20c Mt. Pleasant Apothecary Store. Boston. 1863. AU 18 4. MO $5 Sine's Gift Dist. Certif. (bank note style) St. Louis 1866. F 20 5. NH 2c 3c uncut black & green store scrip. Concord. 1864. U 25 6. NJ 15c City of Newark. black & red 1862. VF 20 7. NY 4 pence. Reformed Dutch Church. Schenectady. 1793. F 200 8. NY $5 Bryant Stratton. Inter. College Bank. Beautiful black & green. Lists many states incl. MI on rev. 1868. U 80 9. NY $1000 As above. Great denomination. 1865. F 150 10. NY 50c Early Ad Note. Kathairon Bank. Drugs, hair restorer, etc. F 30 11. NY 40 3C 2c 1c Sutliff's coupons (uncut) Albany. U 18 12. NY $1 Ad note. Romaine Shoes on Rev. of MI Washtenaw obs. F 20 13. PA 6 1/4c Southwark, Phila. flaws. sm . corner off. 1837. G 25 14. PA? $2 Peirce School, large note. U 18 15. RI $1 Washington County Bank. Carolina M ills. Green. 1863. VG-F 22 16. RI $3 Producers Bank. Woonsocket. Some flaws but a superior Altered note. VG 75 17. VT 15c Hydeville Co. black & red. 1862. U 20 18. VT 10c 25c. As above. U 25 19. VT 10c Bank of Black River. Ludlow, Vt. 1862. 3 colors. U 25 20. VT 25e Bank of Newbury. Wells River. 186_ . U 20 21. VT 50c Vermont State Bank, some paper flaws. Very early. VG 45 22. VT 50c As above, flaws. 1807 differ. style. G 40 23. VA 25c G.F. Hupp. Winchester. Coin note. 1839. U 35 24. VA 50C As above. Coin note. U 35 25. WI $1 Savings & Exchange Bank, Kenosha, payable in Grand Rapids, MI. Red overprint. Very Rare. VG 100 26. $12.80 U.S. Internal Revenue Tobacco "stamp," banknote resemblance, nice engrav- ing. 187_ PC's. EF 25 27. 1c Boardman's Groc. 309 Lewis St. Small early 20th cent. VG 25 28. Woman's "Titantic" Memorial contribution form 1912. AU 15 MICHIGAN OBSOLETE PAPER MONEY Bowen Numbers in (brackets) 29. $1 Bank of Adrian. (1) Second plate. 1838. F-VF 9 30. $5 As Above (5) First Plate "State of Michigan" Ex Bowen. AU 125 31. $5 As Above (6) Also Ex Harold Bowen. EF 125 32. Adrian Insur. Co. Huge RR vignette. AU 18 33. $5 Bank of Allegan, few pinholes. F 60 34. $5 Bank of Battle Creek (5) small hole 18 . Attractive. EF 60 35. Bay de Noquet (No known notes) see p. 52 Bowen Blue. Strip of five one cent small coupons circa 1900. U 8 36. Bay de Noquet. As above. Strip of five 10e small coupons. U 9 37. $1 Bank of Brest, paper separations. Ghost Town! 1837. G 60 Lot # Est. 38. $2 Bank of Brest. Ghost Town. 1837. F-VF $90 39. $20 Business College Bank (Mayhew) 1869 (2). F 120 40. $2 Calhoun County Bank. Marshall 1837, sm. paper separation. VG 80 41. $1 Central Mining Co. Eagle Harbor. V. scarce denom. 1868. F-VF 50 42. $10 Bank of Chippeway. Sault De St. Marys. 1838. AU 30 43. $3 Chippeway County Bank. Soult De St. Mary. 18 Rare. AU 100 44. $2 Bank of Clinton. 1837. VF 30 45. $1 Clinton Canal Bank. Pontiac. 1837. F 25 46. $2 Clinton Canal Bank. Pontiac. 1837. VF 30 47. 5e G.A. Colby & Bro. Marshall (1). 1862. VF 95 48. $10 Commercial Bank. Gratiot 18 . AU 30 49. $2 Bank of Constantine. Rare. 1838. F 125 50. 12e Cooper, Thompson, Jackson. 1862. VG. Note an ad last year at 140 51. 15C As above. Error: small paper folds as made. EF 55 52. $5 Detroit Bank. Territorial note. 1806. U 35 53. $1 Det. & St. Joseph RR Bank. Rare. Jackson. 1840. U 100 54. $1 Erie & Kalamazoo RR Bank (2) Scarce early Indian note. 1838. VG 55 55. $1.75 As Above. Adrian. Later small size, in- teresting denom. U 65 56. $3 As above. Huge, interesting RR vignette. 1854. (28). VF 22 57. $5 Exchange Bank. Ann Arbor. 18 AU 150 58. $5 Exchange Bank. Shiawassee. GHOST TOWN! 183_ . U 125 59. $1 Farmers Bank of Genesee County. Flint Rapids (1) 1838. AU + 40 60. $10 As above. F-VF 30 61. $2 Farmers Bank of Oakland. ROYAL OAK! In great demand. 18 AU 325 62. $5 Farmers & Mechanics Bank. Detroit (9). Scarce 18 . VG 75 63. $5 Farmers Bank of Sandstone. Barry. 1838. U 30 64. $1 Farmers & Merchants Bank of St. Joseph. (6) Spur. Sigs. 18 VF 30 65. $5 Government Stock Bank. Ann Arbor. 1850 (10) Signed. F 50 66. $1 Grand Rapids Bridge Co. 18 . U 40 67. 20c B.C. Hoyt. St. Joseph. Attractive Blue & red. 1862. U 40 68. $5 Jackson Iron Co. Fayette. GHOST TOWN! (1). 186 U 100 69. $2 Bank of Lapeer, one small pc. 1838. F 40 70. $1 Lenawee County Bank. Palmyra. 1837. F-VF 90 71. 25c W.L.P. Little. East Saginaw. Poor trim into wording on bottom. Non-existent place name. 1862 (3). AU 30 72. 10e John Miller & Co. Port Huron (2) Scarce town. 1862. F 90 73. $5 Merchants Bank of Jackson. Brooklyn. Some paper deterioration at one sig. UNIQUE & UNPUBLISHED NOTE! Genuine sigs and ap- parently genuine date of 1843. The discovery note. EF 250 74. $20 Lenawee County Bank. Palmyra. Slightly nibbled at right end. UNIQUE & UNLISTED Higher denomination. 18 . AU 350 75. 50 10 10 J.H. McAnley. Manistee UNLISTED SET of scrip-like msde. "Fine Groceries, &c." Probable late 19th century. U 195 76. $2 Bank of Michigan. Detroit. (12). 1839. AU 25 77. $5 Bank of Michigan. Detroit. (18) Scarce terri- torial. 1831. F 30 Paper Money Whole No. 109 Lot # Est. 78. $1 Bank of Michigan. Marshall. Beautiful note. 18 U $ 9 79. $3 Same. Another beautiful note. 18 U 12 80. $3 Same only with Genuine signatures and date; rare thus. 1865. VG 50 81. $10 Merchants & Mechanics Bank, Monroe. 18 . AU 12 82. $1 Bank of Michigan Centre. Severely patched on rev with early replaced L.L. corner. No descrip. in Bowen. Rare note on a rare town! Other than repairs grades. VG 200 83. $5 Mich. Insur. Co. Detroit. (6) Chief Red Jacket vignette, five small pc's. Orange back. 18 55 84. $1 Michigan Iron Co. Clarksbugh, L.S. (3) 1874. F 75 85. 5e Mitchell, Waldron & Co. Hillsdale. Rare town! 186 AU 125 86. 20(r Same. NO NOTES LISTED IN EITHER BOWEN BOOK FROM HILLSDALE. AU 150 87. $1 Bank of Monroe "A." Harleston-Morrison sigs. (3) 1838. F-VF 25 88. $3 Same. (8) Harleston-Smith sigs. 1836. F 25 89. $2 Monroe & Ypsilanti RR Co. Slight paper separations. A GREAT RARITY FROM A GHOST TOWN. 1839. F+ 450 90. $3 Same. Paper separations mostly at sigs. A Xerox corner replacement on right corner but sig. of L. Goddard "king of the bank swindlers." Intact. 1838. F+ 225 91. $5 Munising Iron Co. Marquette. 1873. U 12 92. $2 Bank of Niles. Scarce bank & town. 1838.F + 125 93. $1 Oakland County Bank. Pontiac. Invisible X cancel. 1843 (6). U 25 94. $3 Same. Very attractive uncancelled note. (10). 1843. U 45 95. $5 Same. Invisible X cancel. (12). 1843. U 35 96. $10 Osceola Consol. Mine. Houghton. red & green. (2) 187 . AU + 12 97. $1010101010 Same. uncut sheet 187 . EF 75 98. $5 5 5 Franklin Mining Co., Hancock. Uncut sheet of three (1). Beautiful steel plate engrav- ings. EF 300 99. $10 10 10 Same. Uncut sheet of three (2). Beautiful green. EF 330 100. $3 Palmyra & Jacksonburgh RR Co. Palmyra. Red overprint. spur. sigs. Circa 1838. VG 75 101. $5 Penninsular Bank. Det. "C" 18 . U 9 102. $25 (written) Keweenaw County. Invisible can- cels. 1863. F 14 103. $1 Pittsburgh & Lake Angeline Iron Co. Mar- quette. Heavily patched on reverse (1) A UNIQUE NOTE. EX CHASE MANHATTAN MONEY MUSEUM 1867. G 150 104. $1 Bank of Pontiac. Beautiful black & green. (3). 1863. AU 50 105. $1 Same (4). 1863. F 40 106. $1 Same (2) Chief Pontiac. 1864. AU 35 107. $25 Ridge Copper Co. Ontonagon Co. p. 144 Bowen Brown book 1874. AU 75 108. $30 Sarne. Invisible cut cancel. 1873. EF 75 109. $2 Bank of River Raisen Monroe. Early Raisen spelling with an "e" (9). 1843. VG-F 24 110. $3 Bank of River Raisin. Monroe. (14). 1842. AF 24 111. $5 Bank of River Raisin, Monroe. (19). 1844. F + 24 112. $1 River Raisin & Lake Erie RR Co. Monroe. (7). 1863. U 25 113. $2 Same. Invisible X cancel (9). 1836. AU 24 114. $2 Same. Choice uncancelled (12). 1863. U 29 115. $3 Same. (15). 1863. U 39 116. 5c City of Saginaw (1). 1862. U 35 117. 10c Same (2). 1862. U 35 118. $2 Saginaw City Bank. Coin note. 1837. VF + 65 119. $5 Same. Just a trifle dirty. 1837. F 50 Page 47 Lot # Est. 120. $5 Bank of St. Clair at St. Clair "A", small hole but very superior condition for this bank. 1837. VG $90 121. $2 Bank of Saline. 1837. F+ 35 122. $1 2 3 5 State Bank set of four notes. Beauti- ful. 18 U 60 123. 10e State Bank. Detroit. Duncan note. 1862. VF 30 124. 50(r Same. 1862. F 30 125. $3 Tecumseh Bank. Unc. 18 U 12 126. Bank of Washtenaw. Ann Arbor (21). 1854. VF 18 127. $5 Same (33) Another better note. 1854. U 16 128. $20 Same. Still a better note. 18 U 35 129. $5 Clinton County Bank. WATERLOO. Small tringular Xerox replacement piece top center. UNIQUE & UNLISTED NOTE ON A NON-EX- ISTENT TOWN. EF. 18 . A SPECTACULAR NOTE LIKELY TO MEET OR EXCEED THE RECORD FOR A MICH. OBSOLETE NOTE WHICH IS CURRENTLY 700 130. $20 Wyandotte Rolling Mill Co. Detroit. (5). 1873. Invisible cut cancel. EF 100 131. $1 Bank of Ypsilanti. Somewhat tattered and dark 1836(2). G 19 132. $5 Same. (6). F 35 133. Book Early Mich Scrip by Harold Bowen. Standard reference. U 34 Michigan bidders see lots 1, 8, 9, 12 and 25 as these are Michigan related. End of auction. Usual rules. Auction closes within a reasonable period of time after your receipt of this copy of "Paper Money"- probably 2-3 weeks. No buyer's charge. Postage & insurance will be added to your invoice. 4% Mich. sales tax will be charged to ALL Michigan residents unless a valid sales tax # is provided. There shall be NO exceptions to the above rules. FALATER • 118 N. HOWELL • HILLSDALE, MI 49242 • (517) 439.5434 BOOKS FOR SALE Florida* (SPMC) Freeman. $18 Early Mich Scrip. Bowen (brown). 34 Minnesota* (SPMC) Rockholt. 12 Mississippi* (SPMC) Leggett. 18 Tennessee. Garland. 30 Texas* (SPMC) Medlar. 18 Essay & Proof Notes. Hessler. 19 Nat'l Bank Notes* Kelly. 60 Nat'l Banks 1863-1935 Van Belkum. 14 Nat'l Banks 1863-1935* Steinmetz. 29 Nat'l Bank Note Issues 1929-35* Huntoon. 19 * Order now to avoid future price increases due next ad. All current SPMC books not listed above are available at usual SPMC postpaid prices. Add $2 postage & insur. on the above book orders. Wanted: the following books - North American Cur- rency, Criswell; State Bank Notes of Michigan, Bowen (blue cover); Vermont (SPMC). Wanted: Michigan Banknotes: Nationals, obsoletes, scrip, college currency, ad notes, depression scrip, etc. We are active buyers of all Michigan material. FALATER • 118 N. HOWELL • HILLSDALE, MI 49242 • (517) 439-5434 Auction Prices Realized, U.S. Paper Money 1983 edition. Compiled by Bob Wilhite. $40.00 postpaid ii Page 48 Paper Money Whole No. 109 Instant Access To Paper Money Information Featuring The Hobby's Premier Lineup Of Publications You can search, but you won't find a publication better suited to your needs than Bank Note Reporter. Hobby news, value guides, events calendars and lots of trustworthy advertising are served up fresh each month. BNR writers include some of today's most knowledgeable scholars and researchers. Articles in BNR run the gamut from National Bank Notes and Obsoletes to Stock Certificates and foreign notes. With its Washington-based correspondent, BNR will be your eyes and ears at the Bureau of Engraving and Printing and on Capitol Hill. If you want a steady flow of hobby news, along with fresh advertising and historical facts about the notes you collect, you should be receiving Bank Note Reporter. Get maximum hobby enjoyment! $11 for a one year (12-issue) subscription. $15 for non-U.S. addresses. Standard Catalog of World Paper Money — 4th edition General Issues By Albert Pick $35 postpaid This volume is unsurpassed in its coverage of popularly-collected and widely-circulated issues. Over 20,000 notes are listed, described and valued with representation for over 300 years of world paper money. Notes are illustrated whenever there's a design change within a denomination. Author Albert Pick, a resident of Munich, West Germany, is universally recognized as the world's foremost paper money authority. Assisting Pick stateside were Neil Shafer, president of the International Bank Note Society and Colin Bruce II, editor for many of Krause Publications' respected coin and paper money references. Over 250 note-issuing authorities are presented. Over 8,500 photos provide strong visual aid. Important features: Signature combinations, "in-office" dates and series numbers — all new features — have been included, whenever available, in this 4th edition. Like its coin-related counterpart, Auction Prices Realized, U.S. Paper Money will give you a vital (yet all too often neglected) view of the auction market. This 360-page catalog offers coverage of 19,830 paper money lots from 140 public auctions and mail-bid sales. Listings cover the period from 1978 through 1982. Notes are sequenced by face value within the principal categories of Large and Small Size Notes, National Bank Notes, Fractional Currency and Encased Postage Stamps. A major benefit of owning this catalog is that it saves you the hassle of matching auction catalogs with prices realized sheets. When buying, look at the auction results as indicators of real market value. When selling, let auction results help you choose the more lucrative route; to sell through ads, etc., or sell at auction. When the success of your paper money transactions depends on your grasp and interpretation of the market, you'll have a definite advantage when you use this reference catalog. Standard Catalog of United States Paper Money 3rd Edition by Chester Krause and Robert Lemke $14.50 postpaid If you rose above our hobby for a moment, and looked down, you'd get a feel for the scope of this catalog. Here is a comprehensive over-view of all currency issues of the United States — more than 120 years of official and quasi-official paper money. Presented for visual aid are over 525 original photos, covering all types and major varieties. Over 3500 currency items are valued according to current market conditions. Attesting to its thoroughness, this catalog provides an illustrated guide to Fractional Currency, Encased Postage Stamps and Postage Stamp Envelopes. Hobby veterans will appreciate this catalog for the fast access it gives to all areas of our hobby. Though less detailed than the other catalogs offered, it will provide easy-to-get-at researching and pricing data for non-specialty areas. Important feature: Over 13,000 note-issuing National Banks are listed alphabetically, by city ... know instantly whether a city issued currency! These catalogs and Bank Note Reporter are available from Krause Publications. Send your orders directly to us, at the following address . 31 years of serving collectors with superior hobby publications krause publications 700 E. State St., Iola, WI 54990 Bank Note Reporter Recommended for active collectors! Paper Money Whole No. 109 Page 49 Coin & Currency Investment John R. Cox Box 8602 White Bear Lake, MN 55110 612 426-9713 CONFEDERATES 1374. T-46, 0-344 1862 $10 F 1329. T-13, C-56 1861 $100 F corner pc gone, bad split that 1375. T-49, 0-347 1862 $100 XF holds together well. 1376. 1-50, 0-351 1862 $50 VF 1330. T-14, 0-76 1861 $50 F 1377. T-52, 0-374 1862 $10 VG 1331. T-16, C-80 1861 $50 F + 1378. T-53, C-381 1862 $5 VG coc 1332. T-16, C-81 1861 $50 F rust stain, sm 1379. T-53, C-383 1862 $5 F sm. corner piece, upper left 1333. 1-16, 0-83 1861 $50 F gone 1334. T-18, C-129 1861 $20 VG edge stain, fraying 1380. T-53, C-388 1862 $5 G coc 1335. T-20, C-141 1861 $20 VG 1381. T-54, C-391 1862 $2 VG 1336. T-24, C-161 1861 $10 F 1382. T-54, 0-392 1862 $2 VG 1337. 1338. T-25, T-26, C-168 1861 $10 F C-177 1861 $10 F+ 1383. T-54, 0-393 1862 $2 VG 1339. T-26, C-193 1861 $10 F 1384. T-54, C-394 1862 $2 VG fraying 1340. T-26, C-201 1861 $10 F 1385. T-54, 0-396 1862 $2 F 1341. T-26, C-213 1861 $10 VF 1386. 1-55, 0-397 1862 $1 VF 1342. T-28, C-230 1861 $10 VG creased, edge nicks 1387. T-55, C-398 1862 $1 rag coc 1343. T-28, C-230 1861 $10 VG + 1388. T-55, C-398 1862 $1 G ragged edges 1344. T-28, C-231 1861 $10 VF 1389. T-55, 0-398 1862 $1 F 1345. T-29, C-237 1861 $10 VG 1390. T-57, 0-406.4 1863 $50 XF 1346. T-30, C-238 1861 $10 VG 1391. T-57, C-406.9 1863 $50 VF coc 1347. T-30, C-238 1861 $10 VF 1392. 1-58, 0-423.4 1863 $20 F 1348. T-30, C-239 1861 $10 F 1393. 1-58, C-426.3 1863 $20 VF 1349. T-33, C-250 1861 $5 F 1394. T-59, C-436.3 1863 $10 VG coc 1350. T-33, C-253 1861 $5 VG tear, repair, edge nicks 1395. T-59, C-436.4 1863 $10 VF coc 1351. T-33, C-254 1861 $5 F 1396. T-60, C-463.6 1863 $5 F coc, corner gone, left upper 1352. T-34, C-262 1861 $5 F 1397. T-61, C-470 1863 $2 rag 1353. T-36, C-272 1861 $5 VF 1398. T-61, 0-471 1863 $2 F 1354. T-36, C-274 1861 $5 VG coc 1399. 1-61, 0-472 1863 $2 VG 1355. T-36, C-276 1861 $5 VG coc 1400. T-61, C-473 1863 $2 g-vg 1356. T-36, C-276 1861 $5 VF 1401. T-63, C-486 1863 500 rare no flourish variety XF + 1357. T-36, C-278 1861 $5 VF pinholes 1358. T-37, C-284 1861 $5 VG 1359. T-37, C-284 1861 $5 F 1402. T-65. C-493 1864 $50 F chip 1360. T-37, C-285 1861 $5 F 1403. T-67, C-506 1864 $20 VG corner 1361. T-41, C-316A 1862 $100 XF 1404. T-67, C-510 1864 $20 F sm corner 1362. T-42. C-334 1862 $2 VG 1405. T-67, C-511 1864 $20 VG chip 1363. T-42, C-336 1862 $2 VG 1406. T-67, C-512 1864 $20 VF sm corner 1364. T-42, C-337 1862 $2 VG fraying 1407. 1-68, 0-541 1864 $10 F 1365. T-42, C-337 1862 $2 F tiny edge nick 1408. 1-68, 0-541 1864 $10 VG 1366. T-43, 0-338 1862 $2 VG 1409. T-68, 0-543 1864 $10 VF 1367. T-44. C-340 1862 $1 G coc note backed by news- 1410. T-68, 0-552 1864 $10 VG paper clipping from 1864 with casualty reports, troop 1411. T-69, C-559 1864 $5 F pc missing movements 1412. 1-69, 0-560 1864 $5 F 1368. 1-44, 0-340 1862 $1 XF 1413. T-69, C-561 1864 $5 VG corner 1369. T-45, C-342 1862 $1 G pieces missing 1414. T-69, C-562 1864 $5 F split 1370. 1-45, 0-342 1862 $1 VG 1415. T-70, 0-567 1864 $2 VF 1371. T-45, 0-342 1862 $1 VF 1416. 1-70, 0-567 1864 $2 CU 1372. T-45, C-342A 1862 $1 VG 1417. 1-70, 0-569 1864 $2 XF 1373. T-46, C-343 1862 $10 VG mild stain, lower corner 1418. 1-71, C-574 1864 $1 CU missing 1419. 1-72, 0-578 1864 500 CU MAIL BID SALE 1. Usual rules. 2. No deposits required. 3. Postage, insurance added to winning bids. 4. Closes 3 weeks after I receive my copy of Paper Money. 5. Bid by lot. •-mantrassit— UNITFBSTATESDFAMERICA -eal*"":"41.4 V5 3 • rk• P co tott1194Ktw 6591 111/4110111a11■11LdElft`p p41.00.,N1= s, Nobody pays more than Huntoon forAmon& WYOMING State and Territorial Nationals WANT ALL SERIES, ANY CONDI- TION, EXCEPT WASHED OR "DOC- TORED" NOTES. (MANY TRADES!) PETER HUNTOON P.O. Box 3681, Laramie. WY 82071 Your Steadfast Hobby Guardian The travel was time-consuming. Room and board was expensive. And corporate benefits were intangible. Yet, when Chet Krause and Numismatic News were asked to testify at the Olympic coinage hearings, they jumped at the chance to represent your hobby interests. Before the smoke cleared, Chet and company testified on three separate occasions. numismatic news blur Weekly Colktaing Guide Featuring COIN MARKET Iola, WI 54990 There, ready and willing to take a stand when our hobby welfare is on the line. Page 50 Paper Money Whole No. 109 OBSOLETE STOCK AND BONDS Eagle Lock Co. Stock Cert. of 1927. Terryville, Conn. Eagle Center. Punch cancelled (EX.F ) 7.50 Erie and Ohio Railroad Stock Cert. Unissued Pre-Civil War. 2 seated Females Center (UNC.) 25.00 Fairmont Park Transportation Co. Stock Cert. of 1899 State of N.J. Cancelled in ink. Punch cancelled (EX.F.) 8.00 Farmers State Bank of Sheldon, Sheldon, Ind. Stock cert. of 1910 3 females center. Green and Black. Punch cancelled (V.F ) 7.50 First National Bank of Clinton, N.J. Stock cert. of 1913-16.2 Females center, ink cancelled. (C.F.-E.X.F.) 10.00 Fort Wayne, Cincinnati and Louisville R.R. Co. Stock cert. of 1882 State of Ind. Surveying scene center. Brown and Black. (VF) 30.00 Frankford and Southwark Passenger R.R. Co. Stock cert. of 1933. Female Lt. Orange and Black. Philadelphia City. (EX.F ) 9.00 Garfield Monument Fund Cert. Garfield Center (V.G ) damaged and mounted. 20.00 Gordon Heights R.R. Co. Stock cert. of 189- unissued Blue Print. (UNC.) 10.00 Heuck's Opera House Co. of Cincinnati, Ohio Stock Cert. of 1891. (F.) 12.50 Home Hotel Company of St. Louis. Stock Cert. of 187- Unissued. Abt. (UNC.) 15.00 Hydraulic-Press Brick Co. St. Louis, Mo. Stock cert. For common shares of 1926. State seal center. Green. P.C. (EX.F.) 4.00 Hydraulic-Press Brick Co. St. Louis, Mo. Stock cert. for preferred shares. State seal center. Brown issued in 1946. (EX.F) 4.00 Keokuk and Des Moines R.R. Co. Keokuk Iowa. Stock cert. of 1900 for Preferred Stock. Surveying scene center. Pink paper. Punch cancelled. (EX.F.) 25.00 Keokuk and Des Moines R.R. Co. Keokuk, Iowa. Stock cert. of 1879 and 1880 for Preferred Stock. Surveying scene center. Whitepaper. Punch cancelled. (EX.F) 25.00 Keokuk and Des Moines R.R. Co. Keokuk, Iowa Stock Cert. of 1878-79 for Common Stock. Surveying Scene Lt. White paper. Punch cancelled. (EX.F ) 25.00 Indiana and Lake Mich. A.R. Co. Stock cert. of South Bend, Ind. of 18- unissued. Train in oval Lt. Green and Tan. (UNC.) 15.00 $1,000. Indiana Traction Company State of Ind. Gold coupon Bond of 1898. Green and Black Abt. (UNC.) 20.00 1,000. Kansas City Northwestern R.R. Co. State of Kansas Gold coupon Bond of 1894. Train and Indian center. Green and black. Punch cancelled. Abt. (UNC.) 35.00 500. Langoon-Henzey Coal Mining Company State of North Carolina Gold coupon Bond of 1894. Coal Miners center. Green and Black. Abt. (UNC.) 37.50 Lincoln Motor Company Temporary Cert. of 1920. Orange and Black Punch cancelled. (EX.F.) signed by Nash and Leland. 25.00 Lincoln Oil Co. Stock cert. of the Terr. of Arizona. Oil wells Lt. 190- unissued. (UNC.) 15.00 100. London Mining Co. State of N.Y. Coupon Bond of 1882 Abt. (UNC.) 12.50 TERMS OF SALE A. Please include $1.50 on all orders under $100.00 B. Full return privileges on all items returned within two weeks. C. Mo. Residents please add 4.85 state sales tax. D. For those doing business with me for the first time, per- sonal checks are accepted, but please allow time for bank clearance. E. A staggered payment plan available for higher priced items. A-Z financial Americapa Limited LAWRENCE MARSH, PRESIDENT 1416 SOUTH BIG BEND BLVD. ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI 63117 314-645-3489 Paper Money Whole No. 109 Page 51 BOOK SALE My numismatic library (800 titles) has exceeded my ability to house it, so I have decided to trim it down. As the following hooks are one-of-a-kind, phone orders are advised. All are hardback except as noted. United States Notes, by John J. Knox, former comptroller of the cur- rency. Original 1888 edition. Fine condition. $50.00 Wisconsin. Annual Report of Banking Commissioner, 1912, 774 pages. Lists all banks in state, officers, directors, and financial condition. $20.00 The Philadelphia National Bank 1803-1953, by Nicholas Wainwright. Original 1953 edition. 263 pages. Illustra- tions include a few notes and checks. $20.00 Massachusetts. Report of the Bank Commissioner, 1907, Part I, Savings Banks & Trust Companies. 600 pages, listing officers, condition, and type and amount of bonds held by each. $20.00 Biography of a Bank. The Story of the Bank of America (California), by Marquis James. Original 1954, 566 pages $15.00 Charter No. 176, by Theo J. Kenyon. History of First National Bank of Peoria, III. 1863-1963. Includes il- lustration of note issued by M. P. Stone & Co. Peoria 1862. $15.00 Century of Service, by Frances Williams, 1965. History of the First & Merchants National Bank of Richmond, VA 1865-1965. 144 pgs. $20.00 Since 1864, by David H. Tuttle, 1939. History of First National Bank of Memphis, TN. $10.00 Firstbank, by Shelby Scates, 1970. 130 pages. History of Seattle-First National Bank. $20.00 The House of Baring in American Trade & Finance 1763-1861, by Ralph W. Hidy, 1949. 631 pages. History of Baring Brothers & Co., merchant bankers. $20.00 New York City Mutual Savings Banks 1819-1861, by Alan L. Olmstead. 1976, 236 pages. $15.00 Forts of the Upper Missouri, by Robert G. Athearn, 1967. 339 pages paperback. History of military activity and fur trade in Montana and Dakota territories from 1815 to 1870. $6.00 Epochs in American Banking, by Noble F. Hoggson, 1929. History of banking in America from colonial days to 1929. 255 pages. Illus. $10.00 Treatise on Currency & Banking, by Condy Raguet. Reprint of 1840 edition. On currency and banking in the USA up to 1840. 323 pages. $12.00 Standard Banking, by American Institute of Banking, 1924. 512 pages. American Banking Association's textbook. Interesting. $8.00 Banking Fundamentals, by American Institute of Banking, 1928. 351 pages. Another ABA textbook; matches the preceding book. $8.00 Banking, by Major B. Foster, 1923. 336 pages. Another textbook on banking methods. $8.00 Safe Methods of Business, by J. L. Nichols, 1892. Textbook on all sorts of business procedures. Includes tables on how to figure the amount and price of piles of hay, bricks, corn, etc.$5.00 Mayer's Mercantile Manual, by Charles Mayer, 1880. 360 pages. History & Methods of Trade (subtitle). Textbook il- lustrating how to make out checks, drafts, promissory notes, etc. Nice book. $10.00 The Legend of Baby Doe, by John Burke (pseudonym for Richard O'Connor). 1974. 273 pages. Biography of Baby Doe Tabor, wife of Colorado banker Horace Tabor, who was known as the Silver Queen of Colorado. There is another book about her and Tabor called "Silver Dollar" from which a movie was made in the 1930s. $5.00 Standard Catalog of U.S. Coins, by Wayte Raymond, 1953 edition. $8.00 SPECIAL OFFER: All of the above books as a lot $250.00 Please call to confirm: 219 485-8223 Bruce W. Smith Box 11205 Ft. Wayne, IN 46856 QUALITY Aside from National Bank Notes I deal only in Choice and Gem quality material. Choose from the highest quality inventory in the business. SERVICE SELECTION Extensive travel to over 30 major shows a year allows me to present a wide array of scarce and rare Nationals, lots of large size notes and the largest selection of small size available anywhere. PRICE I am actively servicing the want lists of many collectors and may be able to find notes that you need. I also offer a 30-day return privilege and a no-cost layaway program. While I'm not the cheapest, price is often a function of quality. I also stand behind every note I sell with a guarantee of your satisfaction or your money back. Write or call for a free copy of my latest price list. "THE SOURCE FOR SUPERB QUALITY" Michael R. Storeim 700 E. Orchard Rd., Suite 350 Englewood, CO 80111 (303) 694-0791 21h ANNUAL r F I, ‘1# 4.0 NI 125 \ Tic so, The "biggest - little coin and paint money show in hew England ELKS LODGE PlasanISL, RI 32 Willimanlic, Cann Sus6sy, Much II, 195450 Dealers Bourse a. Exhibits Public Invitedtree Admission ;De Ca,.,,. 4i5 gm L,,a?:C,'dnl-39,9 UF C John Forted, F.0 Box 33, S pers. CT 06268 ATTENTION—PAPER MONEY COLLECTORS OF NEW ENGLAND FOR PAPER MONEY . . . THE LARGEST GATHERING OF PAPER MONEY DEALERS OUTSIDE OF THE "MEMPHIS" SHOW. . . . FEATURING THESE LEADING PAPER MONEY DEALERS . . . 1. R.J. Balbaton, Inc.—Currency & Coins. 2. Denly's of Boston, (Tom Denly)—U.S. Large, Small, Obsolete Notes & Scrip. 3. Kennebunk Coins & Currency, (Frank Trask)—U.S. Large Size, Nationals, Small Size, Obsoletes. Buyers of the "Grand Water- melon Note" at 1983 I.P.M.S. Show, Memphis. 4. Kenneth Elwell—Obsolete U.S., Nationals, Type Notes, Early Checks. 5. Robert A. Vlack—Currency and Tokens. 6. Numisvalue, (Barry Wexler)—State Bank Notes, U.S. Type Coins. 7. Charles E. Straub—U.S. Obsolete Currency. 8. RINATS, (Roland Cormier)—Rhode Island Nationals. 9. Fractional Currency, Inc., (Len & Jean Glazer)—Fractional Currency, Large Size, Encased Postage, Colonial Paper Money. 10. Warwick Associates, (Harry Williams)—Paper Money, Coins, Tokens, Medals. 11. Chet Grabowski—Paper Money, Checks, Medals. 12. Silver City Coin Co.—U.S. Foreign Paper Money & Coins. 13. New England Syngraphics—National Bank Notes, Uncut Sheets, U.S. Paper. 14. Harold Cuddy—Early U.S., Colonial Coins & Paper Money, State Bank Notes. 15. Whitco Hobby, (Mary Sager)—Paper Americana, U.S. & Foreign Coins. 16. Sean McDonald—U.S. Paper Money & Coins. . Plus 30 other Coin, Paper Money, Token, Medal, and Ephemera dealers Bourse Chairman—C. John Fererri, P.O. Box #33 Storrs, Conn. 06268 203-429-6970 Page 52 Paper Money Whole No. 109 HIS K BOTTLED BY THE ffIERIG111 LIQUOR COMPARY, BOSTOD, ID SS. NEW DISCOVERY Colorful early 1900s artwork Pre- Prohibition Whiskey Labels Discovered in warehouse where they sat since 1920. 1 set of 50— $17.50 10 sets $75.00 wholesale Treasure Cove, Inc. Box 2214 Valdosta, GA 31602 912-247-4030 BANKNOTES ARE OUR BUSINESS IF YOU ARE SELLING: We are seriously interested in acquiring large size and scarcer small size United States paper money. We are interested in single items as well as extensive collections. We are especially in need of national bank notes and we also buy foreign paper money. If you have a collection which includes both paper money and coins, it may prove in your best financial interest to obtain a separate bid from us on your paper money as we deal exclusively and full time in paper money. We will fly to purchase if your holdings warrant. IF YOU ARE BUYING: We issue periodic extensive lists of U.S. paper money, both large size, small size and fractional. Our next list is yours for the asking. The VAULT Frank A. Nowak SPMC 933 P.O. Box 2283 Prescott, Ariz. 86302 Phone (602) 445-2910 Member of: ANA, PMCM WANTED, REWARD RHODE ISLAND NATIONALS Will pay $5.00 each for the first photo or Xerox of the following unreported Rhode Island notes: CHARTER CITY TYPE DENOM. 1007 Providence 1929 II $20. 1035 Slatersville II $10,$20. 1150 Ashaway II $10,$20. 1284 West Warwick II $5.,$20. 1492 Newport I $100. 1492 II $5. 1396 Providence Any series Any note 1405 E. Greenwich 1460 Phenix 1554 Wakefield Any R.I. First Charter $50. or $100. Any R.I. Brownback $50. Interested in buying or trading for 1929 R.I. notes in VF or better except #948, 1007, 1302 and 13901. STEVEN WHITFIELD 407 CUMBERLAND DRIVE HUNTSVILLE, AL 35803 Some Notes for the Advanced & Discriminating Collector Complete block set: 1928A Silver Certificates all 35 notes. Includes fancy numbers, with P99999999A. Choice to Gem. Price on request. • $20 1934-A Hawaii back check 204, L86439110A. AU +, only one other AU known, no CU's. $700. • $5 USN 1928-D mule G60457380A. Back check 637. Fine, low observation & rare. $1200. • $1 Silver Cert. 1928-A P99999999A choice CU $750 (only four "old back" solid nines in known collections.) • $5 FRN Hawaii 1934 star L00129922* back check 650. This non-mule is very rare in pristine Gem; 2 other CUs known. Lowest observation. Price on request. • $1 S.C. 1935 H00000073A and Mule 1935 N00000073A, Gem, nice repre- sentative pair $375. • $1 S.C. 1935-D *82413774B(W), *82413775B(N) Gem wide to narrow changeover star pair $450. All notes satisfaction guaranteed or full return. OMNIPHORE CURRENCY, MICHAEL KANE, SPMC 5132 Box 745 Pacific Grove, CA 93950 408-649-3370 Paper Money Whole No. 109 Page 53 • U. S. Obsoletes • U. S. Large & Small Size Type Notes • U. S. Large & Small National Bank Notes BOUGHT AND SOLD FREE PRICE LIST FRANK TRASK SPMC, ANA KENNEBUNK COINS & CURRENCY Shoppers Village, Route 1, Kennebunk, Maine 04043 (207) 985-7431 BUYING AND SELLING United States Currency • Type Notes Large and Small • National Banknotes Large and Small • Obsolete Want Lists Gratefully Accepted Free Price List Alex Perakis Coins and Currency A Name You Will Hear A Lot About P.O. Box 931, Media, PA 19063 Call Anytime 'til 11:00 P.M. 215.565-1110 or 215-566.5981 ANA SPMC PMCM GSNA FUN MSNS IAN A. MARSHALL WORLD PAPER MONEY A-Z (AFRICA A SPECIALTY) P.O. BOX 537 THORNHILL, ONT. CANADA L3T 2C0 Bi-Monthly Retail • Wholesale Lists FREE LISTS P. O. Box 200 Columbia, Connecticut 06237 Page 54 Paper Money Whole No. 109 WANTED OBSOLETE PAPER MONEY rj1,11stt*- 4/1.14Th4 reforti00„, 11/1/,,,,i(/ 'I'S:WE/7W . t;o/if ot (Bank Notes, Script, Warrants, Drafts of the AMERICAN WEST Oregon, California, Idaho, Nevada, Arizona, Utah, Montana, New Mexico, Colorado, Dakota, Deseret, Indian, Jefferson Territories! Cash paid, or fine Obsolete Paper traded. Have Proof notes from most states, individual rarities, seldom seen denominationals, Kirtlands, topicals; Colonial, Continental; CSA, Southern States notes and bonds. Also have duplicate West- ern rarities for advantageous trade. JOHN J. FORD, JR. PA. DRAWER 706, ROCKVILLE CENTRE, N.Y. 11571_ P.O. BOX 1358 WARREN HENDERSON VENICE, FLA. 33595 FLORIDA NOTES WANTED ALL SERIES SELL HARRY YOUR MISTAKES Harry wants to buy Currency Errors Also Interested in Buying Nationals ... Large and Small size Uncut Sheets Red Seals Type Notes Unusual Serial numbers HARRY E. JONES PO Box 30369 Cleveland, Ohio 44130 216-884-0701 Paper Money Whole No. 109 Page 55 FOR SALE CURRENCY FOR SALE U.S.A. LARGE & SMALL SIZE CURRENCY INCLUDING: NATIONAL CURRENCY OBSOLETE CURRENCY RADAR & FANCY SERIAL NUMBER NOTES "ERROR" NOTES & OTHER TYPES LARGE MAIL LISTING AVAILABLE FOR A LARGE-SIZE, SELF-ADDRESSED STAMPED ENVELOPE. 10-DAY RETURN PRIVILEGE. YOUR SATISFACTION GUARANTEED. ROBERT A. CONDO P.O. BOX 985, VENICE, FL. 34284-0985 T• Cl• 44444 ••01.01010104 40.114.1. Omaha, Nebraska 68111P.O. Box 4285 "Pronto Service" Page 56 Paper Money Whole No. 109 SUPERB UNCUT SHEETS BUYING/SELLING Scarce/Rare Uncut Sheets (4, 12, 18). Also, we are Paying TOP Immediate Cash for Scarce/Rare Choice Large Size Notes. Especially Want National Bank Notes, Territorials, Two-Denomination, National Gold Bank Notes & Other Series. Also, Scarce/Rare $1.00 to $1,000.00 Type Notes in Choice CU Grade. We Invite your Inquiry & Want List. SASE for our List of Confederate & Large Size Currency. 1935-D $1 Silver Certificate Uncut Sheet (12). Clark-Snyder. While 100 Sheets were issued, O'Donnell's 7th Edition "Standard Hand- book of Modern U.S. Paper Money" re- cords only 50 Sheets reported. This GEM Sheet Priced SPECIAL @ $1,395.00 1928-G $2 Legal Tender Uncut Sheet (12) Clark-Snyder. Only 100 Sheets issued have been reported. This GEM Sheet just $1,495.00 SPECIAL = the Pair $2,495.00 1928-D $1 Silver Certificate Sheet (12). Julian- Woodin. Of the 60 Sheets issued only 28 1902 $5 National Bank Note Uncut Sheet (4). have been reported. Over the years many The Equitable National Bank, City of New Sheets have been cut up and the Notes were York CH #6284. FR-595. Excessively RARE sold singly. Today singles bring $250.00. We RED SEAL SHEET, Possibly Unique. GEM offer this GEM sheet @ only $3,895.00 Crisp New, Priced @ $7,500.00 1928-C $2 Legal Tender Sheet (12). Julian- Morgenthau. Only 27 of the 75 Sheets issued have been reported . . This truly GEM Sheet Priced @ just $1,595.00 1902 $5 National Bank Note Uncut Sheet (4). The National Park Bank, New York City. CH. 891.FR-595. This GEM Sheet Priced © just $1,995.00 CUT -SHEETS + LARGE NOTES Scarce Cut-Sheets of Four Large Size Notes- When Reconstructed, they Form a Sheet as Originally Issued. 1917 $1 Legal Tender "Cut-Sheet" of 4 Notes. FR-38 1923 $1 Legal Tender "Cut-Sheet" of 4 Notes. FR-40. Single Notes bring $300.00. This Sheet just FAMOUS WADE SALE BEBEE'S 1956 Sales Catalogue of the Great James M. Wade Collection @ Prices You'd Hardly Believe. Yours For Only (Postpaid) 5.00 FRACTIONAL CURRENCY SHEET THREE CENTS. THIRD ISSUE. FR-1226. Un- $750.00 cut Sheet (25). Single Notes Crisp New Lists $90.00 but Bring only $50.00. This Superb CN Sheet has slight fold between the Notes. Still a Splendid Show Item and Priced @ only $895.00 900.00 CONFEDERATE & OBSOLETE SHEETS 1917 $2 Legal Tender "Cut-Sheet" of 4 Notes. 1857 BANK OF FLORENCE, Nebraska. Uncut FR-60. The Last Large Size $2 Bill 695.00 Sheet (4). $1 - $1 - $3 - $5. A GEM Pristine Sheet 195.00 1899 $1 Silver Certificate "Cut-Sheet" of 4 CANAL BANK, Louisiana Uncut Sheet (2): Notes. FR-236. SPECIAL 695.00 $500.00 + $1,000.00. GEM Crisp New. 1923 $1 Silver Certificate "Cut-Sheet" of 4 SPECIAL 99.50 Notes. FR-238 225.00 1861 $100.00 Criswell Type 36. Lucy H. Pick- ens. "Cut-Sheet" of 4 Notes. GEM Crisp New 99.50 Orders for any of the above Notes will be Shipped 1st Class Insured or Registered at our Expense. For Immediate Shipment send Cashier's Check or Money Order (Personal Checks take 20 to 25 Banking Days). 100 07o Satisfaction Guaranteed Always. Member: ANA Life #110, ANS, PNG, IAPN, SPMC, Others. AUBREY & ADELINE BEBEE WHY NOT GIVE US A TRY - WE WILL GREATLY APPRECIATE YOUR ORDERS - AND YOU'RE SURE TO LIKE DOING BUSINESS WITH BEBEE'S. SINCE 1941, TENS OF THOUSANDS OF "BEBEE BOOSTERS" HAVE. Y'ALL HURRY NOW - WE'LL BE LOOKING FOR YOU! Our currency auctions were the first to use the Sealed Mail Bid System, which gives you, the bidder and ultimate buyer, the utmost chance to buy a note at a price you want to pay with no one looking over your shoulder. As a seller, this method gives you the opportunity to get the full market price without the "in" dealers short-circuiting the bidding, as so often is seen at public auction sales. Purveyors of National Bank Notes & U.S. Currency to the collecting fraternity for over 20 years: Nichman- Oakes Auctions ,lnc. WITH 20 sales behind us, and just starting our September-June Auction year, we invite you to participate: As a seller: Our commission rate is 15% down to 10% without a buyer's charge, lot charge, or photo charge. As a buyer: Subscribe to our next year's sales and receive the catalogs, prices realized, price lists, and if you have purchased a "National Catalog" we will send the update, all postage paid for $10.00. Send Today! If you haven't yet purchased a copy of THE STANDARD CATALOG OF NATIONAL BANKNOTES by Hickman-Oakes, we will mail an autographed copy (if wished) with update supplement when available for $75.00 (about $12.00 per pound). Send to: Hickman - Oakes Auchons ,Inc. Drawer 1456 101133 City, Iowa 52240 319-33S-1141 s to look closely. It pay . You know that it pays to look closely when collecting. It does when you are thinking of selling, too. Since you collected with such care, we know you want to be equally as careful when selling. At Medlar's, we take pride in the fact that we've been buying and selling currency for over 25 years. So, we feel we must be doing something right for our many friends and customers. WE ARE BUYING: Texas Currency, Obsoletes and Nationals, Western States Obso- letes and Nationals, U.S. and Foreign Coins. We will travel to you to examine your holdings, Profes- sional Appraisals, or as Expert Witness. Member of SPMC, ANA, PNG, NLG, CPN eacut'g RARE COINS and CURRENCY (BESIDE THE ALAMO) 220 ALAMO PLAZA SAN ANTONIO, TEXAS 78205 (512) 226-2311